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Death of Tom Simpson

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Death of Tom Simpson
A road leading up to a mountain's summit
The location of Simpson's final collapse one kilometre from the summit of Mont Ventoux.
Date 13 July 1967 (1967-07-13)
Time 5:40 p.m
Location Mont Ventoux, Provence, France
Coordinates 44°10′11″N 5°17′10″E / 44.169642°N 5.286016°E / 44.169642; 5.286016Coordinates: 44°10′11″N 5°17′10″E / 44.169642°N 5.286016°E / 44.169642; 5.286016
Cause Heart failure caused by exhaustion
Deaths Tom Simpson
Burial Harworth, Nottinghamshire, England

Tom Simpson (30 November 1937 – 13 July 1967) was a British professional cyclist, one of Britain's most successful of all-time.[1] At the time of the 1967 Tour de France, he was the undisputed leader of the British team. In the 13th stage of that race, he collapsed and died during the ascent of Mont Ventoux.

Simpson fell ill with diarrhoea during the Tour's tenth stage. He was under pressure from his personal manager to continue in the race, though members of his team encouraged him to quit. Near the summit of Mont Ventoux, Simpson fell off of his bike but was able to get back on it. After riding a short distance further, he collapsed. He was pronounced dead after being airlifted to a hospital. The post-mortem examination found that he had taken amphetamine and alcohol, a diuretic combination which proved fatal when combined with the heat, the hard climb of the Ventoux and the stomach complaint.

Approximately 5,000 people came to Simpson's funeral service. A memorial stands close to the spot where he died and has become a pilgrimage for many cyclists. At the Harworth and Bircotes Sports and Social Club, there is a museum dedicated to Simpson's memory.

Background[edit]

Tom Simpson wearing a white cap and blue jumper, with Peugeot insignia
Tom Simpson on a 1969 UAE stamp

Going into the 1967 Tour de France, Simpson was determined to make an impact. He was in his eighth year as a professional cyclist and wanted to earn as much money as possible before retiring. He was optimistic that he could finish high in the general classification, securing larger appearance fees from post-Tour criteriums.[2][3] His plan was to either finish in the top three or wear the leader's yellow jersey; he had targeted three key stages, one of which included the thirteenth over Mont Ventoux, riding safe until the race reached the mountains.[4][5][6][7] The 1967 Tour was contested by national teams rather than trade teams.[n 1] Simpson was the undisputed leader of the British team, one of the weakest in the race. Four team members had experience in top-level racing and six were riding the Tour for the first time.[9][10][11][12] This could have been seen as a handicap, but Simpson was not guaranteed the leadership of his trade team, Peugeot-BP-Michelin, and would have to compete with Frenchman Roger Pingeon – the winner of the 1967 Tour.[13]

After the first week, Simpson lay in sixth place overall, leading the favourites.[14][15] As the race crossed the Alps, Simpson fell ill, across the Col du Galibier, with diarrhoea and stomach pains.[16] He was not able to eat and rode on reserves, finishing in 16th place and dropping to seventh overall, with his rivals ahead.[15][17] He placed in 39th position on stage 11 and 7th on 12.[18][19] In Marseille, on the evening of 12 July 1967 on stage 12 his personal manager, Daniel Dousset, put Simpson under pressure to produce good results.[20][13][21] His friend and teammate on the British team, Vin Denson, advised Simpson to limit his losses and settle with what he had;[22] his Peugeot manager, Gaston Plaud, was in Marseille and asked Simpson to quit the race, even though he had no authority.[23][12]

Death[edit]

The thirteenth stage (13 July) of the 1967 Tour de France measured 211.5 km (131.4 mi); it started in Marseille, crossing Mont Ventoux (the "Giant of Provence") before finishing in Carpentras.[14] At dawn Tour doctor, Pierre Dumas, met journalist, Pierre Chany, near his hotel. Dumas noted the warm temperature, "If the boys stick their nose in a 'topette' [bag of drugs] today, we could have a death on our hands".[21] At the start line, a journalist noticed Simpson looked tired and ask him if the heat was the problem. Simpson replied, "No, it's not the heat, it's the Tour."[24]

Forested mountain, with white peak, and vineyards in foreground
The 1,912 m (6,273 ft)-high Mont Ventoux, where Simpson died on 13 July 1967, aged 29.

As the race reached the lower slopes of Ventoux, Simpsons's team mechanic Harry Hall, witnessed Simpson, still ill, putting the lid back on his water bottle as he exited a building. Race commissaire (official), Jacques Lohmuller, later confirmed to Hall that he also saw the incident and that Simpson was putting brandy in his bottle.[25][n 2] As the race closed in on the summit of Ventoux, the peloton began to fracture, and for a while, Simpson managed to stay in the front group of elite riders. He then slipped back to a group of chasers around one minute behind before he began to lose control of his bike and zig-zag across the road.[28][n 3] His team manager, Alec Taylor, feared for Simpson less for the way he was going up the mountain than for the way he would go down the other side.[n 4]

One kilometre from the summit, Simpson fell off his bike. Taylor and Hall arrived in the team car to help him. Hall tried to persuade Simpson to stop when he fell, saying, "Come on Tom, that's it, that's your Tour finished." But Simpson said he wanted to go on. Taylor was informed and said, "If Tom, wants to go on, he goes." Noticing that his toe straps were still undone, Simpson said, "Me straps, Harry, me straps!" They got him on his bike and pushed him off.[31] Simpson's last words, as remembered by Hall, were 'On, on, on.' The words 'Put me back on my bike!' were invented by Sid Saltmarsh, covering the event for The Sun and Cycling – now Cycling Weekly. Saltmarsh was not there at the time and was in a reception black-spot for live accounts on Radio Tour.[31][32][33] Simpson managed to ride a further 500 yards (460 m) before he began to wobble. He was held upright by three spectators who then helped him to the ground on side of the road. He was unconscious with his hands locked to the handlebars. Hall shouted for the other mechanic, Ken Ryall, to pry them loose and the pair laid the lifeless Simpson beside the road. Hall and a nurse from the Tour's medical team took turns giving Simpson mouth-to-mouth resuscitation before Dumas came with an oxygen mask.[34][35][36]

Approximately forty minutes after his collapse, a police helicopter took Simpson to nearby Avignon hospital,[37][38] where he was pronounced dead at 5:40 p.m.[35][12][39] Dumas refused to sign a burial certificate and a poisons expert from Marseille was commissioned to conduct an autopsy.[38][40] Two empty tubes of amphetamines and a half-full tube were found in the rear pocket of his racing jersey, one of which was labelled Tonedron.[41] The British team was called in for questioning and their baggage was searched. Two of the Belgian soigneurs – who looked after riders on the British team including Simpson – locked themselves in their room, got drunk and did not come out.[42]

On the next racing day, the other riders were reluctant to continue racing and asked the organisers for a postponement. French rider Jean Stablinski suggested that the race continue, with a British rider, whose team would wear black armbands, allowed to win the stage.[43] Barry Hoban won the stage,[44] This was later a subject of argument as it was widely believed that the race winner should have been Denson, Simpson's other teammate and close friend.[45][43]

Post-mortem[edit]

A stone church with tower
Simpson's burial service took place at the 12th-century All Saints Parish Church, Harworth.

Media reports suggested that his death was caused by heat exhaustion,[46] until, on 31 July 1967 British journalist J. L. Manning of the Daily Mail broke the news about a formal connection between drugs and Simpson's death: "Tommy Simpson rode to his death in the Tour de France so doped that he did not know he had reached the limit of his endurance. He died in the saddle, slowly asphyxiated by intense effort in a heatwave after taking methylamphetamine drugs and alcoholic stimulants."[47]

French authorities confirmed that Simpson had traces of amphetamine in his body, impairing his judgement and allowing him to push his body beyond its limit.[33][48][49] The official cause of death was "heart failure caused by exhaustion."[50] The live broadcast was the first showing a death caused by doping.[51] His death contributed to the introduction of mandatory testing for performance-enhancing drugs in cycling, leading to tests in 1968 at the Giro d'Italia, Tour de France and Summer Olympics.[52][51][53]

Simpson was buried in Harworth Cemetery, Nottinghamshire, after a service at the All Saints Parish Church in the village. An estimated 5,000 mourners attended the ceremony,[54][32] including Peugeot teammate Eddy Merckx, the only continental rider in attendance.[55] The epitaph on Simpson's gravestone reads, "His body ached, his legs grew tired, but still he would not give in", taken from a card left by his brother, Harry, following his death.[56] In his adopted hometown of Ghent, a service was held at Sint-Amandsberg's Catholic Cathedral.[57]

Memorials[edit]

Stone monument in front of a metal fence
The memorial in Harworth, a replica of the one which stands on the spot where Simpson died.

A granite memorial to Simpson stands on the spot where he collapsed and died on Ventoux, one kilometre east of the summit, with the words "Olympic medallist, world champion, British sporting ambassador."[58][59] Cycling opened a subscription fund in the week following his death, raising around £1,500. It was unveiled in 1968 by Simpson's wife Helen, Hoban and the British team manager Alec Taylor. It was inspired by the memorial to motorcycle racer Jimmie Guthrie, who crashed and died at Guthrie's Memorial, Isle of Man, in 1937.[60] Over the years, Simpson's memorial slowly fell into disrepair and a new plinth was constructed, secured into the mountainside with steel rods.[61] On the 30th anniversary of Simpson's death, his daughters Joanne and Jane added a plaque that reads, "There is no mountain too high."[32] Concrete steps from the roadside to the memorial were opened on the 40th anniversary.[62] The memorial has become a pilgrimage to cyclists, who pass the memorial and frequently leave tributes such as drinking bottles and caps.[63] In nearby Bédoin, there is a plaque in the square, placed by journalists following the 1967 Tour.[64]

The Harworth and Bircotes Sports and Social Club has a small museum dedicated to Simpson, opened by Belgian cyclist Lucien Van Impe in August 2001.[32][65] The main display includes the bicycle he used to win the 1967 Paris–Nice and the jersey, gloves and shorts he wore on the day of his death.[66][67] In 1997, to commemorate the 30th anniversary of his death, a small plaque was added to the Mont Ventoux memorial, with the words "There is no mountain too high. Your daughters Jane and Joanne, July 13, 1997", and a replica of the memorial was erected outside the museum.[68] In Ghent there is a bust of Simpson at the entrance to the Kuipke velodrome.[69] Every year since his death, the Tom Simpson Memorial Race has taken place in Harworth.[70][71]

British rider David Millar won stage 12 of the 2012 Tour de France on the 45th anniversary of Simpson's death and, having previously been banned from cycling for using performance-enhancing drugs himself, paid tribute to Simpson and reinforced the importance of learning from his – and Simpson's – mistakes.[72] Millar wrote the introduction for a reissue of Simpson's autobiography, Cycling is My Life, published in 2009.[72][73]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The national team format was used in 1967 Tour de France after tour organiser Félix Lévitan believed the team sponsors were behind the riders strike in the previous year's Tour.[8]
  2. ^ Alcohol was used as a stimulant and to dull pain.[26] At the time, the Tour de France organisers limited each rider to four bidons (bottles) of water, about two litres, two on the bike and two more given at feeding stations – the effects of dehydration being poorly understood. During races, riders raided roadside bars for drinks, and filled their bottles from fountains.[16][27]
  3. ^ Zig-zagging on an ascent is way of lessening the gradient.[29]
  4. ^ The rushing air would revive him but Taylor feared that Simpson, whom he described as a madcap descender, would overdo things and crash.[30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Birnie, Lionel (22 January 2013). "The all-time list of British pro winners". Cycling Weekly. London: IPC Media. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  2. ^ Sidwells 2000, pp. 237–238.
  3. ^ Fotheringham 2007, pp. 130–131.
  4. ^ Sidwells 2000, p. 239.
  5. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 28–29.
  6. ^ Laurence 2005, 5 minutes in.
  7. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, pp. 27–28.
  8. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. 24.
  9. ^ Sidwells 2000, p. 238.
  10. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 28.
  11. ^ Mulholland, Owen. "Tom Simpson". BikeRaceInfo. Cherokee Village, AR: McGann Publishing. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c Gallagher, Brendan (13 Jul 2007). "Tom Simpson haunts Tour 40 years on". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  13. ^ a b McGann & McGann 2008, p. 27.
  14. ^ a b "1967 Tour de France". BikeRaceInfo. Cherokee Village, AR: McGann Publishing. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Sidwells 2000, p. 244.
  16. ^ a b Fotheringham 2007, p. 179.
  17. ^ "Stage 10 Divonne > Briançon". The history of the Tour de France. Paris: ASO. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2015. 
  18. ^ "Stage 11 Briançon > Digne". The history of the Tour de France. Paris: ASO. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2015. 
  19. ^ "Stage 12 Digne > Marseille". The history of the Tour de France. Paris: ASO. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2015. 
  20. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 131.
  21. ^ a b Woodland, Les (21 July 2007). "Simpson: martyr, example, warning". Cyclingnews.com. Bath, UK: Future plc. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  22. ^ Laurence 2005, 8 minutes in.
  23. ^ Fotheringham 2007, pp. 216–217.
  24. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. 28.
  25. ^ Fotheringham 2007, pp. 30–31.
  26. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. vi.
  27. ^ Woodland, Les (3 October 2007). "The chasse à la canette". Cyclingnews.com. Bath, UK: Future plc. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  28. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, pp. 28–29.
  29. ^ Dakin 2014, p. 24.
  30. ^ Woodland 2007, p. 333.
  31. ^ a b Fotheringham 2007, pp. 34–35.
  32. ^ a b c d Woodland 2007, p. 334.
  33. ^ a b Rosen 2008, p. 33.
  34. ^ Fotheringham 2007, pp. 35–37.
  35. ^ a b Sidwells 2000, p. 248.
  36. ^ Thompson 2008, p. 102.
  37. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 186.
  38. ^ a b Nicholson, Geoffrey (14 July 1967). "Simpson dies after collapse on Tour". The Guardian. London: GMG. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  39. ^ Gino Sala (14 July 1967). "Aperta una inchiesta" [An open investigation] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  40. ^ Nelsson 2012, p. 98.
  41. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 167.
  42. ^ Fotheringham 2007, pp. 38–39.
  43. ^ a b Fotheringham 2007, pp. 90–91.
  44. ^ Gino Sala (15 July 1967). "Vince Barry Hoban in onore di Simpson" [Vince Barry Hoban in honor of Simpson] (PDF). l'Unità (in Italian). PCI. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  45. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 6.
  46. ^ "U.K. Cyclist Dies Of Exhaustion". Montreal Gazette. 14 July 1967. p. 26. 
  47. ^ "Drugs killed Tour cyclist". The Age. Melbourne: David Syme. 1 August 1967. p. 24. 
  48. ^ Houlihan 2002, p. 65.
  49. ^ Dauncey & Hare 2003, p. 214.
  50. ^ Mehlman 2009, p. 125.
  51. ^ a b Mazanov 2013, p. 7.
  52. ^ McGann & McGann 2008, p. 32.
  53. ^ Wong 2010, p. 293.
  54. ^ "In memory of Harworth's cycling legend, the unique Tom Simpson". Doncaster Free Press. London: Johnston Press. 3 August 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2015. 
  55. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 194.
  56. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 83.
  57. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 134.
  58. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 208.
  59. ^ Williams & Le Nevez 2008, p. 83.
  60. ^ Fotheringham 2007, pp. 208–209.
  61. ^ "Tom Simson Memorial Fund". Universal Cycle Centre. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  62. ^ "Harworth's Tom Simpson remembered". Retford Trader and Guardian. Edinburgh: Johnston Press. 13 July 2007. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  63. ^ Moore, Richard (26 July 2009). "British riders remember Tommy Simpson – a hero to some, to others the villain of the Ventoux". guardian.co.uk. London: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  64. ^ Woodland 2007, p. 265.
  65. ^ "Simpson second is Bows best". Worksop Guardian. London: Johnston Press. 23 August 2001. Retrieved 3 June 2015. 
  66. ^ Williams, Richard (13 July 2007). "White flowers for a man in white who rode himself to destruction". guardian.co.uk. London: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  67. ^ "Simpson Museum". International Cycle Sport. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  68. ^ Henderson 2011, p. 108.
  69. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 133.
  70. ^ Fotheringham 2007, p. 14.
  71. ^ "Cyclists flock to Harworth for Tommy Simpson races". Worksop Guardian. London: Johnston Press. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013. 
  72. ^ a b "Tom Simpson: Forgotten by all but one". The Scotsman. Edinburgh: Johnston Press. 18 July 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  73. ^ See, Jen (13 July 2012). "David Millar's Uphill Win". Bicycling. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Inc. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]