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|Cultural origins||Late 1970s, Los Angeles|
|Derivative forms||Dark cabaret|
Deathrock is a subgenre of punk rock, incorporating horror elements and gloomy, gothic theatrics. It emerged in the West Coast of the United States in the early 1980s, and is related to the style of music known as gothic rock.
Deathrock songs usually incorporate a driving, repetitive rhythm section; the drums and bass guitar laying the foundation within a 4/4 time signature while the guitars either play simple chords or effects-driven leads to create atmosphere. Lyrics can vary, but are typically introspective and surreal, and deal with the dark themes of isolation, gloom, disillusionment, loss, life, death, etc.; as can the style, varying from harsh and dark to upbeat, melodic and tongue-in-cheek. Deathrock lyrics and other musical stylistic elements often incorporate the themes of campy horror and sci-fi films, which in turn leads some bands to adopt elements of rockabilly and surf rock.
The frequently simplistic song structures, heavy atmosphere and rhythmic music place a great demand on lead vocalists to convey complex emotions, so deathrock singers typically have distinctive voices and strong stage presences.
The term "death rock" was first used in the 1950s to describe a thematically related genre of rock and roll, which began in 1958 with Jody Reynolds' "Endless Sleep" and ended in 1964 with J. Frank Wilson's "Last Kiss". These songs about dead teenagers were noted for their morbid yet romantic view of death, spoken word bridges, and sound effects. The Shangri-Las' "Leader of the Pack" is arguably the best known example of the '50s/'60s use of the term.
The term deathrock re-emerged 15 years later in 1979 to describe the sound of various West Coast punk bands. The term most likely came from one of three sources: Rozz Williams, the founding member of Christian Death, to describe the sound of his band; the music press, reusing the 1950s term to describe an emerging subgenre of punk; and/or Nick Zedd's 1979 film They Eat Scum, which featured a fictitious cannibalistic "death rock" punk band called "Suzy Putrid and the Mental Deficients."
The earliest influences for some deathrock acts, such as 45 Grave for example, can be traced to the horror-themed novelty rock and roll acts of the late 1950s and early 1960s such as Bobby "Boris" Pickett and Zacherle with "Monster Mash"; Screamin' Jay Hawkins with "I Put a Spell on You"; and Screaming Lord Sutch & the Savages with "Murder in the Graveyard". These songs used sound effects to create a creepy atmosphere, dealt with taboo subjects (such as cannibalism) in a humorous, often campy manner, and are still occasionally played at deathrock clubs.
This horror influence on rock music continued into the 1970s with theatrical hard rockers Alice Cooper and Kiss, both specifically credited by Rozz Williams as childhood influences. 45 Grave also covered Cooper's "School's Out".
Other rock bands who influenced many early goth/deathrock artists include the Doors, David Bowie, the Velvet Underground, Iggy Pop and the Stooges, the Cramps, T. Rex, New York Dolls, the Damned, MC5, and Richard Hell and the Voidoids.
Horror movies also directly influenced deathrock artists. According to 45 Grave singer Dinah Cancer, Italian horror movies were a large influence on 45 Grave's visual style. Zombie movies influenced many deathrock artists, especially George A. Romero's Night of the Living Dead (1968) and its sequels. John Russo's Return of the Living Dead (1985) which featured Linnea Quigley and a mostly punk soundtrack influenced later deathrock bands. Horror-themed TV shows, such as The Addams Family, The Munsters, The Twilight Zone, Dark Shadows etc., also provided some visual influence, as did spookily-clad horror movie hosts on TV such as Vampira in Los Angeles, John Zacherle in Philadelphia and New York, Elvira in Los Angeles (then later nationally), and Ghoulardi in Cleveland.
However, horror was not the only influence on deathrock. Film noir, surrealism, cabaret, and various religious iconography (particularly Catholicism and Voodoo) supplied much lyrical and visual inspiration to deathrock artists.
Deathrock first emerged in the United States in the late 1970s as a darker offshoot of the pre-existing punk rock and the emerging hardcore LA music scene. The most active and best documented deathrock music scene was in Los Angeles, which centered on the bands the Flesh Eaters (1977), Kommunity FK (1979), 45 Grave (1979), Christian Death (1979), Gun Club (1981), Super Heroines (1981), Pompeii 99 (1981), Voodoo Church (1981), Ex-VoTo (1982), Burning Image (1982), Radio Werewolf (1984) and Screams for Tina (1985). Other western cities in the United States also had bands which would later be described as deathrock, such as Theatre of Ice (1978) in Fallon, Nevada; Mighty Sphincter (1980) in Phoenix, Arizona; and Your Funeral (1982) in Denver, Colorado.
These early West Coast deathrock bands took the pre-existing base of punk rock and added dark yet playful themes borrowed from horror movies, film noir, surrealism, religious imagery, etc. A couple of bands blended hardcore punk with a gothic sound, most notably T.S.O.L. and Burning Image.
These early post-punk deathrock bands were not immediately identified as part of a new subgenre of punk; they were simply considered a darker flavor of punk and were not yet considered part of a separate musical movement. During this time, these bands would play at the same venues as punk, hardcore and new wave bands. A similar situation arose in New York City circa 1978-79, albeit on a much smaller scale, in which influential punk rock bands like the Cramps and the Misfits, as well as the Mad (fronted by future horror-film effects artist Screaming Mad George) had incorporated extensive horror themes into their lyrics, visuals, and stage show, though they did not use the term "deathrock" to describe themselves.
Around the same time as deathrock was emerging as a distinctively darker subgenre of punk rock in the United States, other subgenres of punk and post-punk were developing independently in the UK.
By 1982, a wave of darker, more tribal post-punk bands had coalesced, influenced by punk rock, and the first-generation post-punk bands like Joy Division, Siouxsie and the Banshees and Bauhaus (and specifically the noisier 1980–81 post-punks UK Decay, Killing Joke and Theatre of Hate). The primary bands in this new movement were Sex Gang Children and Southern Death Cult. Along with Brigandage, Blood and Roses, Ritual, and others, they were dubbed "positive punk" by the UK press to differentiate them from other bands who were attempting to fly under the punk banner, such as the UK 82 and Oi! acts. These positive punk bands featured tribal drumming, high-pitched vocals, scratchy guitar, and bass as melodic lead instrument, and a visual look blending glam with Native American-influenced warpaint and spiky haircuts, the first generation of the UK's post-punk goth bands. Other related bands like Ausgang, Inca Babies and Bone Orchard shared much of the tribal ethos and spiky look, but took more inspiration from the Birthday Party.
During 1983, a related movement was brewing at a London gothic rock club called the Batcave. Initially envisioned as a venue specializing in glam rock and new wave musical acts, the two main bands which debuted and performed frequently at the Batcave, Specimen and Alien Sex Fiend, developed their own different sounds strongly influenced by horror in British pop culture, which set them apart from the rest of the glam and post-punk scenes in Britain. Also in 1983, Gun Club toured in Europe as did Christian Death, leading to cross-pollination between the European gothic rock scene and the American deathrock scene.
By 1984, the term "positive punk" was outdated, and the tribal positive punk bands, the various bands from the Batcave scene, as well as the bands from Leeds (such as the Sisters of Mercy, the March Violets and Red Lorry Yellow Lorry) some of which used drum machines, had all come to be referred to as "gothic" or gothic rock. The same year, California deathrock band Kommunity FK toured with UK gothic rock band Sex Gang Children (and the following year with Alien Sex Fiend) which continued the trend in which American and British movements intermixed. Influenced more by the British scene and less by California, deathrock bands began to form in other parts of the United States, such as Samhain (1983) in Lodi, New Jersey; Holy Cow (1984) in Boston, Massachusetts (and later Providence, Rhode Island); Gargoyle Sox (1985) in Detroit, Michigan; and Shadow of Fear (1985) in Cleveland, Ohio. The fertile New York scene featured Scarecrow (1983), Of a Mesh (1983), Chop Shop (1984), Fahrenheit 451 (1984), the Naked and the Dead (1985), Brain Eaters (1986), the Children's Zoo (1986), the Plague (1987) and the Ochrana (1987).
The mid-1980s marked the second wave of gothic rock, when the sound began to shift away from its punk and post-punk roots and towards the more serious, rock-oriented approach. Bauhaus broke up, Williams left Christian Death, and the Sisters of Mercy became the dominant and most influential gothic act. The term "gothic rock" became preferred over "deathrock" (previously, they had been used interchangeably), a change which Williams attributed to the influence of the Sisters of Mercy. As a result, the term "deathrock" was seldom used except in retrospective reference to the Los Angeles bands 45 Grave and Christian Death.
The mid-1990s marked a third wave of gothic rock, as the music drifted its furthest from the original punk and post-punk sound by incorporating many elements of the industrial music scene at the time (which itself had moved away from experimental noise and into a more dance-rock oriented sound) and the more repetitive and electronic sounds of EBM. Some clubs even completely dropped deathrock and first generation gothic rock from their setlists to appeal to a crossover crowd. These changes alienated many in the goth scene who preferred the livelier, punkier deathrock sound and led them to seek out their earlier deathrock roots.
Nearly 20 years after deathrock and goth first appeared on the music scenes in southern California and London, the deathrock revival began in southern California. During 1998 in Long Beach, California, owners of the Que Sera, a local bar, asked Jeremy Meza, Dave Skott and Jenn Skott to throw a one-night "old school" gothic Halloween party. After the success of the one-off party, the event quickly evolved into a regular deathrock club called Release the Bats (named after an iconic song by the Birthday Party) and a focal point in California for the re-emerging deathrock movement.
The deathrock revival movement was similar to the original deathrock scene in Los Angeles and the Batcave movement in London, but more unified in the US, UK and Europe through various record labels. In addition to clubs, the revival scene was centered on concerts, special events, parties, and horror movie screenings. The Internet played a major role in the deathrock revival. Websites and online communities sprang up devoted to the discussion of deathrock music, bands and fashions as well as horror movies.
In terms of differences from the original scene, there was a shift to a more post-punk sound as a result of the influence of the European bands of the 1980s. Also, the apolitical influence of psychobilly discouraged political debates with the potential to fragment the scene (however some famous deathrock acts, such as Rudimentary Peni, were originally anarcho-punk bands, and there existed some slight crossover between the two scenes). The Drop Dead Festival, similar to psychobilly's Hootenanny, gave bands with smaller fan bases an opportunity to play before larger crowds.
A later trend toward "lo-fi goth" music in the indie scene developed partially out of the deathrock revival, exemplified by Grave Babies, which some described as the fifth wave of gothic music.
Only Theatre of Pain, Christian Death's 1982 debut album, is widely held as the first American gothic album and cannot be easily classified as either a darker flavor of punk, horror punk or gothic rock. As a result, Williams, the band's deceased lead singer (also known for Shadow Project and Premature Ejaculation) was considered one of the most influential artists in the goth and deathrock scene. Other influential male deathrockers included Patrick Mata of Kommunity FK and Larry Rainwater of Ex-VoTo.
Dinah Cancer has been referred to as the "Queen of Deathrock", the "Goddess of Deathrock" and the "High Priestess of Deathrock" for her role as the frontwoman for 45 Grave during a time when female lead singers were still considered somewhat of a rarity. Other influential female deathrockers included Eva O and Voodoo Church's Tina Winter.
Many artists in the United States released EPs and LPs prior to 1982 which would now be considered deathrock, such as Theatre of Ice and Mighty Sphincter. British bands also made major contributions to the deathrock sound by adding a strong post-punk influence, including Joy Division, Bauhaus and Siouxsie and the Banshees. Other bands from around the world added their own unique contribution to deathrock, including Xmal Deutschland in Germany, Virgin Prunes from Ireland, and the Birthday Party in Australia.
However, the Sisters of Mercy, who are frequently played at deathrock clubs, are generally not considered to be a deathrock band, as the most prominent example of their sound, Floodland, has more in common with second-wave gothic rock bands (as they were the second wave's prime influence).
- England Fades Away: Stylus Magazine’s Guide to Goth - Article - Stylus Magazine
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- Hawkins, Joan Defining Cult Movies, pp 227-228. Manchester University Press (2003). ISBN 0-7190-6631-X, 9780719066313. 
- The Gun Club story in detail
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