List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll
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This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.
- 1 Wars and armed conflicts whose highest estimated casualties are 1,000,000 or more
- 2 Genocide, ethnic cleansing, and mass ethnic/religious persecution
- 3 Political purges and repressions (politicides)
- 4 Forced labor, slavery, internment/extermination camps, and slave trades
- 5 War crimes and ancient war atrocities
- 6 List of dictatorships by death toll
- 7 Anthropogenically exacerbated famine, mass starvation, and illness or disease
- 8 Riot or political unrest
- 9 Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
- 10 Anthropogenic floods, drownings and landslides
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Wars and armed conflicts whose highest estimated casualties are 1,000,000 or more
These figures of one million or more deaths include the deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, etc., as well as deaths of soldiers in battle and massacres and genocide. Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Duration (years)||Notes, see also|
|World War II||15,843,000||85,000,000||36,696,798||Worldwide||1939||1945||6 years and 1 day|
|Mongol conquests||30,000,000||34,641,016||Eurasia||1206||1368||163||Mongol Empire, Destruction under the Mongol Empire|
|European colonization of the Americas||8,400,000||138,000,000||34,047,026||Americas||1492||1691||199||Death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which might never be accurately determined.[a]|
|Spanish colonization of the Americas||15,000,000||70,000,000||32,403,703||Americas||1492||1542||50||Most of the population decline was caused by infectious disease. Violence was also a significant cause of the death toll. Part of European colonization of the Americas.|
|Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming dynasty||25,000,000||25,000,000||25,000,000||China||1618||1683||65||Qing dynasty|
|Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire||24,300,000||24,300,000||24,300,000||Mexico||1519||1532||13||Part of Spanish colonization of the Americas|
|Taiping Rebellion||5,000,000||100,000,000||22,360,680||China||1851||1864||14||Qing dynasty|
|Second Sino-Japanese War||20,000,000||25,000,000||22,360,680||China||1937||1945||8||Part of World War II: China|
|World War I||8,545,800||21,000,000||13,396,335||Worldwide||1914||1918||4 years, 3 months, 1 week|
|Conquests of Timur||12,649,111||Central, East and South Asia||1400s||1500s||35||Up to 5% of the world's population at the time.|
|Dungan Revolt||8,000,000||12,000,000||9,797,959||Qing dynasty||1862||1877||15||Qing dynasty|
|Chinese Civil War||8,000,000||11,692,000||9,671,401||China||1927||1949||22||List of civil wars|
|Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire||8,400,000||8,400,000||Peru||1533||1620||87||Part of Spanish colonization of the Americas|
|Russian Civil War||9,000,000||6,708,204||Russia||1917||1921||5||Russian Revolution, List of civil wars|
|Thirty Years' War||3,000,000||11,500,000||5,673,870||Holy Roman Empire, Europe||1618||1648||30||Initially a religious war between Catholics and Protestants, it became a general European political war. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history.|
|7,000,000||4,949,747||Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean||1803||1815||13||Napoleonic Wars casualties|
|Yellow Turban Rebellion||3,000,000||7,000,000||4,582,576||China||184||205||22||Part of Three Kingdoms War|
|Second Congo War||2,500,000||5,400,000||3,674,235||Democratic Republic of the Congo||1998||2003||6||First Congo War|
|French Wars of Religion||2,000,000||4,000,000||2,828,427||France||1562||1598||37||Largely a religious war between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants)|
|Indian Rebellion of 1857||800,000||10,000,000||2,828,427||India||1857||1858||1|
|Hundred Years' War||2,300,000||3,300,000||2,754,995||Western Europe||1337||1453||116||Edwardian War (1337–1360), Caroline War (1369–1389), Lancastrian War (1415–1453)|
|Vietnam War||800,000||3,800,000||1,743,560||Southeast Asia||1955||1975||21||Cold War and First Indochina War|
|Crusades||1,000,000||3,000,000||1,732,051||Holy Land, Europe||1095||1291||196||Christian military excursions in the Middle East.|
|Mfecane||1,500,000||2,000,000||1,732,051||Southern Africa||1816||1828||13||Ndwandwe–Zulu War|
|Nigerian Civil War||1,000,000||1,732,051||Nigeria||1966||1970||4||Ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people followed by Civil War.|
|War in Afghanistan||1,240,000||2,000,000||1,620,000||Afghanistan||1978||present||40||Soviet–Afghan War, Taliban era. Death toll estimates through 1999 (2 million) and 2000 (1.5 million and 2 million).|
|Punic Wars||1,250,000||1,850,000||1,520,691||Mediterranean||264BC||146BC||118||Carthage, Roman Republic|
|Spanish conquest of Yucatán||1,460,000||1,460,000||1,460,000||Central America||1519||1595||76||Part of Spanish colonization of the Americas|
|Second Sudanese Civil War||1,000,000||2,000,000||1,414,214||Sudan||1983||2005||23||First Sudanese Civil War|
|Warring States period||1,200,000||1,500,000||1,341,641||China||475BC||221BC||255||Ancient China|
|Korean War||1,200,000||1,200,000||1,200,000||Korean Peninsula||1950||1953||4||Categorized as part of the Cold War.|
|Seven Years' War||868,000||1,400,000||1,102,361||Worldwide||1756||1763||7|
|Soviet–Afghan War||600,000||2,000,000||1,095,445||Afghanistan||1980||1988||9||Sometimes categorized as a proxy war during the Cold War. Part of War in Afghanistan|
|Japanese invasions of Korea||1,000,000||1,000,000||Korea||1592||1598||7|
|French Revolutionary Wars||1,000,000||1,000,000||Worldwide||1792||1802||10|
|Mexican Revolution||500,000||2,000,000||1,000,000||Mexico, United States||1911||1920||10||Includes Pancho Villa's raids and the Columbus Raid.|
|Italian conquest of the Horn of Africa||1,000,000||1,000,000||Horn of Africa||1924||1940||16|
|Ethiopian Civil War||500,000||1,500,000||866,025||Ethiopia||1974||1991||17|
|Jewish–Roman wars||350,000||2,000,000||836,660||Roman Empire||66AD||136AD||70||Roman Empire|
|American Civil War||650,000||1,000,000||800,000||Southeastern United States and southern Pennsylvania||1861||1865||4||United States|
|Algerian War||350,000||1,500,000||724,569||Algeria||1954||1962||7 years, 4 months, 2 weeks, and 4 days|||
|War of the Spanish Succession||400,000||1,251,000||707,389||Europe, North America, South America||1702||1714||12|
|Spanish Civil War||500,000||1,000,000||707,107||Spain||1936||1939||4|
|Eighty Years' War||230,000||2,000,000||678,233||The Low Countries, South America, Caribbean Sea, East and Southeast Asia||1568||1648||80|
|Gallic Wars||1,000,000||632,445||France||58BC||50BC||9||Roman Empire|
|Paraguayan War||300,000||1,200,000||600,000||Southern Cone||1864||1870||7||Military history of South America, Francisco Solano López and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias|
|War on Terror||272,000||1,260,000||585,423||Worldwide||2001||2013||12||Includes Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), and War in North-West Pakistan.|
|Iran–Iraq War||289,220||1,100,000||564,041||Iran–Iraq border||1980||1988||8||Iran claims: 123,220 KIA + 11,000 civilians|
|Albigensian Crusade||200,000||1,000,000||447,214||Southern France||1208||1229||21|
|Iraq War||176,913||1,100,000||445,132||Iraq||2003||2011||8||See Casualties of the Iraq War. Part of the "War on Terror".|
|Bangladesh Liberation War||26,000||3,000,000||279,285||East Pakistan||1971||1971||1||See Bangladeshi Genocide casualties|
|Kalinga War||150,000||200,000||173,205||India||262 BC||261 BC||2||Maurya Empire vs. State of Kalinga|
Genocide, ethnic cleansing, and mass ethnic/religious persecution
These are events that entail the intentional mass murder of individuals on the basis of ethnicity, religion, or race, or death caused by the forced eviction of individuals on the basis of race, religion or ethnicity.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|World War II casualties of the Soviet Union||13,684,700||40,000,000||23,396,324||German-occupied Europe and Russia||1939||1945||Germany's extermination of Slavic peoples and citizens of the Soviet Union. Figure given is both as intentional genocide and overall civilian war casualties.|
|Japanese war crimes||3,000,000||14,000,000||6,000,000||East Asia||1937||1945||The Systematic mass murders directed towards Korean and Chinese civilians by Japan and its puppet states. Most people killed by forced labor (enslavement), Guns, Bajonets, and biological weapons 
a small amount of people also killed by human experiments inside unit 731  Japan's reasons for this was an enslavement policy towards the subjugated peoples and a belief in the superior Japanese race and a strong belief in superior Japanese values and in State Shinto. Not genocide but nonetheless extreme religious persecution of Chinese and Korean civilians in aggressive wars. Not organized in the same effective way as the holocaust. But more people inside the army took part in the atrocities committed like two Japanese soldiers that had a competition about who could murder the most Chinese civilians and described as heroes inside Japanese pappers. Also, the intention was not to kill the Chinese people but rather enslave it. While Imperial Japan killed more people in an aggressive war 17,000,000– 22,000,000. Most dead by bombs and indirect consequences by Japanese warfare. However this note only count massacres against civilians by the Japanese military and crimes against humanity.
|Holocaust||4,200,000||6,300,000||5,143,928||German-occupied Europe||1941||1945||The main systematic and bureaucratic genocide against European Jews by Germany and its puppet states.|
|Holodomor||2,711,000||7,811,000||4,601,698||Ukraine||1932||1933||The term "Ukrainian Genocide" usually refers to the man-made famine of 1932 through 1933, called the Holodomor, in which the grain of Ukrainians was confiscated to the point where they could not survive off the amount of grain they had, and were also restricted from fleeing their villages to find food under threat of execution or deportation into a Gulag camp. The term also includes the killing of Ukrainian intelligentsia during the Great Purge, especially the Orthodox Church. The main advocate for this view was Raphael Lemkin, creator of the word genocide. The first death toll is famine and second death toll is combined body count of famine and executions of Ukrainians, using data from after the opening of the Soviet archives. (2.4 to 7.5 million in famine, 300,00 during the purge and 1,100 from the Law of Spikelets.)|
|Soviet famine of 1932–33||2,400,000||10,000,000||4,242,641||Soviet Union||1932||1933|||
|Nazi crimes against the Polish nation||2,770,000||2,770,000||2,770,000||German-occupied Poland||1941||1945||Genocide of Christian Poles during the invasion of Poland by Germany.|
|Khmer Rouge Killing Fields||1,386,734||3,400,000||2,171,381||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge. Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.|
|Rwandan genocide and other massacres between Hutus and Tutsis||905,000||1,595,000||1,234,190||Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire||1959||1997||Combined death toll of all genocides and other massacres between the Hutus and the Tutsis.
Includes the Burundian genocides.
Regarded as the most efficient genocide of the 20th century, the Rwandan genocide was the disorganized communal mass murder of Tutsis, by their rival tribe the Hutu through the Rwandan government and Hutu Power militias such as the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi.
Violence peaked in the hundred days between April 7, 1994 and July 15, 1994, during which time between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people were killed.
|Population transfer in the Soviet Union||1,000,000||1,500,000||1,224,745||Soviet Union||1920||1951||May include casualties of decossackization.|
|Flight and expulsion of Germans after World War II||500,000||3,000,000||1,224,745||Eastern Europe||1945||1950||Both direct and indirect deaths of ethnic German civilians and POWs during the redrawing of national borders after World War II.|
|Kazakh famine of 1932–1933||1,500,000||2,300,000||1,857,418||Kazakhstan||1932||1933||Part of the Soviet famine of 1932–33.|
|Armenian Genocide||800,000||1,500,000||1,095,445||Ottoman Empire||1914||1918||The first genocide of the 20th century to kill over 1,000,000 people, this event was conducted by the Young Turks government of the Ottoman Empire under the administration of Talaat Pasha, Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha.|
|Hakka genocide by Qing Empire||1,000,000||1,000,000||China||Unclear but a single month between 1850 and 1867||Unclear but a single month between 1850 and 1867||After the fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom the Qing government cracked down on the Hakka ethnic group for allying with the kingdom slaughtering 30,000 per day. The death toll of the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars is estimated to be 1,000,000 and there was also a mass execution during the Taiping Rebellion that killed 1,000,000. It is unclear whether these events refer to the Qing crackdown. If this death toll is applied to the estimated death rate, the massacre likely took place over the course of a month.|
|Genocide of Native Americans||
Thousands to millions more in forced labor and unnumbered wars and massacres in Latin America. Covers both North and South America.
|Undetermined||North and South America||1492||1996 ||While the overall death toll of man made deaths of Native Americans is unknown, there have been a few events in which many Native Americans perished. The combined death toll is the one used in this table.
|Massacres of Algerians during the French conquest of Algeria||500,000||1,000,000||707,107||Algeria||1827||1875||Within the first three decades, the French military massacred between half a million to one million from approximately three million Algerian people.|
|Partition of India||200,000||2,000,000||632,456||India||1947||1957||In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide between Hindus and Muslims.|
|Dzungar genocide||480,000||600,000||536,656||Dzungar Khanate||1755||1758||The mass extermination of Dzungar Mongols by the Qing dynasty under the order of the Qianlong Emperor.|
|Greek genocide||289,000||750,000||465,564||Ottoman Empire||1913||1922||Violent ethnic cleansing of Greeks from their historical homeland of Anatolia.|
|Circassian genocide||400,000||500,000||447,214||Circassia||1864||1867||Deaths from mass expulsion of Circassians after Russian conquest.|
|Albigensian Crusade||200,000||1,000,000||447,214||Languedoc, France||1209||1229||Raphael Lemkin, well known as the coiner of the term "genocide", referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".|
|1971 Bangladesh genocide||3,000,000||
(Geometric mean of all numbers listed to the left)
|East Pakistan||March 21, 1971||December 16, 1971||See also:|
|Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946)||260,000||750,000||441,588||Soviet Union and Poland||1937||1946|| Includes deaths from the Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38).|
|Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil||235,000||800,000||433,590||Brazil||1900||1985|||
|Occupation of Tibet||144,000||1,200,000||415,692||Tibet||1950||ongoing||In 1960, the western-based nongovernmental International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) gave a report titled Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic to the United Nations. The report was prepared by the ICJ's Legal Inquiry Committee, composed of eleven international lawyers from around the world. This report accused the Chinese of the crime of genocide in Tibet, after nine years of full occupation, six years before the devastation of the cultural revolution began. The ICJ also documented accounts of massacres, tortures and killings, bombardment of monasteries, and extermination of whole nomad camps. Declassified Soviet archives provides data that Chinese communists, who received a great assistance in military equipment from the Soviets, broadly used Soviet aircraft for bombing monasteries and other punitive operations in Tibet.|
|Massacre and displacement of Hazaras||?||?||
|Afghanistan||1888||1893||Over 60% of the Hazara population were either massacred or displaced in Abdur Rahman Khan's crackdown of the Hazaras.|
|The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia||379,000||397,000||387,896||Independent State of Croatia||1941||1945||Genocide of Serbs, Jews, and Romani by the Ustaše including between 322,000 and 340,000 Serbs, 25,000 Roma and 32,000 Jews; a relatively small but unspecified number of political dissidents (mostly ethnic Croats) were also murdered.|
|Decossackization||300,000||500,000||346,410||Former Russian Empire||1917||1933||Violent class purge, ethnic cleansing, and mass murder of Cossacks, especially Kuban and Don Cossacks, by the Bolsheviks.|
|Porajmos||220,000||500,000||331,662||Nazi occupied Europe||1941||1945||The genocide of Romani by Nazi Germany and its puppet states.|
|Chinese genocide under Khmer Rouge||215,000||225,000||219,943||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||More than half of the Chinese population of Cambodia were slaughtered by the Khmer Rouge.|
|Assyrian genocide||150,000||300,000||212,132||Ottoman Empire||1914||1920||One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.|
|Cham genocide under Khmer Rouge||90,000||500,000||212,132||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||The genocide slaughtered over 70% of the Cham Muslim population in Cambodia according to themselves. According to Ben Kiernan, Cham were subjected to the most brutal treatment of those persecuted by the Khmer Rouge and subjected to the slaughter of 36% of their population according to Samuel Totten.|
|Hutu refugee massacres during the First Congo War||200,000||220,000||209,762||Zaire||1996||1997||During the First Congo War, Rwanda was able to destroy refugee camps, which the génocidaires had been using as their safe-bases, and forcibly repatriate Tutsi to Rwanda. During this process, Rwandan and aligned forces committed multiple atrocities, mainly against Hutu refugees. The true extent of the abuses is unknown because the AFDL and RPF carefully managed NGO and press access to areas where atrocities were thought to have occurred; however, Amnesty International claimed as many as 200,000 Rwandese Hutu refugees were massacred by them and the Rwandan Defence Forces and aligned forces. The United Nations similarly documented mass killings of civilians by Rwandan, Ugandan and the ADFL soldiers in the DRC Mapping Exercise Report.|
|Wu Hu and Jie genocide||200,000||200,000||200,000||Northern China||350||351||Ancient Chinese texts record that General Ran Min ordered the extermination of the Wu Hu, especially the Jie people, during the Wei–Jie war in the fourth century AD. People with racial characteristics such as high-bridged noses and bushy beards were killed; in total, 200,000 were reportedly massacred.|
|Cromwellian conquest of Ireland||200,000||200,000||200,000||Ireland||1649||1653||The Parliamentarian reconquest of Ireland was brutal, and Cromwell is still a hated figure in Ireland. The extent to which Cromwell, who was in direct command for the first year of the campaign, was responsible for the atrocities is debated to this day. Some historians argue that the actions of Cromwell were within the then-accepted rules of war, or were exaggerated or distorted by later propagandists. These arguments, in turn, have been challenged by others.|
|Caste War of Yucatán||200,000||200,000||200,000||Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico||1847||1901||The Caste War of Yucatán (approx. 1847–1901) against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. Adam Jones wrote, "Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up to 200,000 killed."|
|Great Famine of Mount Lebanon||200,000||200,000||200,000||Mount Lebanon||1915||1918||One of the various genocides and ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks.|
|Destruction of the Carthaginians||150,000||250,000||193,649||Tunisia||149 BC||146 BC||This war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and focused on Tunisia, mainly on the Siege of Carthage, which resulted in the complete destruction of the city, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence.|
||Darfur, Sudan||2003||Ongoing||The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population. The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. This resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians and the indictment of Sudan's president Omar al-Bashir for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.|
|Polish Operation of the NKVD (1937–38)||110,000||250,000||165,831||Soviet Union||1937||1938||The operation from 1937 to 1938 to eliminate the Polish minority in the Soviet Union.|
|Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush||123,000||200,000||156,843||Soviet Union||February 1944||March 1944||Expulsion of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia.|
|Hamidian Massacres||80,000||300,000||154,919||Ottoman Empire||1894||1896||Mass murder of Armenian (and other Christian) civilians under Sultan Abdul Hamid II that foreshadowed the Armenian Genocide.|
|East Timorese genocide||60,000||308,000||135,941||East Timor||1974||1999||The civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness, resulted in an enormous proportional loss of life upon the island some estimating as high as 13% up to almost a third to almost 44% of the population.|
|Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia||60,000||300,000||134,164||Volhyn and Eastern Galicia||1943||1944||Genocide of Polish civilian population in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).|
|Burundian genocide of Hutus in 1972||80,000||210,000||129,615||Burundi||1972||1972||Communal mass murder of Hutus by their rival tribe the Tutsi in Burundi.|
|Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire||52,000||254,500||115,039||Russian Empire||1903–1906||1917–1922||The massacres of Jews in the Russian Empire reached their peak in the early 20th century, through the killing of thousands from 1903 to 1906 and tens to hundreds of thousands from 1917 to 1922.|
|Ethnic conflict against and with Kurds in Turkey||33,835||357,000||109,905||Turkey||1921||ongoing|
|Deportation of the Crimean Tatars||100,000||100,000||100,000||Soviet Union||1944||1945||Often considered an ethnic cleansing, and Ukraine considers the event genocide.|
|Rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari||100,000||100,000||100,000||Present day Peru||1780||1782||The indigenous rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari against the Spanish between 1780 and 1782, cost over 100,000 colonists' lives in Peru and Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia).|
|Spanish repressions of Dutch Protestants||100,000||100,000||100,000||The Low Countries||1566||1609||100,000 massacred under Charles V and Philip II. Part of the Eighty Years' War.|
|Al-Anfal campaign||50,000||182,000||95,394||Baathist Iraq||1986||1989||The Kurdish genocide led by Ali Hassan al-Majid under the order of Saddam Hussein|
|Atrocities against Harkis after the Algerian War||50,000||150,000||86,603||Algeria||1962||1962||The Harkis were seen as traitors by many Algerians, and many of those who stayed behind suffered severe reprisals after independence. French historians estimate that somewhere between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis and members of their families were killed by the FLN or by lynch mobs in Algeria, often in atrocious circumstances or after torture.|
|Aktion T4||70,273||93,521||81,068||Nazi Germany||1939||1941||A euthanasia program in Nazi Germany used to purge those deemed genetically deficient.|
|Ethnic cleansing of Cyrenaicans||80,000||80,000||80,000||Libya||1923||1932|||
|Guatemalan genocide||35,000||166,000||76,223||Guatemala||1960||1996||According to the Historical Clarification Commission, 140,000 to 200,000 were killed or disappeared, and at least 42,275 were killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War, of which 93% were from officially sanctioned government terror and 83% of the victims were Maya.|
|Rwandan Revolution||50,000 Hutus and tens of thousands of Tutsis||50,000 Hutus and tens of thousands of Tutsis||50,000 Hutus and tens of thousands of Tutsis||Burundi and Rwanda||1959||1962|||
|1948 massacre in Hyderabad||27,000||200,000||73,485||Hyderabad State, India||1948||1948|||
|Effacer le tableau||60,000||70,000||64,807||Democratic Republic of Congo||1998||2003||Pygmy peoples were murdered en masse as they were regarded as subhumans.|
|Ethnic cleansing and genocide from all sides of the Yugoslav Wars||52,856||64,917||58,577||Yugoslavia||1991||2001||All civilians killed in the Yugoslav Wars including events such as the Srebrenica Massacre, Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing, Žepa Massacre, and other atrocities. 69.8% to 82% of civilian victims of the Bosnian War were Bosniak.|
|American Indian Wars of the United States||49,000||64,000||56,000||Now the United States||1511||1890||From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894): "The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given ... Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate ..."|
|Massacres of Polish civilians during the Warsaw Uprising||50,000||60,000||54,772||Occupied Poland||5 August 1944||12 August 1944||Polish fatalities in districts of Wola and Ochota committed during Warsaw Uprising|
|Burundian genocide of Tutsis in 1993||50,000||50,000||50,000||Burundi||1993||1993||Communal mass murder of Tutsis by their rival tribe the Hutu in Burundi.|
|Herero genocide||24,000||100,000||48,990||German South-West Africa||1904||1907||Part of the Herero and Namaqua genocide during the Herero Wars.|
|Witch trials in the early modern period||20,000||100,000||44,721||Europe||1400||1800|||
|Great Fire of Smyrna||10,000||100,000||31,623||Smyrna, Ottoman Empire||September 9, 1922||September 24, 1922||Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the massacre of their populations. After the attacks, 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.|
|Urkun||3,000||270,000||28,460||Russian Empire, Krygyzstan||1916||1916||In 1916, there was an uprising and crackdown of Krygyzstanis against and by Tsarist Russia in what is now known as the Urkun. A public commission in Kyrgyzstan called the crackdown of 1916 that killed 100,000 to 270,000 Kyrgyzstanis a genocide, though Russia rejected this characterization. Russian sources put the death toll at 3,000.|
|Captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam||10,000||65,000||25,495||Canara||1784||1799||A 15-year imprisonment of Mangalorean Catholics and other Christians at Seringapatam in the Indian region of Canara by Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.|
|1988 Burundian Hutu massacre||25,000||25,000||25,000||Burundi||1988||1988|||
|Parsley massacre||17,000||35,000||24,393||Dominican Republic||October 2, 1937||October 8, 1937||Genocidal massacre of people who say perejil (Spanish: "parsley") in a French accent in order to determine if they are Afro-Haitian or Afro-Dominican.|
|Australian frontier wars||22,000||List of massacres of Indigenous Australians22,500; see||22,249||Australia||1788||1934||Wars between Indigenous Australians and settlers in which about 20,000 aboriginal were massacred, along with two to 2,500 settlers dying in combat.|
|Ethnic cleansing of Georgians||17,000||28,000||21,817||Abkhazia and Georgia||1992||1993||The ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the "massacres of Georgians in Abkhazia", and "genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia" — refers to ethnic cleansing, massacres and forced mass expulsion of thousands of ethnic Georgians.|
|Dersim Massacre||7,594||40,000||17,429||Dersim, Turkey||1937||1937||The Dersim massacre was a massacre of Kurdish people (Alevi Kurmanj and Zaza) by the Turkish government in the Dersim region of eastern Turkey, which includes parts of Tunceli Province, Elazığ Province, and Bingöl Province. The massacre occurred after a rebellion led by Seyid Riza against the Turkification policies of the Turkish government. As a result of the Turkish military campaign against the rebellion, thousands of Alevi Zazas died and many others were internally displaced due to the conflict.|
|1966 anti-Igbo pogrom||10,000||30,000||17,321||Nigeria||May 29, 1966||October 1966|||
|Indian massacres||16,349||16,349+||16,349||Now the United States||1511||1890||It is difficult to determine the total number of people who died as a result of Indian massacres. However, one book, The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, presents an estimate by counting every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890). The parameters were limited to the intentional and indiscriminate murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners. The results revealed that 7,193 people died from atrocities perpetrated by those of European descent, and 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans.|
|Massacres of Biharis by Bengali mobs||1,000||150,000||12,247||Bangladesh||1971||1971||Most extreme episode of the persecution of Biharis in Bangladesh|
|Gukurahundi||3,750||30,000||10,607||Zimbabwe||1983||1987||Ethnic cleansing and executions of members of the Ndebele by the Robert Mugabe's Fifth Brigade.|
|Vietnamese genocide by Khmer Rouge||10,000||10,000||10,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||100% of the Vietnamese in Cambodia were slaughtered during the genocide, according to Samuel Totten.|
|Namaqua genocide||10,000||10,000||10,000||German South-West Africa||1904||1907||Part of the Herero and Namaqua genocide during the Herero Wars.|
|Thai Genocide by Khmer Rouge||8,000||8,000||8,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||40% of Thai in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian Genocide according to Samuel Totten.|
|1946 Bihar riots||2,000||30,000||7,746||Bihar, British India||October 30, 1946||November 7, 1946|||
|Noakhali riots||5,000||10,000||7,071||Noakhali Region, Bengal, British India||October 1946||November 1946||A series of massacres and forced conversions of Hindus, and looting and arson of Hindu properties, perpetrated by the Muslim community in the districts of Noakhali in the Chittagong Division of Bengal in October–November 1946, a year before India's independence from British rule.|
|Algerian massacres by the French||1,020||45,000||6,775||Algeria||1945||1945|||
|Canadian residential schools||18,000||32,010||25,005||Canada||1876||1996|
|Tasmanian extinction/Black War||
|After the death of Fanny Cochrane Smith there were no non-mixed raced Tasmanians left in the world.|
|Zanzibar Revolution||2,000||20,000||6,325||Zanzibar||1964||1964||Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the Zanzibar Revolution|
|1964 East Pakistan riots||5,590||5,690+||5,640||East Pakistan||January 1964||January 1964|
|Simele massacre||5,000||6,000||5,477||Simele, Kingdom of Iraq||August 7, 1933||August 11, 1933||The Simele massacre inspired Raphael Lemkin to create the concept of genocide.|
|1950 Barisal Riots||+ 3?4,803||+ 3?4,833||+ 3?4,818||East Bengal||February 1950||March 1950||
|1984 Sikh Massacre||2,800||8,000||4,733||India||October 31, 1984||November 3, 1984||A series of pogroms against Sikhs primarily done by members of the Indian National Congress party due to the assassination of the prime minister.|
|Nellie massacre||2,191||10,000||4,681||Assam, India||Six hours on February 18, 1983||Six hours on February 18, 1983|||
|Laotian genocide by Khmer Rouge||4,000||4,000||4,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||40% of Laotians in Cambodia were killed during the Cambodian genocide according to Samuel Totten.|
|Direct Action Day||4,000||4,000||4,000||India||August 16, 1946||August 18, 1946||Also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.|
|1804 Haiti massacre||3,000||5,000||3,873||Haiti||Early February 1804||April 22, 1804||Genocide of French people in Haiti.|
|Trail of Tears||2,000||6,000||3,464||United States||1830||1850||The forced relocation of various Native American tribes under the order of Andrew Jackson.|
|Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL||2,000||citation needed]5,000+[||3,162||Sinjar, Iraq and Syria||2014||ongoing||Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Yazidis by ISIL|
|Selknam genocide||2,500||3,900||3,122||Tierra del Fuego, Chile||Late 1800s||Early 1900s||Genocide of Selknam Native Chilean tribe.|
|2002 Gujarat riots||1,044||2,977||1,763||Gujarat, India||February 2002||March 2002||Minimum death toll includes 790 Muslim death toll. Both death tolls include 254 Hindu deaths. Maximum death toll includes 223 presumed mixing as dead, and a higher 2,500 Muslim death toll.|
|Genocide of Shias by ISIL||1,566||1,566+||1,566||Iraq, Syria||2014||ongoing||Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Shiass by ISIL|
|Conquest of the Desert||1,300||1,300||1,300||Argentina||Mid 1870s||1884||Military campaign, directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, then inhabited by indigenous peoples.|
|Genocide of Christians by ISIL||1,000||1,000+||1,000||Iraq, Syria, and Libya||2014||Ongoing||Ethnic cleansing, execution, forced conversion, rape, and enslavement of Christians by ISIL|
|Biological warfare at the siege of Fort Pitt||?||?||?||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||1763||1763||The death toll resulting from the event is unknown but here are some statistics that may allow for some extrapolations: The Fort Pit outbreak hit the Lenni Lenape and Shawnee. The population of these two groups in 2008 were 16,000 and 14,000 respectively. The US's population in 2008 was likely about 305 million as it was 281,421,906 in 2000 and grew by 1.9 million each year afterwards, meaning the two tribes were likely about one ten thousandth of the population. The population of the aforementioned tribes is unknown but the non-native population of the United States in 1760 was 1,593,625 and in 1770 was 2,148,076,. Note that the census numbers do not include Native Americans until 1860, but in 2010 Native Americans made up about 0.7% of the U.S. population. The native populations grow at slower rates then non-native and sometimes even decreased. The mortality rates of disease on indigenous people can be as high as 90%.|
Political purges and repressions (politicides)
This section includes events that entail the mass killings of political opposition (such as those of certain ideology, class or just someone protesting the government) in what are sometimes called "Red" or "White" Terrors depending on who is committing them and the type of opposition they target (Red = Communist, White = Anti-Communist/Nationalist). Another term used to refer to these types of killing is politicide. This list is incomplete; please help by adding to it. See also Red Terror (disambiguation), White Terror, and Politicide.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|Mass killings of landlords under Mao Zedong||800,000||28,000,000||4,732,864||People's Republic of China||1947||1951|||
Millions of landlords were killed during land reforms before the formation of the People's Republic of China because they were seen as class enemies.
|The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution||400,000||10,000,000||2,000,000||People's Republic of China||1966||1976||The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 until 1976. Set into motion by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society.|
See: Struggle session
|Cambodian Autogenocide||1,325,000||1,325,000||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979|||
Some have referred to the mass killing of ethnic Khmer people under the Khmer Rouge as a genocide despite the fact the mass killings were committed by fellow Khmer and the Khmer were killed less in proportion to their population, according to Samuel Totten, then other victims of the Khmer Rouge making it more of a politicide. These killings have been described as autogenocide or civil genocide. The death toll used here is the combined death of rural and urban Khmer according to Samuel Totten. Note this is not the total number of people killed in the Cambodian genocide just the number of ethnic Khmers killed.
|Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries in China||712,000||2,000,000||1,193,315||People's Republic of China||1950||1951||The Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries (Chinese: 镇压反革命; pinyin: zhènyā fǎn gémìng; literally: "suppressing counterrevolutionaries" or abbreviated as Chinese: 鎮反; pinyin: zhènfǎn) was the first political campaign launched by the People's Republic of China designed to eradicate opposition elements, especially former Kuomintang (KMT) functionaries accused of trying undermine the new Communist government.|
|Great Purge in the Soviet Union||681,692||1,704,230||1,077,850||Soviet Union||1936||1938||The Great Purge or Great Terror was a period of intense political repression in the Soviet Union including execution (especially through open air shootings) and forced labor through the Gulag system.|
|Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966||500,000||3,000,000||1,224,745||Indonesia||1965||1966||Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965-66 by the Indonesian Army and associated death squads with support from Western powers such as the United States. Death tolls are difficult to estimate, but it is widely accepted by scholars that roughly 1 million people were killed.|
|White Terror (Russia)||300,000||300,000||300,000||Former Russian Empire||1917||1923||White movement equivalent to the Red Terror.|
|White Terror (Spain)||150,000||400,000||244,949||Spain during and after the Spanish Civil War||1936||1945||In Spain, the White Terror (also known as "la Represión Franquista" or the "Francoist Repression") was the series of acts of politically motivated violence, rape, and other crimes committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War (17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939) and during Francisco Franco's dictatorship (1 October 1936 – 20 November 1975)|
|Qey Shibir||30,000||750,000||150,000||People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia||1977||1978||Violent purge of those deemed Anti-Communist in Ethiopia.|
|Bodo League Massacre||100,000||200,000||141,421||Korea||Summer 1950||Summer 1950||Massacre of communists and suspected communists during the Korean War.|
|Holocaust of the Freemasons||80,000||200,000||126,491||Nazi occupied territory||1933||1945||The Nazis targeted Freemasons as they saw them as collaborators in a Jewish conspiracy.|
|Red Terror during the Russian Civil War||10,000||1,500,000||122,474||Former Russian Empire during Russian Civil War||1918||1922||Political repression by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War.|
|1991 uprising in Iraq||25,000||180,000||67,082||Iraq||March the 1st, 1991||April the 5th, 1991||The death toll of the uprising against Saddam Hussein's government during 1991 was high throughout the country. The rebels killed many Ba'athist officials and officers. In response, thousands of unarmed civilians were killed by indiscriminate fire from loyalist tanks, artillery and helicopters, and many historical and religious structures in the south were deliberately targeted under orders from Saddam Hussein. Saddam's security forces entered the cities, often using women and children as human shields, where they detained and summarily executed or "disappeared" thousands of people at random in a policy of collective responsibility. Many suspects were tortured, raped, or burned alive.|
|Operation Condor||50,000||80,000||63,246||South America||1975||1983||A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States.|
|Red Terror (Spain)||38,000||72,344||52,432||Spain during the Spanish Civil War||1936||1939||The Red Terror in Spain (Spanish: Terror Rojo) is the name given by historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War "by sections of nearly all the leftist groups".|
|North Vietnamese Land Reform||13,500||200,000||51,962||North Vietnam||1954||1956|
|The Reign of Terror||16,000||42,000||25,923||France during the French Revolution||1793||1794||The Reign of Terror was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and The Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution".|
|1982 Hama Massacre||10,000||40,000||20,000||Hama, Syria||February 2, 1982||February 28, 1982||The Hama massacre (Arabic: مجزرة حماة) occurred in February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.|
|1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre||10,000||40,000||20,000||El Salvador||January 22, 1932||July 11, 1932||Many of the victims were indigenous people.|
|February 28 Incident||10,000||30,000||17,320||Taiwan||1947||1947||Crackdown by the Kuomintang government that ushered in the White Terror (Taiwan) era.|
|Dirty War||9,000||30,000||16,432||Argentina||1976||1983||At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).|
|Red and White Terrors of the Finnish Civil War||11,650||11,650||11,650||Finland||1918||1918||Both sides of the Finnish Civil War used Terrors where 10,000 were killed in the White Terror and 1,650 were killed in the Red Terror.|
|1988 Iranian P.O.C. Massacre||4,482||30,000||11,596||Iran||1988||1988
(5 months after starting of executions.)
Massacre of political prisoners in Iran.
|White Terror (Taiwan)||3,000||4,000||3,464||Taiwan||1949||1987||An era of martial law in Taiwan in which 140,000 where imprisoned, and 3,000 to 4,000 were executed for real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang.|
|Massacre of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989||241||10,000||3,000||Tiananmen Square, People's Republic of China||1989||1989||Crackdown of anti-government protest in the People's Republic of China.|
|Chilean Politicide||1,200||3,200||1,960||Chile||1974||1990||1,200 to 3,200 alleged communists were executed, 80,000 were forcibly interned and 30,000 were tortured under the reign of Augusto Pinochet.|
Forced labor, slavery, internment/extermination camps, and slave trades
This table includes deaths caused by the poor labor conditions of the systems, executions for not performing the labor satisfactorily, and killing from trying to accumulate the work force.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
"reform through labor" system
|15,000,000||27,000,000||20,124,610||People's Republic of China||1945||1976||Laogai (勞改/劳改), the abbreviation for Láodòng Gǎizào (勞動改造/劳动改造), which means "reform through labor", is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of penal labour and prison farms in the People's Republic of China (PRC), which once took up more than half of the world's slaves. Laogai is different from laojiao, or re-education through labor, which was an administrative detention for a person who was not a criminal but had committed minor offenses, and was intended to reform offenders into law-abiding citizens. Persons detained under laojiao were detained in facilities that were separate from the general prison system of laogai. Both systems, however, involved penal labor.|
|Atlantic Slave Trade||11,400,000||11,600,000||11,499,565||Africa, the Americas, and the Atlantic||1500s||1700s|||
|European enslavement under the Ottoman Turks||10,500,000||11,250,000||10,868,533||Southern Europe, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Grand Duchy of Moscow||1450||1800||Slave raids carried out by Muslims from Ottoman Empire on European nations. There is no concrete number for the number of people killed due to the Barbary Slave Trade. The method many people use is to estimate the mortality rate of slave raids and multiply them by the number people took as slaves. White estimates 3 people were killed for every 1 slave abducted. Includes Barbary Slave Trade.|
|Congo Horrors||[b]3,000,000||13,000,000||6,244,998||Congo Free State||1885||1908||Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.|
|Muslim slave trade of Africans||4,300,000||4,600,000||4,447,471||Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa||1500s||1700s|||
|Gulag labor system||1,053,829||6,000,000||2,514,552||Soviet Union||1930s||1950s||Gulag is an acronym for the organization that administered the forced labor system in the Soviet Union that became a colloquialism in the west for the camps themselves. The system was used to punish criminals, political dissidents, and prisoners of war.|
|Forced labor in North Korea||400,000||1,500,000||774,597||North Korea||1972||ongoing|||
|Peonage and chattel slavery In Mexico||173,000||2,015,000||590,419||Mexico||1900||1920||R.J. Rummel, coiner of the word "Democide," estimated the mortality rate for Mexican Peonage, a form of debt labor, by comparing it to similar forced labor systems such as the Soviet Gulag, and then applying and reducing it accordingly to the population of Mexico at the time, coming up with an annual death rate of 69,000.|
|Forced labor of Koreans by Imperial Japan||270,000||810,000||467,654||Korea and Manchuria||1939||1945|||
|Slavery in French colonial Africa||200,000||13,000,000||1,612,452||African section of French colonial empire||1900||1940|||
|Portuguese Forced Labor||325,000||325,000||325,000||Portuguese Empire||1900||1925|||
|Barbary slave trade||245,000||380,000||305,123||Italy, Spain, and Portugal||1500s||1600s|||
|Kolyma Gulag||130,000||500,000||254,951||Kolyma, Soviet Union||1932||1954|||
|Amazonian Rubber Slavery||250,000+||250,000+||Amazon, Brazil||1900||1912|||
|Construction of Burma Railway||102,621||102,621||Burma||1943||1947||
Forced labour was used in the construction of the Burma Railway. More than 180,000 Southeast Asian civilian labourers (Romusha) and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, estimates of Romusha deaths are little more than guesses, but probably about 90,000 died. 12,621 Allied POWs died during the construction. The dead POWs included 6,904 British personnel, 2,802 Australians, 2,782 Dutch, and 133 Americans.
|Stutthof||85,000||85,000||85,000||Stutthof, Third Reich||1939||1945||Second World War|
|Construction of the Suez Canal||30,000||120,000||67,082||Egypt, and Sudan||1859||1868||French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps had obtained many concessions from Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan in 1854–56 to build the Suez Canal. Some sources estimate the workforce at 30,000, but others estimate that 120,000 workers died over the ten years of construction due to malnutrition, fatigue, and disease, especially cholera.|
|Forced labor of Allied POWs||35,000||35,000||In and around the Pacific||1939||1945||According to the Japanese military's own record, nearly 25% of 140,000 Allied POWs died while interned in Japanese prison camps, where they were forced to work (U.S. POWs died at a rate of 27%).|
|Concentration camps during the Second Boer War||26,000||40,000||32,249||South African Republic||1900||1902||Lord Kitchener led the British army against the Boer Republics in the Second Boer War in South Africa. In an attempt to pacify Boer guerrillas, he targeted their families, and 116,000 Boer women and children were captured and jailed by the British, Within 2 years, 22,074 children died and 4,177 women died due to deliberate neglect by the British. 115,000 black people were separately jailed, of whom 15,000 died in prison camps.|
|Stara Gradiška||12,790||75,000||30,972||Croatia||1941||1945||Primarily for women and children.|
|Tuol Sleng||17,000||17,000||Phnom Penh, Cambodia||1975||1979|||
|Camp Sumter||13,171||13,171||Andersonville, Georgia, U.S.||1864||1865|||
|Crveni Krst||12,000||12,000||Niš, Serbia||1941||1941|||
|Tammisaari Prison Camp||2,963||2,963||Tammisaari, Finland||1918||1918|
|Elmira Prison||2,963||2,963||Elmira, New York, U.S.||1864||1865|||
|Shark Island Concentration Camp||1,032||4,000||2,032||Luderitz, German South-West Africa||1905||1907||The minimum death toll is out of a camp population of 1,795 people, and the maximum total includes those who died in the Luderitz area.|
|World Cup migrant labor deaths||1,200||1,800||1,342||Qatar||2013||ongoing||Out of 100,000 laborers.|
War crimes and ancient war atrocities
Massacres and unnatural deaths that occurred during wars and were committed or caused by military or quasi-military forces (including terrorism, insurgent forces, and inter-communal violence). They may not particularly target ethnic, religious, or political groups but are usually part of a military strategy that disregards civilian lives, or they may be arbitrary acts of cruelty. Please try to only include events in which the majority of victims were civilians or which are often referred to as atrocities by significant mainstream scholarship.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geometric mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|All atrocities against civilians during World War II||29,000,000||30,500,000||29,074,054||Worldwide||1939||1945||See World War II casualties.|
|Japanese war crimes||3,000,000||14,000,000||6,480,741||In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific||1937||1945||Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. These incidents have also been described as an Asian Holocaust and Japanese war atrocities. Some war crimes were committed by military personnel from the Empire of Japan in the late 19th century, although most took place during the first part of the Shōwa Era, the name given to the reign of Emperor Hirohito, until the surrender of the Empire of Japan, in 1945.|
|Three Alls Policy||2,700,000||2,700,000||2,700,000||China during World War II||1940||1942||In a study published in 1996, historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta claims that the Three Alls Policy, a scorched earth policy implemented by the Imperial Japanese Army on China, sanctioned by Emperor Hirohito himself, was both directly and indirectly responsible for the deaths of "more than 2.7 million" Chinese civilians.|
|Chinese Civil War atrocities against civilians from forced conscription and massacres||1,800,000||3,500,000||2,509,980||China||1927–1936||1946–1950||During the war, both Nationalists and Communists carried out mass atrocities, with millions of non-combatants deliberately killed by both sides.|
|First and Second Sudanese War atrocities against civilians.||2,000,000||2,000,000||Sudan||1956–1972||1983–2005|||
|Afghan Politicide||500,000||2,000,000||1,000,000||Afghanistan||1979||1989||Some refer to the mass murder of civilians during the Soviet Invasion as a genocide, however those killed were on the basis of political alignment making it a politicide.|
|Yellow Tiger Massacre||1,000,000||1,000,000||1,000,000||Sichuan, China||1644||1646||Bloody peasant revolt that massacred a large portion of Sichuan's population.|
|Warlord Era China||910,000||910,000||China||1900||1927|||
|Second Italo-Ethiopian War Atrocities against civilians||62,000||485,000||173,407||Ethiopia||1935||1941||Angelo Del Boca, The Ethiopian War 1935–1941 (1965), cites a 1945 memorandum from Ethiopia to the Conference of Prime Ministers, which tallies 760,300 natives dead; of them: battle deaths: 275,000, hunger among refugees: 300,000, patriots killed during occupation: 78,500, concentration camps: 35,000, Feb. 1937 massacre: 30,000, executions: 24,000, civilians killed by air force: 17,800.|
|Mongol Destruction of Baghdad||200,000||2,000,000||632,456||Baghdad||January 29, 1258||February 10, 1258||Mass slaughter of civilians by the Mongols in Baghdad. Considered to be the end of the "Islamic Golden Age."|
|Angolan Civil War Atrocities against civilians||500,000||500,000||Angola||1975||2002||The 27-year war can be divided roughly into three periods of major fighting – 1975-91, 1992–94, and 1998 to 2002 – broken up by fragile periods of peace. By the time the MPLA achieved victory in 2002, more than 500,000 people had died and over one million had been internally displaced. The war devastated Angola's infrastructure, and severely damaged the nation's public administration, economic enterprises, and religious institutions.|
|Biological Warfare and Human Experimentation by the Imperial Japanese Army||400,000||580,000||481,664||Parts of Russia and China especially Manchuria||1931||1945||See Unit 731 and the Asian Holocaust.|
|Maratha invasions of Bengal||400,000||400,000||Bengal and Bihar regions of Indian subcontinent||1741||1751||Maratha Empire invaded Bengal Subah, occupied the western Bengal and Bihar regions, and perpetrated atrocities against the local population.|
La Violencia was a ten-year period of civil war and violence in Colombia from 1948–58, between the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party, fought mainly in the rural countryside.
|Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki||109,000||200,000||147,648||Japan during World War II||1945||1945|
|Philippine-American War atrocities against civilians||200,000||250,000||223,607||Philippines||1899||1902 (1913 Moro Rebellion)||[c]|
|Manila Massacre||100,000||500,000||223,607||Manila, Philippines||1945||1945|||
|Iran–Iraq War atrocities against civilians.||61,000||282,000||131,156||Iran and Iraq||1980||1988||11,000 to100,000 civilians killed on both sides, plus 50 to 182 killed in Kurdish Genocide.|
|Colombian conflict atrocities against civilians||177,307||177,307||Colombia||1964||ongoing|||
|Iraq War atrocities against civilians||155,923||186,355||170,461||Iraq||2003||2011||Numbers come from Iraq Body Count Project|
|War in the Vendée||100,000||250,000||158,114||France during the French Revolution||1793||1796||Described as genocide by some historians, but this claim has been widely discounted. See also: French Revolution.|
|Viet Cong atrocities||36,725||227,000||131,863||Vietnam||1955||1975|
|Islamic terrorism since 11 September 2001||125,000||203,865+||164,433||worldwide||2001||ongoing||Death toll depends on how terrorist attack is defined.|
|First and Second Chechen Wars Atrocities against civilians||55,000||330,000||134,722||Chechnya||1994–1996||1999–2009|||
|Atrocities caused by South Vietnam during Diem era and Vietnam War||57,000||284,000||127,232||Vietnam||1954||1975|||
|Second Italo-Senussi War Atrocities against civilians||80,000||125,000||100,000+||Libya||1923||1932||Specific war crimes alleged to have been committed by the Italian armed forces against civilians include deliberate bombing of civilians, killing unarmed children, women, and the elderly; rape and disembowelment of women; throwing prisoners out of aircraft to their death, running over others with tanks, regular daily executions of civilians in some areas, and bombing tribal villages with mustard gas bombs, beginning in 1930.|
|Crimes of the Lord's Resistance Army||100,000||100,000||Uganda, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo||1986||2009||The Guardian reported in 2015 that Kony's forces had been responsible for the deaths of over 100,000 people and the kidnapping of at least 60,000 children. Various atrocities committed include raping young girls and abducting them for use as sex slaves.|
|Crimes of the National Islamic Front||100,000||100,000||Sudan||1964||1999||Alleged human rights abuses by the NIF regime included war crimes, ethnic cleansing, a revival of slavery, torture of opponents, and an unprecedented number of refugees fleeing into Uganda, Kenya, Eritrea, Egypt, Europe and North America.|
|West Papua atrocities||100,000+||100,000+||100,000+||West Papua||1963||Ongoing||Since Indonesia has taken control of West Papua in 1963, the population of West Papua has recorded more than 100,000 unnatural deaths. The administration of West Papua has been called a police state.|
|Ongoing Syrian Civil War atrocities against civilians||106,390||over 110,218+||108,287||Syria||2011||ongoing||See List of massacres during the Syrian Civil War|
|Kashmir Conflict||47,000||100,000+||68,556+||Jammu and Kashmir, India||1947||ongoing||See Human Rights Abuses in Jammu and Kashmir, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, List of massacres in Jammu and Kashmir|
Death toll may include non-civilian victims
|The Rape of Nanking||
(Civilian massacre victims)
(Civilian massacre victims)
(Civilian massacre victims)
|Nanking, China||1937||1938||The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.|
See: Death toll of the Nanking Massacre.
|Peruvian war against terrorism||61,007||77,552||68,784||Peru||1980||2000||It was a conflict between the Peruvian Government (Armed forces and civil rondas) against communist terrorist in Peru. The principal actors in the fight against terrorism were the Communist Party of Peru or "Shining Path" and the government of Peru; the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement was also involved and other paramilitar entities. Mostly terrorist deliberately targeted and killed civilians, kidnap and torture civil people and even force indigenous people to live in slavery, on the other side, some militar forces, due to bad strategies, attack on civilian people in the highlands making the conflict more bloody than any other war in Peruvian history since the European colonization of the country.|
Death toll may include non-civilian victims.
|Sheikh Said rebellion||15,000 to 20,000||40,000 to 250,000||24,495 to 70,711||Turkey||1925||1925||The Sheikh Said Rebellion was a rebellion to revive the Islamic Caliphate System, and used elements of Kurdish nationalism for recruiting. It was led by Sheikh Said and a group of former Ottoman soldiers, known as Hamidiye soldiers. The rebellion was of two Kurdish groups, the Zaza people and the speakers of the related Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish: it "was led specifically by the Zaza population and received almost full support in the entire Zaza region and some of the neighbouring Kurmanji-dominated regions".|
|Atrocities against civilians during the War in Afghanistan||26,270||26,270||26,270||Afghanistan||2001||2014|||
|Crimes of ISIL||18,800||18,800+||18,800||Iraq, Syria, sporadic terrorism worldwide||2011||ongoing||The death toll may be higher, considering that these figures are only taken over the course of two years and only account occurrences in Iraq.|
|War Crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War||7,000||40,000||16,733||Sri Lanka||2009||2009||There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers.|
|First Sack of Thessalonica||15,000||15,000||15,000||Byzantine Empire||904||904||The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed, the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.|
|Use of child soldiers in Iran||6,000||18,000||10,392||Iran||1980||1988||3% of two to six hundred thousand casualties.|
|Algerian Civil War Massacres||10,000||10,000||10,000||Algeria||1991||2002|||
|Balochistan conflict atrocities against civilians||7,628||7,628+||7,628||Balochistan, Pakistan||1937–1977,
|Civilians killed by South Korea in the Vietnam War||5,000||9,000||7,000||Vietnam||1964||1973|
|Civilians killed by U.S. soldiers in the Vietnam War||5,000||6,000||5,477||Vietnam||1955||1975|||
|Civilians killed in Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War||5,013||5,013+||5,013||Syria||September 2015||ongoing||See Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War.|
|9/11 Terrorist Attacks||2,977||2,977||2,977||United States||9/11/2001||9/11/2001|||
|Civilians killed in War in Donbass||2,000||2,000||2,000||Donbass, Ukraine||2014||ongoing|||
|Sabra and Shatila massacre||460||3,500||1,269||West Beirut, Lebanon||September 16, 1982||September 18, 1982||Massacre of a Palestinian refugee camp by Lebanese Christians.|
|Civilian casualties from US drone strikes||138|| +/- hundreds more965||365+||Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen||2006||ongoing|
List of dictatorships by death toll
This chart includes regimes, empires, etc.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|Mao Zedong catastrophes||16,997,000||70,000,000||34,493,333||People's Republic of China||1946||1976||Critics of Mao Zedong have argued Mao's China saw unprecedented losses of human life through inhuman economic policies such as the Great Leap Forward, slave labor through the Laogai, violent political purges such as the Cultural Revolution the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, and class extermination through land reform. The estimate of the minimum death toll is the sum of the minimum estimate of famine dead (15 million), land reform dead (800,000), Counterrevolutionaries dead (712,000), and Cultural Revolution dead (400,000) plus the minimum killed in the 1959 Tibetan uprising (85,000 to 87,000).|
|German Holocaust||17,000,000||17,000,000||17,000,000||German-occupied Europe||1939||1945||Nazi Holocaust against Jews, Poles, Gypsies, Serbs, East Slavs, the disabled, homosexuals, Freemasons, POWs, and Jehovah's Witnesses, plus Soviet Famine.|
|Stalinist crimes against humanity and genocides||8,773,521||22,192,230||13,953,637||Soviet Union||1922||1953||The millions murdered by the regime of Joseph Stalin by famine, purges, labor camps, population transfer, deportations, and NKVD massacres. The minimum death toll (to the left) uses the minimum post-archive calculations from after the fall of the USSR of those not killed in famine which range from four to ten million, plus the minimum of those killed in famine which range from 6 to 8 million. Robert Conquest, writer of the book The Great Terror, first stated an estimate of 30 million, then a few years later lowering it to 20 million, and finally saying that no fewer than 15 million perished. Estimates before the release of the archives put those killed by Stalin as low as three million and as high as 60 million.
The low end is the sum of the low end of the following figures excluding the second post war famine as it's debated as to if the War or the Soviet government was more to blame, while the high end includes the high end of said famine along with the high end of the other events.
0.6 to 2.3 million Kazakhstan
2 million North Caucasus and elsewhere
1 to 1.5 million Soviet famine of 1946-47
Gulag 1,053,829 to 6 million
Great Purge 681,692 to 1,704,230
Population Transfers 1 to 1.5 million
War Crimes Occupation of Poland 150,000 to 500,000
German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union 600,000 to 1 million
Siege of Budapest 38,000
Battle of Berlin 125,000
NKVD prisoner massacres 100,000
Shooting of deserters 185,000
|Mass killings under the Chinese Nationalist Government||5,965,000||18,522,000||10,511,124||Republic of China||1928||1946||Primarily from conscription campaigns but also grain confiscations and other atrocities.|
|Japanese War Crimes||3,000,000||14,000,000||6,480,741||In and around East and South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific||1895||1945|
|Congo Free State Horrors||[d]3,000,000||13,000,000||6,244,998||Congo Free State||1885||1908||Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably due to the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.|
Ranavalona I of Madagascar
|2,500,000||2,500,000||2,500,000||Madagascar||1829||1842||Putting an end to most foreign trade relationships, Ranavalona I pursued a policy of self-reliance, made possible through frequent use of the long-standing tradition of fanompoana—forced labor in lieu of tax payments in money or goods. Ranavalona continued the wars of expansion conducted by her predecessor, Radama I, in an effort to extend her realm over the entire island, and imposed strict punishments on those who were judged as having acted in opposition to her will. Due in large part to loss of life throughout the years of military campaigns, high death rates among fanompoana workers, and harsh traditions of justice under her rule, the population of Madagascar is estimated to have declined from around 5 million to 2.5 million between 1833–39, and from 750,000 to 130,000 between 1829-42 in Imerina. These statistics have contributed to a strongly unfavorable view of Ranavalona's rule in historical accounts.|
|Cambodian genocide||1,386,734||3,400,000||2,171,381||Democratic Kampuchea||1975||1979||Deaths due to arbitrary torture, execution, starvation, and forced labor among the population of Cambodia under the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including both killings of ethnic Khmer (the majority ethnic group) as well as a genocide of religious and ethnic minorities by the Khmer Rouge. Minimum death toll is the number of corpses found in the Killing Fields.|
|Young Turks Holocaust||1,439,000||2,750,000||1,989,284||Ottoman Empire||1913||1922||A collective term to refer to the various genocides and Ethnic cleansings the Ottoman Empire committed under the administration of the Young Turks. The death toll is derived from the sum of the death tolls of the Armenian Genocide (800,000 to 1,500,000), Assyrian Genocide (150,000 to 300,000), Greek Genocide (289,000 to 750,000), and the Great Famine of Mount Lebanon (200,000).|
|Atrocities under Omar al-Bashir||1,063,000||2,450,000||1,613,800||Sudan||1989||Today||1 to 2 million Second Sudanese Civil War
63,000 to 450,000 Darfur genocide
|North Korean Crimes against humanity||710,000||3,500,000||1,576,388||North Korea||1948||ongoing||North Korea continues to be one of the most repressive governments in the world. Over two-hundred thousand people are interned in concentrations camps for being political dissidents or being related to political dissidents. They are subject to slavery, torture, starvation, shootings, gassing, and human experimentation.|
|Crimes against humanity and genocide under Suharto in Indonesia||240,500||3,418,000+||906,658+||Indonesia||1965||1998||65/66 Politicide: 78,500 to 3,000,000 communists|
East Timor Atrocities: 60,000 to 308,000 East Timorese
West Papua Atrocities: 100,000 papuans
Petrus Killings: 2,000 to 10,000 suspected criminals
|Crimes against humanity of Mengistu Haile Mariam||430,000||1,750,000||867,468||Ethiopia||1977||1987||Manmade Famine: 400,000 to 1,000,000|
Politicide: 30,000 to 750,000
|Crimes of the FRELIMO||700,000||700,000||700,000||Communist Mozambique||1975||1999||See also Mozambican Civil War|
|Crimes of Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Cong||145,225||1,082,000||396,401||Vietnam||1954||2000||95,000 reeducation camps|
13,500–200,000 land reform
36,725 to 227,000 war crimes
200,000 to 560,00 boat people
The minimum death toll is the same of minimum estimates for war crimes, reeducation camps, and land reform. The maximum death toll is the combination of the maximum estimated death toll of land reform, war crimes, reeducation camps and boat people, which may or may not be attributable to the regime.
|Saddam Hussein's Crimes against humanity and genocides||154,600||854,400||363,442||Baathist Iraq||1979||2003||1991 Repression Massacre: 25,000 to 180,000|
Al-Anfal Genocide of Kurds: 50,000 to 182,000
Iran–Iraq War Atrocities: 11,000 to 100,00 civilians
The post-1991 Uprising Refugee crisis of March and early April killed 36,000 people. According to some reports, up to hundreds of refugees died each day along the way to Iran as well during the same time frame. Assuming hundreds the death toll of these refugees could be anywhere from 3,600 to 32,400.
It is estimated that around 25,000 Feyli Kurds died due to captivity and torture during the Persecution of Feyli Kurds under Saddam Hussein
In addition, 4,000 prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison were reportedly executed in a particularly large 1984 purge.
The minimum estimate is the minimum estimate of civilians killed by Saddam during Iran-Iraq War, uprising and genocide of Kurds combined. The maximum estimate is the maximum total of the aforementioned, combined with the maximum demographic decline of Mesopotamian Marshes.
|Francoist Spain||195,000||265,000||227,321||Spain, Austria, and Russia||1939||1975||Diseases and starvation|
World War II
5,000 died at Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria
Blue Division. Casualties in the Russo-German conflict totaled 22,700. In action against the Blue Division, the Red Army suffered 49,300 casualties.
|Bashar al-Assad's repression in the Syrian Civil War||100,000||100,000||100,000||Syria||2011||Today|
|Personal Dictatorship of Idi Amin||100,000||500,000||223,607||Uganda||1971||1979||Idi Amin's rule of Uganda saw excessive and egregious human rights abuses toward ethnic minorities and political opposition, earning him the nickname "The Butcher of Uganda."|
|Communist Repression in Romania||60,000||435,000||161,555||Romania||1945||1964||Total does not take into account the Romanian orphans who perished under Nicolae Ceaușescu's policies.|
|Tsardom of Ivan the Terrible||60,000||200,000||109,545||Russian Empire||1533||1584|
|Siad Barre (Isaaq genocide)||50,000||200,000||100,000||Somalia||1988||1991|
|Communist Repression in Bulgaria||31,000||220,000||81,240||Bulgaria||1944||1989||Collecitization and political repression in Bulgaria.|
|Communist Repression in Czechoslovakia||65,000||65,000||65,000||Czechoslovakia||1948||1968–|
|Personal Dictatorship of Francisco Macías Nguema||50,000||80,000||63,246||Equatorial Guinea||1968||1979||Macías Nguema is regarded as one of the most kleptocratic, corrupt, and dictatorial leaders in post-colonial African history. Sources vary, but he was responsible for the deaths of anywhere from 50,000 to 80,000 of the 300,000 to 400,000 people living in the country at the time.|
|Dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo||50,000||50,000||50,000||Dominican Republic||1930||1938|
|Dictatorship of François Duvalier||30,000||60,000||42,426||Haiti||1957||1971||Duvalier's rule based on a purged military, a rural militia known as the Tonton Macoute, and the use of cult of personality, resulted in the murder of 30,000 to 60,000 Haitians, and the exile of many more.|
|Personal Dictatorship of Hissène Habré||40,000||40,000||40,000||Chad||1982||1990||In May 2016, Hissène Habré was found guilty of human-rights abuses, including rape, sexual slavery, and ordering the killing of 40,000 people. He was sentenced to life in prison. He is the first former head of state to be convicted for human rights abuses in the court of another nation.|
|Communist Repression in Cuba||9,240||92,400||29,219||Cuba||1976||ongoing||Human rights in Cuba are under the scrutiny of Human Rights Watch, which accuses the Cuban government of systematic human rights abuses. This includes offenses such as arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extrajudicial execution.|
|Islamist Dictatorship of Iran||10,482||48,000||22,431||Iran||1979||ongoing||4,482 to 30,000 in P.O.C. massacre|
6,000 to 18,000 child soldiers killed
(refer to earlier tables on page)
|Communist Repression in Poland||22,000||22,000||22,000||Communist Poland||1945||1989|
|Communist Repression in Hungary||7,000||27,000||13,748||Hungary||1948||1956||Minimum death toll does not take into account those out of the 150,000 who perished in concentration camps, and only counts the 5,000 alleged spies and 2,000 party members executed, noting that 5,000 spies came from only 98,000 out of 700,000 alleged spies.|
|Repression under Enver Hoxha||5,000||28,000||11,832||Albania||1941||1985|
|Regime of Ferdinand Marcos||3,257||80,000||41,629||Philippines||1965||1986||The conservative estimate is recorded from 1975 to 1985, while the maximum estimate is recorded from 1965 to 1976. Also Includes those from the Moro conflict.|
|South African Apartheid||18,997||21,000||19,998.5||South Africa||1948||1994|
|Imperial Rule of Tiberius||9,500||9,500||9,500||Ancient Rome||14||37|
|Imperial Rule of Caligula||9,000||9,000||9,000||Ancient Rome||37||41|
|Personal dictatorship of Johnny Paul Koroma||6,000||6,000||6,000||Sierra Leone||1997||1998|
|Imperial Rule of Nero||5,750||5,750||5,750||Ancient Rome||54||68|
|Personal dictatorship of Jean-Bedel Bokassa||100||90,000||3,000||Central African Republic||1966||1976||It was found that Bokassa personally oversaw the massacre of 100 school children.|
|Imperial Rule of Claudius||2,935||2,935||2,935||Ancient Rome||41||54|
|East German killings of Berlin Wall climbers||327||1,500||928.5||East Germany||1949||1989|
Anthropogenically exacerbated famine, mass starvation, and illness or disease
Note: Some of these famines diseases were partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines, and disease that were caused or exacerbated by human action.
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|Disease caused by smoking||71,000,000||90,000,000||79,937,476||worldwide||1930||1999|||
|Combined death toll of famines caused by Communist states as listed below:
|Great Chinese Famine||15,000,000||55,000,000||28,722,810||People's Republic of China||1958||1962||During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death. State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.|
|Famine and Disease during World War II||19,000,000||28,000,000||23,065,130||Worldwide||1939||1945||See World War II casualties|
|Famine in India under British Raj||12,000,000||29,000,000||20,500,000||India||1757||1947||Between 12 and 29 million Indians died of starvation while India under the British Raj. Millions of tonnes of wheat were exported to Britain as famine raged.|
|Famine and Disease under Japanese Imperialism||8,136,000||14,936,000||11,023,579||Japanese Empire||1937||1945||See World War II casualties.|
Combined death tolls from famine and disease from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
|Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79||citation needed]9,000,000[||13,000,000||10,816,650||China||1876||1879||ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts|
|Great Bengal famine of 1770||10,000,000||10,000,000||10,000,000||British Bengal||1769||1773||The famine killed a third of the Bengali population at the time. It is attributed to the policies of the ruling British East India Company.|
|Russian famine of 1921||5,000,000||10,000,000||7,071,072||Soviet Russia||1921||1922||See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union, and Russian Civil War, with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka.|
|Famine and Disease in China during Japanese Invasion||5,000,000||10,000,000||7,071,068||China||1937||1945||See World War I casualties.|
|Soviet famine of 1932–33||4,400,000||9,100,000||6,327,717||Soviet Union||1932||1933||The majority of famine victims were Ukrainian. Many nations, including Ukraine, regard the famine's effect in the Ukraine as a genocide against Ukraine, known as the Holodomor.
1.8 - 4.8 million Ukraine
600,000 - 2.3 million Kazakhstan
2 million Elsewhere
|Famine and disease during World War I||5,411,000||6,100,000||5,745,181||Worldwide||1914||1918||See World War I casualties.|
|Great Famine of 1876–78||6,100,000||10,320,000||8,300,000||British India||1876||1878||ENSO famine. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.|
|African World War Famine||3,800,000||5,400,000||4,529,901||Africa||1998||2004||Majority of those who died in war perished from famine and disease.|
|Decommunization||3,000,000||6,000,000||4,242,641||Former States of the Soviet Union and Eastern Block||1991||2000||Deaths caused by decrease in living conditions in Russia and other former Communist States after the fall of the Soviet Union.|
|Bengal famine of 1943||citation needed]3,000,000[||4,000,000||3,464,100||British India||1943||1943||The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports, however, war-related administrative policies in British India ultimately helped to cause the massive death toll.|
|Indian famine of 1896–97, Indian famine of 1899–1900||8,400,000||19,000,000||13,700,000||British India||1896||1900||ENSO famines. See also: Late Victorian Holocausts.|
|Biafran Blockade during Nigeria's Civil War||2,000,000||3,000,000||2,449,490||Nigeria||1967||1970||More than two million Igbo died from the famine imposed deliberately through blockades during the war. Lack of medicine also contributed. Thousands starved to death daily as the war progressed.|
|Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies||2,400,000||2,400,000||2,400,000||Indonesia||1944||1945||An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but the main cause was the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.|
|Post-WWII Soviet Famine||1,000,000||1,500,000||1,224,745||Soviet Union||1946||1946||Debated as to whether it was caused by war or government policy.|
|Great Irish Famine||750,000||1,500,000||1,060,660||Ireland||1846||1849||Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland, where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food, was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors, which continue to remain the subject of historical debate.|
|Vietnamese Famine of 1945||400,000||2,000,000||894,427||Vietnam||1944||1945||The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.|
|Cambodian Holocaust Famine||800,000||950,000||871,780||Cambodia||1975||1979||An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor, and famine, perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge, nearly half of which was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.|
|1983–85 famine in Ethiopia||400,000||1,000,000||632,456||Ethiopia||1983||1985||The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, especially the one of 1983–1985, were in large part created by government policies.|
|Famine and disease under Japanese occupation of the Philippines||336,000||336,000||336,000||Philippines||1942||1945||See World War I casualties.|
|North Korean famine||240,000||420,000||330,000||North Korea||1994||1998||The famine stemmed from a variety of factors. Economic mismanagement and the loss of Soviet support caused food production and imports to decline rapidly. A series of floods and droughts exacerbated the crisis, but were not its direct cause. The North Korean government and its centrally-planned system proved too inflexible to effectively curtail the disaster. Recent research suggests the likely number of excess deaths between 1993 and 2000 was about 330,000.|
|Cuban War of Independence Famine||300,000||300,000||300,000||Cuba||1895||1898||Most of dead in this war perished from famine and disease.|
|Great Famine of Mount Lebanon||200,000||200,000||200,000||Mount Lebanon, Ottoman Empire||1915||1918||Around 200,000 people starved to death at a time when the population of Mount Lebanon was estimated at 400,000. The Mount Lebanon famine caused the highest fatality rate by population of World War I. Bodies were piled in the streets, and people were reported to be eating street animals, while some resorted to cannibalism.|
|Sudan famine||70,000||70,000||70,000||Sudan||1998||1998||The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.|
|Starvation caused by the Sanctions against Iraq||0||576,000||n/a||Iraq||1990||1998||Saddam Hussein's government claimed that sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council led to the deaths of young children.|
|Starvation from the Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes||0?||275,000?||n/a||Mesopotamian Marshes, Iraq and Iran||1950s||1990s||Only 20,000 Marsh Arabs were left in the region after the draining, though it is unknown whether this was caused by famine or migration.|
Riot or political unrest
Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
|Event||Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Geom. mean estimate||By||Location||From||Until||Notes|
|Human sacrifice in Aztec culture||20,000||5,000,000||316,228||Aztecs||Mexico||14th century||1521||Skull racks: 60,000 to 136,000|
|Human sacrifice||13,000||13,000||13,000||Shang dynasty||China||1300 BC||1050 BC||Last 250 years of rule|
|Suicide bombings during the Iraq War||12,284||12,284||12,284||Iraqi insurgency (2003–11)||Iraq||2003||2011|
|Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note||3,912||3,912||3,912||Imperial Japan navy and army||Pacific theatre||1944||1945|
|Jonestown murder-suicide[e]||913||913||913||Followers of The Peoples Temple cult||Jonestown||November 18, 1978||November 19, 1978|
|Mass suicide motivated religious and political.||citation needed]967[||967||967||Judean rebels||Masada||Spring 73 CE|
|Palestinian suicide attacks||804||804||804||Palestinian militants||Israel and Palestine||July 6, 1989||April 18, 2016||May only include victims|
Anthropogenic floods, drownings and landslides
Other lists organized by death toll
- List of accidents and disasters by death toll
- List of battles and other violent events by death toll
- List of events named massacres
- List of genocides by death toll
- List of murderers by number of victims
- List of natural disasters by death toll
- List of ongoing conflicts
- List of disasters in Antarctica by death toll
- List of disasters in Australia by death toll
- List of disasters in Canada by death toll
- List of disasters in Croatia by death toll
- List of disasters in Great Britain and Ireland by death toll
- List of disasters in New Zealand by death toll
- List of disasters in Poland by death toll
- List of disasters in the United States by death toll
- List of wars by death toll
Other lists with similar topics
- List of unusual deaths
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- List of battles
- Lists of disasters
- Lists of earthquakes
- List of famines
- List of historic fires
- List of invasions
- List of massacres
- List of notable tropical cyclones
- List of riots
- List of terrorist incidents
- List of wars
- Lists of rail accidents
Topics dealing with similar themes
- Anti-communist mass killings
- Casualties of the Iraq War
- Genocide in history
- Infectious disease
- Mass killings under Communist regimes
- Mass murder
- Most lethal battles in world history
- United States casualties of war
- Spanish Empire, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American disease and epidemics. These death toll estimates vary due to lack of consensus as to the demographic size of the native population pre-Columbus, which some say might never be accurately determined. Modern scholarship tend to side with the higher estimates, but there is still variance based on calculation methods used. Even using conservative populations estimates, however, "one dreadful conclusion is inescapable: the 150 years after Columbus's arrival brought a toll on human life in this hemisphere comparable to all of the world's losses during World War II. ... Against the alien agents of disease, the indigenous people never had a chance. Their immune systems were unprepared to fight smallpox and measles, malaria and yellow fever. The epidemics that resulted have been well documented." A small industry of researchers in recent years have focused their attention on Native American population size in 1492, and the subsequent decimation of the population after contact with Europeans. They have stated that their findings in no way diminish the "dreadful impact Old World diseases had on the people of the New World. But it suggests that the New World was hardly a healthful Eden." For example, they note that as the previously thriving indigenous peoples became more urbanized and less mobile, they succumbed to the same declining sanitation and health conditions of other urban cultures, including tuberculosis. The researchers stress, however, that "their findings in no way mitigated the responsibility of Europeans as bearers of disease devastating to native societies."
- The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".
- While there are many estimates for civilian deaths, with some even going well over a million for the war, modern historians generally place the death toll between 200,000 and 250,000; see "Casualties".
- The Casement estimate is used by Ascherson in his book The King Incorporated, although he notes that it is "almost certainly an underestimate".
- The largest single loss of U.S. civilian life in a deliberate act until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
- Pinto, Carla M. A.; Lopes, A. Mendes; Machado, J.A. Tenreiro (2014), Ferreira, Nuno Miguel Fonseca; Machado, José António Tenreiro, eds., "Casualties Distribution in Human and Natural Hazards", Mathematical Methods in Engineering, Springer Netherlands: 173–180, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7183-3_16, ISBN 978-94-007-7182-6
- Nash (1976). Darkest Hours. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 775. ISBN 978-1-59077-526-4.
- Fink, George (2010). Stress of War, Conflict and Disaster. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-381382-4.
- The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368, 1994, pg. 622, cited by White
- Pre-Columbian Population
- American Philosophy: From Wounded Knee to the Present; Erin McKenna, Scott L. Pratt; Bloomsbury; 2015, pg. 375; "It is also apparent that the shared history of the hemisphere is one framed by the dual tragedies of genocide and slavery, both of which are part of the legacy of the European invasions of the past 500 years. Indigenous people north and south were displaced, died of disease, and were killed by Europeans through slavery, rape and war. In 1491, about 145 million people lived in the western hemisphere. By 1691, the population of indigenous Americans had declined by 90–95 percent."
- "Don't Blame Columbus for All the Indians' Ills". The New York Times. October 29, 2002.
- Richard H. Steckel and Jerome C. Rose: The Backbone of History Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere, Cambridge University Press; 1st edition; pg. 79; ISBN 9780521617444
- Barrett, David. World Christian Trends.
- Naimark, Norman (2016). Genocide: A World History.
- Alan Macfarlane (1997-05-28). The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0.
- Werner, Gruhl (2007). Imperial Japan's World War Two: 1931–1945. Transaction Publishers. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8.
- "The Taiping Rebellion 1850–1871 Tai Ping Tian Guo". Taipingrebellion.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Livre noir du Communisme: crimes, terreur, répression, page 468.
- William J. Gingles, By Train to Shanghai: A Journey on the Trans-Siberian Railway, pg. 259
- White, Matthew. "Timur Lenk (1369–1405)". Necrometrics. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- White, Matthew. "Miscellaneous Oriental Atrocities". Necrometrics. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- "The Rehabilitation Of Tamerlane". Chicago Tribune. 17 January 1999.
- J.J. Saunders (1971). The History of the Mongol Conquests. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. p. 174. ISBN 0-8122-1766-7.
- Michael Lynch (2010). The Chinese Civil War 1945–49. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-671-3.
- "China's Bloody Century". Retrieved 2017-07-31.
- "Russian Civil War". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- "The Thirty Years War Produced Astonishing Casualties". Civilian Military Intelligence Group. August 10, 2016.
- "The Thirty Years War (1618–48)". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Charles Esdaile, Napoleon's Wars: An International History.
- "Mankind's Worst Wars and Armed Conflicts". Retrieved December 7, 2010.
- Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch, "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths," European Journal of Population (2005) 21: 145–66.
- "Congo war-driven crisis kills 45,000 a month-study" – Reuters, 22 Jan 2008.
- "Huguenot Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598)". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Philip Pregill. Landscapes in History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-29328-6.
- Frederic Baumgartner. France in the Sixteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-15856-9.
- Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, December 1995.
- Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- John Shertzer Hittell, "A Brief History of Culture" (1874) p.137: "In the two centuries of this warfare one million persons had been slain..." cited by White
- Robertson, John M., "A Short History of Christianity" (1902) pg. 278. Cited by White
- Cite error: The named reference
horriblethingswas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Shaka: Zulu Chieftain". Historynet.com. Archived from the original on 2008-02-09. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Necrometrics.com. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- Nigel Bagnall., "The Punic Wars", June 23, 2005.
- "Sudan: Nearly 2 million dead as a result of the world's longest running civil war". Archived from the original on 2004-12-10. Retrieved 2004-12-10., U.S. Committee for Refugees, 2001. Archived 10 December 2004 on the Internet Archive; accessed 10 April 2007
- Derk Bodde, China's First Unifier: A Study in the Ch'in Dynasty as Seen in the Life of Li Ssu, 280? – 208 BC, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1967, pp. 5-6.
- Chris Peers estimates that 1,500,000 were killed before the last campaign in 230–221 BC, Warlords of China, 700 BC to AD 1662, London: Arms and Armour, 1998, pg. 59.
- Lacina, Bethany; Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2005). "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths" (PDF). European Journal of Population. 21: 154.
- Jones, Geo H., Vol. 23 No. 5, p. 254.
- Buchenau, Jürgen (2005). Mexico Otherwise: Modern Mexico in the Eyes of Foreign Observers. UNM Press. p. 285. ISBN 0-8263-2313-8.
- Horne, Alistair. A Savage War of Peace. p. 538. ISBN 0-670-61964-7.
- Jurg Meister, Francisco Solano López Nationalheld oder Kriegsverbrecher?, Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1987. 345, 355, 454–55
- Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, pg. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
- "Human costs of war: Direct war death in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan October 2001 – February 2013" (PDF). Costs of War. February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 30, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "Update on Iraqi Casualty Data" Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine. by Opinion Research Business (January 2008).
- "Revised Casualty Analysis. New Analysis 'Confirms' 1 Million+ Iraq Casualties" Archived 2009-02-19 at the Wayback Machine.. January 28, 2008. Opinion Research Business. Word Viewer for.doc files.
- " Statistics Of Japanese Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources R.J. Rummel" STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE Charlottesville, Virginia: Center for National Security Law, School of Law, University of Virginia, 1997 retrieved 2018
- Lockwood, Jeffrey A. "Six-legged soldiers", The Scientist, October 24, 2008, accessed December 23, 2008
- http://www.lit.osaka-cu.ac.jp/user/tsuchiya/gyoseki/presentation/IAB8.html osaka-cu.ac.jp
- Takashi Yoshida. The making of the "Rape of Nanking". 2006, page 64
- Clodfelter, Michael "Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference", Vol. 2, pp. 956. Includes civilians who died due to famine and other environmental disasters caused by the war. Only includes the 'regular' Chinese army; does NOT include guerrillas and does not include Chinese casualties in Manchuria or Burma.
- Reitlinger, Gerald. The Final Solution. The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939–1945, New York: Beechhurst Press. Review by Friedman, Philip (1954). "Review of The Final Solution". Jewish Social Studies 16 (2): 186–89. JSTOR 4465231. See also a review by Hyamson, Albert M. (1953). "Review of The Final Solution". International Affairs 29 (4): 494–95. JSTOR 2606046
- "How many Jews were murdered in the Holocaust?". Yad Vashem. (FAQs about the Holocaust).
- "The Holocaust: Tracing Lost Family Members". JVL. Retrieved November 2013.
- "Seven million died in the 'forgotten' holocaust – Eric Margolis". www.ukemonde.com. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
- Stanislav Kulchytsky, "How many of us perished in Holodomor in 1933", Zerkalo Nedeli, 23–29 November 2002. Available online in Russian at the Wayback Machine (archived 21 July 2006) and in Ukrainian at the Wayback Machine (archived 5 May 2006)
- Stalislav Kulchytsky, "Demographic losses in Ukrainian in the twentieth century" at the Wayback Machine (archived 21 July 2006), Zerkalo Nedeli, 2–8 October 2004 (in Russian), and (in Ukrainian) at the Wayback Machine (archived 13 March 2007)
- Ellman, Michael (2005). "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934". Europe-Asia Studies (pdf). 57 (6): 823–41. doi:10.1080/09668130500199392.
- Michael Ellman Archived 2007-10-14 at the Wayback Machine., "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited"' Europe-Asia Studies, Routledge. Vol. 59, No. 4, June 2007, pp. 663–693. PDF file.
- Snyder 2010, p. 53. "One demographic retrojection suggests a figure of 2.5 million famine deaths for Soviet Ukraine. This is too close to the recorded figure of excess deaths, which is about 2.4 million. The latter figure must be substantially low, since many deaths were not recorded. Another demographic calculation, carried out on behalf of the authorities of independent Ukraine, provides the figure of 3.9 million dead. The truth is probably in between these numbers, where most of the estimates of respectable scholars can be found. It seems reasonable to propose a figure of approximately 3.3 million deaths by starvation and hunger-related disease in Soviet Ukraine in 1932–1933".
- David R. Marples. Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. p.50
- Alexander J.Motyl. "Deleting the Holodomor: Ukraine Unmakes Itself". World Affairs.
- Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen (2009). The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 441. ISBN 978-0-230-27397-9.
- Tauger, Mark B. (2001). "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933". The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies (1506): 1–65. doi:10.5195/CBP.2001.89. ISSN 2163-839X. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017.
- Ghodsee, Kristen R. (2014). "A Tale of "Two Totalitarianisms": The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism" (PDF). History of the Present. 4 (2): 124. doi:10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115. JSTOR 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115.
- Sharp, Bruce (April 1, 2005). "Counting Hell: The Death Toll of the Khmer Rouge Regime in Cambodia". Retrieved July 5, 2006.
- Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia". In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
- Purcell, Victor. China. London: Ernest Benn, 1962. pg. 167
- Quoted in ibid., pg. 239.
- Chesneaux, Jean. Peasant Revolts in China, 1840–1949. Translated by C. A. Curwen. New York: W. W. Norton, 1973. pg. 40
- Carlos A. Floria and César A. García Belsunce, 1971. Historia de los Argentinos I and II; ISBN 84-599-5081-6.[page needed]
- White, Matthew. "Secondary Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century – Brazil". Necrometrics.
- Chapman 2010, p. 544.
- Gardini, Walter (1984). "Restoring the Honour of an Indian Tribe-Rescate de una tribu". Anthropos. Bd. 79, H. 4./6.: 645–47.
- Namely the 83% of the "fully identified" 42,275 civilians killed by human rights violations during the Guatemalan Civil War. See CEH 1999, p. 17, and "Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission". United Nations website. 1 March 1999. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- Applying the same proportion as for the fully identified victims to the estimated total amount of person killed or disappeared during the Guatemalan civil war (at least 200.000). See CEH 1999, p. 17.
- Robins & Jones 2009, p. 50.
- Jalata, Asafa (2016). Phases of Terrorism in the Age of Globalization: From Christopher Columbus to Osama bin Laden. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 92–3. ISBN 978-1-137-55234-1.
- D'Costa, Bina (2011). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia, Routledge. pg. 53; ISBN 9780415565660
- Sikand, Yoginder (2004). Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations, Routledge. pg. 5; ISBN 9781134378258
- Butalia, Urvashi (2000). The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of India, Duke University Press.
- White, Matthew. "Albigensian Crusade". necrometrics.
- Raphael Lemkin (2012). Steven Leonard Jacobs, ed. Lemkin on Genocide. Lexington Books. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7391-4526-5.
- "Alleged atrocities by the Pakistan Army (paragraph 33)". Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report. 23 October 1974. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Jack, Ian (20 May 2011). "It's not the arithmetic of genocide that's important. It's that we pay attention". The Guardian.
- Bass, Gary (2013-11-19). "Looking Away from Genocide". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
- The British Medical Journal in 2008, conducted a study by Ziad Obermeyer, Christopher J. L. Murray, and Emmanuela Gakidou estimated that up to 269,000 civilians died as a result of the conflict.
- "Bangladesh war: The article that changed history". BBC. 25 March 2010.
- D.Smith says 500,000
- S&S: 500,000 (Civil War, Mar.-Dec. 1971)
- 1984 World Almanac: up to 1,000,000 civilians were killed.
- Hartman: 1,000,000 Bengalis
- B&J: 1,000,000 Bengalis
- Porter: 1M-2M
- Harff & Gurr: 1,250,000 to 3,000,000
- Kuper cites a study by Chaudhuri which counted 1,247,000 dead, and mentions the possibility that it may be as many as 3,000,000.
- Eckhardt: 1,000,000 civ. + 500,000 mil. = 1,500,000 (Bangladesh)
- Rummel: 1,500,000.
- Porter: 1M-2M
- "Bangladesh Genocide Archive". Bangladesh Genocide Archive. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
- Harff & Gurr: 1,250,000 to 3,000,000
- The official estimate in Bangladesh is 3 million dead. [AP 30 December 2000; Agence France Presse, 3 October 2000
- Rounaq Johan: 3,000,000 (in Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views, Samuel Totten, ed. (1997))
- Compton's Encyclopedia, "Genocide": 3,000,000
- Encyclopedia Americana (2003), "Bangladesh": 3,000,000
- Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski (2009), Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami, Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance; ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Excerpt reproduced in digital form).
- Smith 1997, pp. 600–01 n. 8
- "Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts". Archived 2007-06-15 at the Wayback Machine., The Department of Information and International Relations: Central Tibetan Administration, 1996. pg. 53
- Kuzmin, S.L. Hidden Tibet: History of Independence and Occupation. Dharamsala, LTWA, 2011.
- 897,000 Circassians were deported and killed in an event similar in time period and method to this one and of those about 45% died.
("Caucasus Report: July 15, 2005". Radio Free Europe.)
If this is applied to the median of the following rough estimates and then rounded up (since this a very rough estimate anyway) we end up with a very rough estimate of 390,000 killed.
- Low estimate: In 1893, the Hazaras of Afghanistan were massacred and displaced to a point in which they lost over 60% of their population. The number of living Hazaras at the time is unknown but their population in 2014 was 2,864,056. 2,864,056 population out of a 2014 world population of 7,200,000,000 making Hazaras in Afghanistan approximately 0.04% of the world's population.
- دلجو, عباس (2014). تاریخ باستانی هزاره ها. کابل: انتشارات امیری. ISBN 9936801504.
- "Afghanistan: 31,822,848 (July 2014 est.) @ 9% (2014)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- High estimate: In 1893 the Hazaras of Afghanistan were massacred to a point in which they lost over 60% of their population. The number of living Hazaras at the time is unknown but their population in 2014 was 2,864,056, out of a 2014 world population of 7,200,000,000, making Hazara's in Afghanistan approximately 0.04% of the world's population.
- دلجو, عباس (2014). تاریخ باستانی هزاره ها. کابل: انتشارات امیری. ISBN 9936801504.
- "Afghanistan: 31,822,848 (July 2014 est.) @ 9% (2014)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Low estimate: In 1893, the Hazaras of Afghanistan were massacred and displaced to a point in which they lost over 60% of their population. The number of living Hazaras at the time is unknown but their population in 2014 was 2,864,056. 2,864,056 population out of a 2014 world population of 7,200,000,000 making Hazaras in Afghanistan approximately 0.04% of the world's population.
- "Jasenovac". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- White, Matthew. "20th Century death tolls larger than one million but fewer than 5 million people-Cambodia". necrometrics. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
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- Hannum, Hurst (1989). "International Law and Cambodian Genocide: The Sounds of Silence", Human Rights Quarterly (Johns Hopkins University Press) 11 (1): 82–138. doi:10.2307/761936. JSTOR 761936.
- CDI: The Center for Defense Information, The Defense Monitor, "The World At War: January 1, 1998".
- Reyntjens, Filip. The Great African War: Congo and Regional Geopolitics, 1996–2006. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. pg. 100
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- 《晉書·卷一百七》 Jin Shu Original text 閔躬率趙人誅諸胡羯，無貴賤男女少長皆斬之，死者二十余萬，屍諸城外，悉為野犬豺狼所食。屯據四方者，所在承閔書誅之，于時高鼻多須至有濫死者半。
- John Morley, Biography of Oliver Cromwell, p. 298. published 1900 and 2001; ISBN 978-1-4212-6707-4 "Cromwell is still a hate figure in Ireland today because of the brutal effectiveness of his campaigns in Ireland. Of course, his victories in Ireland made him a hero in Protestant England." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2009-05-25. British National Archives web site; accessed March 2007; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2004-12-11. Retrieved 2006-01-17. From a history site dedicated to the English Civil War. "... making Cromwell's name into one of the most hated in Irish history"; accessed March 2007. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 11, 2004. Retrieved 2006-01-17.
- Philip McKeiver in his 2007 work, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign ISBN 978-0-9554663-0-4 and Tom Reilly, 1999, Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy; ISBN 0-86322-250-1
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- Dutton, Donald G. (2007). The Psychology of Genocide, Massacres, and Extreme Violence: Why "normal" People Come to Commit Atrocities. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 14. ISBN 9780275990008.
- Friedman, Mark (2013). Genocide (Hot Topics). Raintree. p. 58. ISBN 9781406235081.
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- Bancheli, Tozun; Bartmann, Barry; Srebrnik, Henry (2004). De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. Routledge. p. 229. ISBN 9781135771201.
- http://works.bepress.com/robert_cribb/2/ How many deaths? Problems in the statistics of massacre in Indonesia (1965–66) and East Timor (1975–1980)
- Defert, Gabriel, Timor Est le Genocide Oublié, L'Hartman, 1992.
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Czesław Partacz, Prawda historyczna na prawda polityczna w badaniach naukowych. Przykład ludobójstwa na Kresach Południowo-Wschodniej Polski w latach 1939–1946
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Józef Turowski, Władysław Siemaszko: Zbrodnie nacjonalistów ukraińskich dokonane na ludności polskiej na Wołyniu 1939–1945. Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce – Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Środowisko Żołnierzy 27 Wołyńskiej Dywizji Armii Krajowej w Warszawie, 1990 Hochspringen ↑ Władysław Siemaszko, Ewa Siemaszko : Ludobójstwo dokonane przez nacjonalistów ukraińskich na ludności polskiej Wołynia 1939–1945. Borowiecky, Warszawa 2000; ISBN 83-87689-34-3, S. 1056.
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- Timothy Snyder "A fascist hero in democratic Kiev", New York Review of Books, February 24, 2010.
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- Visweswaran, edited by Kamala (2013). Everyday Occupations: Experiencing Militarism in South Asia and the Middle East (1st ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 14. ISBN 0812207831.
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- Yusuf Mazhar, Cumhuriyet, 16 Temmuz 1930, ... Zilan harekatında imha edilenlerin sayısı 15,000 kadardır. Zilan Deresi ağzına kadar ceset dolmuştur...
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