The decathlon is a combined event in athletics consisting of ten track and field events. The word decathlon is of Greek origin, from δέκα (déka, meaning "ten") and ἄθλος (áthlos, or ἄθλον, áthlon, meaning "feat"). Events are held over two consecutive days and the winners are determined by the combined performance in all. Performance is judged on a points system in each event, not by the position achieved. The decathlon is contested mainly by male athletes, while female athletes typically compete in the heptathlon.
Traditionally, the title of "World's Greatest Athlete" has been given to the man who wins the Olympic decathlon. This began when King Gustav V of Sweden told Jim Thorpe, "You, sir, are the world's greatest athlete" after Thorpe won the decathlon at the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. The current decathlon world record holder is American Ashton Eaton, who scored 9045 points at the 2015 IAAF World Championships.
The event developed from the ancient pentathlon. Pentathlon competitions were held at the ancient Greek Olympics. Pentathlons involved five disciplines – long jump, discus throw, javelin throw, sprint and a wrestling match. Introduced in Olympia during 708 BC, the competition was extremely popular for many centuries. By the sixth century BC, pentathlons had become part of religious games. A ten-event competition known as the "all-around" or "all-round" championship, similar to the modern decathlon, was first contested at the United States amateur championships in 1884 and reached a consistent form by 1890; an all-around was held at the 1904 Summer Olympics, though whether it was an official Olympic event has been disputed. The modern decathlon first appeared on the Olympic athletics program at the 1912 Games in Stockholm.
- 1 Format
- 2 Points system
- 3 Records
- 4 All-time top ten athletes
- 5 Olympic medalists
- 6 World Championships medalists
- 7 Season's bests
- 8 National records
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The vast majority of international and top level men's decathlons are divided into a two-day competition, with the track and field events held in the order below. Traditionally, all decathletes who finish the event, rather than just the winner or medalling athletes, do a round of honour together after the competition.
At major championships, the women's equivalent of the decathlon is the seven-event heptathlon; prior to 1981 it was the five-event pentathlon. However, in 2001, the IAAF approved scoring tables for a women's decathlon; the current world record holder is Austra Skujytė of Lithuania. Women's disciplines differ from men's in the same way as for standalone events: the shot, discus and javelin weigh less, and the sprint hurdles uses lower hurdles over 100 m rather than 110 m. The points tables used are the same as for the heptathlon in the shared events. The schedule of events differs from the men's decathlon, with the field events switched between day one and day two; this is to avoid scheduling conflicts when men's and women's decathlon competitions take place simultaneously.
The one-hour decathlon is a special type of decathlon in which the athletes have to start the last of ten events (1500 m) within sixty minutes after the start of the first event. The world record holder is Czech decathlete Robert Změlík, who achieved 7,897 points at a meeting in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia, in 1992.
In Masters athletics, performance scores are age graded before being applied to the standard scoring table. This way, marks that would be competitive within an age division can get rated, even if those marks would not appear on the scale designed for younger age groups. Additionally, like women, the age divisions use different implement weights and lower hurdles. Based on this system, German Rolf Geese in the M60 division and American Robert Hewitt in the M80 divisions have set their respective world records over 8,000 points. Using the same scale, Nadine O'Connor scored 10,234 points in the W65 division, the highest decathlon score ever recorded.
|110 m hurdles||5.74352||28.5||1.92|
The 2001 IAAF points tables use the following formulae:
- Points = INT(A(B — P)C) for track events (faster time produces a better score)
- Points = INT(A(P — B)C) for field events (greater distance or height produces a better score)
A, B and C are parameters that vary by discipline, as shown in the table on the right, while P is the performance by the athlete, measured in seconds (running), metres (throwing), or centimetres (jumping).
The decathlon tables should not be confused with the scoring tables compiled by Bojidar Spiriev, to allow comparison of the relative quality of performances by athletes in different events. On those tables, for example, a decathlon score of 9,006 points equates to 1,265 "comparison points", the same number as a triple jump of 18 m.
Split evenly between the events, the following table shows the benchmark levels needed to earn 1,000, 900, 800 and 700 points in each sport.
|Event||1,000 pts||900 pts||800 pts||700 pts||Units|
|110 m hurdles||13.8||14.59||15.419||16.29||Seconds|
|World||9,045||Ashton Eaton (USA)||2015|
|World junior||8,397||Torsten Voss (GDR)||1982|
|Africa||8,461||Larbi Bourrada (ALG)||2015|
|Asia||8,725||Dmitriy Karpov (KAZ)||2004|
|Europe||9,026||Roman Šebrle (CZE)||2001|
|North, Central America
|9,045||Ashton Eaton (USA)||2015|
|Oceania||8,490||Jagan Hames (AUS)||1998|
|South America||8,393||Carlos Chinin (BRA)||2013|
The total decathlon score for all world records in the respective events would be 12,560. The total decathlon score for all the best performances achieved during decathlons is 10,529. The Difference column shows the difference in points between the decathlon points that the individual current world record would be awarded and the points awarded to the current decathlon record for that event. The % Difference column shows the percentage difference between the time, distance or height of the individual world record and the decathlon record (other than the Total entry, which shows the percentage difference between awarded decathlon points). The relative differences in points are much higher in throwing events than in running and jumping events.
Decathlon bests are only recognised when an athlete completes the ten-event competition with a score over 7,000 points.
|WR||Usain Bolt (JAM)||9.58 s||1,202||158||6.58||2009-08-16||Berlin|
|DB||Ashton Eaton (USA)||10.21 s||1,044||2012-06-22||Eugene|||
|WR||Mike Powell (USA)||8.95 m||1,312||192||8.04||1991-08-30||Tokyo|
|DB||Ashton Eaton (USA)||8.23 m||1,120||2012-06-22||Eugene|||
|WR||Randy Barnes (USA)||23.12 m||1,295||247||17.08||1990-05-20||Westwood|
|DB||Edy Hubacher (SUI)||19.17 m||1,048||1969-10-05||Bern|
|WR||Javier Sotomayor (CUB)||2.45 m||1,244||183||7.35||1993-07-27||Salamanca|
|DB|| Rolf Beilschmidt (GDR) &
Christian Schenk (GDR)
|2.27 m||1,061||1977-10-01 1988-09-28||Jena
|WR||Michael Johnson (USA)||43.18 s||1,156||89||4.21||1999-08-26||Seville|
|DB||Ashton Eaton (USA)||45.00 s||1,060||2015-08-28||Beijing|||
|110 m hurdles|
|WR||Aries Merritt (USA)||12.80 s||1,135||87||5.00||2012-09-07||Brussels|
|DB||Damian Warner (CAN)||13.44 s||1,048||2015-07-23||Toronto|||
|WR||Jürgen Schult (GDR)||74.08 m||1,383||390||24.58||1986-06-06||Neubrandenburg|
|DB||Bryan Clay (USA)||55.87 m||993||2005-06-24||Carson|
|WR||Renaud Lavillenie (FRA)||6.16 m||1,284||132||6.49||2014-02-15||Donetsk|
|DB||Tim Lobinger (GER)||5.76 m||1,152||1999-09-16||Leverkusen|
|WR||Jan Železný (CZE)||98.48 m||1,331||291||18.96||1996-05-25||Jena|
|DB||Peter Blank (FRG)||79.80 m||1,040||1992-07-19||Emmelshausen|
|WR||Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR)||3 m 26.00 s||1,218||255||15.87||1998-07-14||Rome|
|DB||Robert Baker (USA)||3 m 58.70 s||963||1980-04-03||Austin|
All-time top ten athletes
|1||9,045||Ashton Eaton (USA)||Beijing||2015-08-29|
|2||9,026||Roman Šebrle (CZE)||Götzis||2001-05-27|
|3||8,994||Tomáš Dvořák (CZE)||Prague||1999-07-04|
|4||8,891||Dan O'Brien (USA)||Talence||1992-09-05|
|5||8,847||Daley Thompson (GBR)||Los Angeles||1984-08-09|
|6=||8,832||Jürgen Hingsen (GER)||Mannheim||1984-06-09|
|6=||8,832||Bryan Clay (USA)||Eugene||2008-06-30|
|8||8,815||Erki Nool (EST)||Edmonton||2001-08-07|
|9||8,792||Uwe Freimuth (GDR)||Potsdam||1984-07-21|
|10||8,790||Trey Hardee (USA)||Berlin||2009-08-20|
|1||8,358||Austra Skujytė (LTU)||Columbia, Missouri||2005-04-15|
|2||8,150||Marie Collonvillé (FRA)||Talence||2004-09-26|
|3||7,798||Irina Karpova (KAZ)||Talence||2004-09-26|
|4||7,358||Julie Martin (FRA)||Talence||2004-09-26|
|5||7,064||Breanna Eveland (USA)||Columbia, Missouri||2006-04-14|
|6||6,749||Barbora Špotáková (CZE)||Talence||2004-09-26|
|7||6,709||Marie-Cécile Crancé (FRA)||Talence||2004-09-26|
|8||6,641||Lindsay Grigoriev (USA)||Columbia, Missouri||2005-04-15|
|9||6,614||María Peinado (ESP)||Castellón||2005-10-23|
|10||6,599||Sara Tani (ITA)||Udine||2006-10-22|
World Championships medalists
- As of August 2015.
Other multiple event contests
- Modern pentathlon
- Icosathlon or double decathlon
- "Decathlon". Encarta. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- World's Greatest Athlete
- "2015 World Championships Decathlon Results". IAAF. 2015-08-29.
- Waldo E. Sweet, Erich Segal (1987). Sport and recreation in ancient Greece. Oxford University Press. (p37). Retrieved on 2011-05-07.
- "USA Outdoor Track & Field Champions: Men's All-Around". USA Track & Field. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- Zarnowski, Frank (2005). All-around Men: Heroes of a Forgotten Sport. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810854239.
- "Athletics at the 1904 St. Louis Summer Games: Men's All-Around Championship". Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "Athletics at the 1912 Stockholm Summer Games: Men's Decathlon". Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events, p. 9.
- "Decathlon Records". IAAF. Retrieved 2009-05-09.
- IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events, p. 10.
- Decathlon Records. DECA - The Decathlon Association. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
- Stone, Ken. "Masters track athlete of the decade?". Masters-athlete.com. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
- IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events, p. 24.
- IAAF Scoring Tables of Athletics - Outdoor - 2008 Edition p. 154.
- "Decathlon Results". IAAF. 29 August 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- van Kuijen, Hans (2013-09-12). Eaton and Melnychenko lead Talence fields, Lavillenie to make Decathlon debut – IAAF Combined Events Challenge. IAAF. Retrieved on 2013-09-12.
- "U.S. Olympic trials: Ashton Eaton has record-setting Day 1 in decathlon". www.oregonlive.com. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- "Ashton Eaton Breaks Decathlon 100m and Long Jump World Records". www.oregonlive.com. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- "Decathlon – 400m Results". IAAF. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- "110m Hurdles Results" (PDF). results.toronto2015.org. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- Decathlon - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- Decathlon - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
- Leibovitz, Annie (June 1, 2015). "Introducing Caitlyn Jenner". Vanity Fair. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Leibovitz, Annie (June 1, 2015). "Introducing Caitlyn Jenner". Vanity Fair. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Men's Decathlon Results". IAAF. 29 August 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- "Hypo-Meeting 2012 Men's Results". IAAF. 27 May 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Diego Sampaolo (31 May 2015). "Kazmirek and Theisen Eaton triumph in Gotzis". IAAF. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Carlos Chinin wins the decathlon and settles new South American record
- "Decathlon Results". www.flashresults.com. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Indian Sports News". www.indiansportsnews.com. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Mauritius International meet, Bambous 26-27/04/2014". www.africathle.com. 27 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Decathlon Results" (PDF). grfx.cstv.com. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- Javier Clavelo Robinson (21 June 2015). "Garcia successfully defends and Rodriguez regains title at NACAC Capital Cup". IAAF. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "PAC 12 Conference Championships 2013 Results". www.cubuffs.com. 5 May 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "Jesson Ramil Cid reset decathlon record at PNG 2014". pinoyheadline.com. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "2013 Pan American Combined Events Cup Results". www.ottawalions.com. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Decathlon Results". www.online.atletika.cz. 15 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Decathlon.|
- IAAF decathlon homepage
- Team Decathlon website
- A downloadable Excel spreadsheet of multi-event scoring and age grading is available from the creator, Stefan Waltermann