December 1920

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December 16, 1920: Earthquake kills over 240,000 people in China
December 3, 1920: Armenia cedes most of its territory to Turkey after disastrous war
December 23, 1920: Government of Ireland Act divides island into Protestant northern and Catholic southern entities
December 12, 1920: Akron Pros win first NFL title, with 0 - 0 tie

The following events happened in December 1920

December 1, 1920 (Wednesday)[edit]

President Obregón
  • General Alvaro Obregón was sworn into office as the new President of Mexico, bringing a close to the Mexican Revolution. Obregón, who had lost part of his right arm in battle, took the oath by raising his left hand, despite complaints by his critics. "It was the answer to placards posted around the city," Los Angeles reporter Robert Armstrong wrote, "saying that the new President could not comply with the Constitution which requires the right hand to be lifted during the ceremony."[1] A historian would later write, "he put in place not only educational and labour reform but anticlerical policies, which were, ultimately, and in the most literal sense, to fatal for him."[2][3]
  • Born:

December 2, 1920 (Thursday)[edit]

  • A pro-Russian government took control of the independent Democratic Republic of Armenia after Prime Minister Simon Vratsian resigned and turned over control to the Armenian Communist Party and First Secretary Georg Alikhanian.[4] Sarkis Kassian was made the President.[5] The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic remained nominally independent until becoming part of the Soviet Union on March 12, 1922.[6]
  • Britain, France and Italy, the victors in World War I, sent a diplomatic note to the government of Greece, warning the Greek government that the allies opposed the return of King Constantine to the throne.[7]
  • Born:
    • Wilhelm Crinius, German Luftwaffe fighter ace credited with 114 victories in 400 combat missions; in the village of Hohenhausen in Kalletal (now part of North Rhine-Westphalia); (d. 1997)
    • Veronica Maclean, British food writer known for Lady Maclean's Cook Book and subsequent cookery books in the "Lady Maclean" series; in London (d. 2005)

December 3, 1920 (Friday)[edit]

  • Armenia agreed to cede a majority of its territory (104,000 of 174,000 km2 or 40,000 of 67,000 mi2) back to Turkey as its representatives signed the Treaty of Alexandropol following Armenia's defeat in November's Turkish–Armenian War.[8][9][10] Armenia agreed to renounce the Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, which had created the new republic from the territory of the Russian Empire and the former Turkish state, the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Prime Ministers of the Allied Nations (the United Kingdom, France and Italy) informed the Greek government that all financial aid would be withdrawn King Constantine was returned to the throne. The Allied Supreme Council had forced Constantine's abdication in 1917 because of his interference with the Allied war effort.[11]
  • Born: Archbishop Eduardo Francisco Pironio, Argentinian Roman Catholic Cardinal who was designated a Servant of God following his death as the first step in an ongoing cause for canonization; in Nueve de Julio, Buenos Aires province (d. 1998)
  • Died: Archbishop Leon Chechemian, 72, leader of the Armenian Catholic Church, died in exile in Great Britain on the same day as Armenia signed the treaty of surrender to Turkey.

December 4, 1920 (Saturday)[edit]

December 5, 1920 (Sunday)[edit]

King Constantine
  • Voters in a plebiscite in Greece overwhelmingly favored the return of King Constantine to the throne, with 999,954 votes out of 1,012,337 cast. Only 10,383 voted against Constantine; there were no other candidates for the throne and only half of the eligible voters participated.[18][19][20]
  • Born: Cao Tianqin, (Tsao Tien-chin), Chinese biochemist who discovered the structure of the myosin proteins responsible for the function of the muscle; in Beijing (d. 1995)
  • Died:
    • Benjamin Holt, 71, American inventor who patented the first workable tractor vehicle that used a continuous track to spread the weight of its wheels, and founded what is now the Caterpillar Tractor Company
    • Boris Batursky, 41, Russian trade union organizer, died of typhus two days after his release from a Soviet prison.

December 6, 1920 (Monday)[edit]

  • The unusual saga of the "Sicilian Sleeping Beauty", one of the most well-preserved mummies of the 20th Century, began with the death from the Spanish influenza of Rosalia Lombardo, one week before her second birthday. Rosalia's parents asked the renowned embalmer Alfredo Salafia to preserve their child's body for placement in the Catacombe dei Cappuccini, in Palermo on the Italian island of Sicily. For almost a century, thousands of visitors have seen her well-preserved remains inside of a glass-topped coffin, because of Salafia's use of a combination of glycerin, formalin, zinc sulfate, zinc chloride, alcohol and salicylic acid.[21] Because of an optical illusion caused by the child's partially open eyelids and sunlight that filters into the windows, Rosalia's eyes appear to open and close during the day.[22]
  • The Clothing Manufacturers' Association broke all relations with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.[23]
  • Born:

December 7, 1920 (Tuesday)[edit]

December 8, 1920 (Wednesday)[edit]

December 9, 1920 (Thursday)[edit]

December 10, 1920 (Friday)[edit]


December 11, 1920 (Saturday)[edit]

The ruins of Cork[29]
  • In retaliation for a Sinn Féin ambush on two truckloads of military police, Unionists set fire to the business district of the Irish city of Cork and burned down the City Hall.[30] Earlier in the evening, three Unionist police were killed and several wounded in the ambush at Pillons Creek. Shortly afterward, fires were set in the commercial section area bounded by St. Patrick's Street, Cork Street, Old Georges Street and Maylor Street[31][32][33][34]
  • The garment workers' labor unions of New York City formed the Needle Trade Workers' Alliance.[35]
  • Died: Olive Schreiner, 65, South African Afrikaner novelist and political activist

December 12, 1920 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The American Professional Football Association teams with the best records met in the regular season closer, with the undefeated Akron (O.) Pros (8-0-2) playing against the Decatur (Ill.) Staleys (10-1-1), who had only one loss in their first 12 games. Although the game was not a post-season playoff, it was described in the press as a meeting between the "champions of the east" (Akron) and the "winners of the western title" (Decatur).[36] The game took place at Cubs Park in Chicago (now Wrigley Field) before a crowd of 12,000 and ended in a scoreless tie, 0 to 0, allowing Akron to remain undefeated (though tied three times).[37] At a meeting of team owners on April 30, 1921, a vote would be taken and Akron would be awarded the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Cup. The Akron Pros are recognized by the NFL as the league's first champion.
  • Haribo candy founded in Germany in Bonn by Hans Riegel.[38] The name is an acronym for Hans Riegel Bonn. In 1922, Riegel would introduce Gummibärchen, gum arabic based candies in the shape of a bear, and known in English-speaking nations as "gummy bears".
  • Born:

December 13, 1920 (Monday)[edit]

  • The U.S. Sedition Act of 1918 was repealed.[39] Passed during World War One to suppress speech against the war plans of the U.S. government, the Act provided for a prison sentence as a penalty for the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" against the U.S. government or the U.S. armed forces.
  • Astronomers Francis G. Pease and John A. Anderson made the first measurement of the size of a star (other than the Sun), by using Albert A. Michelson's stellar inferometer and the 100-inch telescope at Mount Washington to determine the size of the red giant Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis).[40] Betelgeuse was found to be 300 times larger than the Sun, with a diameter of 240,000,000 miles (390,000,000 km), based on trigonometric calculation from an apparent angular measure of 0.047 of an arcsecond in the Earth sky and the star's 700 light year distance from Earth.
  • The treaty establishing the first World Court was accepted by a vote of the League of Nations General Assembly. However, the compromise plan did require both sides to a dispute to submit to its jurisdiction, nor did it penalize a nation for noncompliance with its decisions.[41] The treaty was signed three days later by 38 of the 46 nations at Geneva. It would become effective on October 8, 1921 after ratification by 27 nations.
  • Born:

December 14, 1920 (Tuesday)[edit]

December 15, 1920 (Wednesday)[edit]

Bell and the Dalai Lama

December 16, 1920 (Thursday)[edit]

  • An 8.7 magnitude earthquake killed over 234,000 people in the Haiyuan area of China's Gansu province.[48] The earthquake struck at 8:05 in the evening local time and killed 73,027 people in the city of Haiyuan, as well as 30,000 in Guyuan and 20,000 in Longde.[49] The official death toll announced by the Chinese government was 234,117 with more than 100,000 buried alive in landslides of loess deposits.[50] A contemporary report by Upton Close and Elsie McCormick, summarizing the reluctance of local authorities to allow news to travel outside of Gansu, said of the earthquake, "It is, perhaps, the most poorly advertised calamity that has occurred in modern times."[51]
  • Bulgaria, Costa Rica, Finland, Luxembourg were admitted to the League of Nations[47][52] However, the admission committee reported unfavorably and the League Assembly voted against the admission of Georgia (10 for, 13 against and 19 abstaining), Esthonia (8 for, 27 against), and Lithuania and Letviana (5 for, 29 against)[53] and the application filed earlier by the First Republic of Armenia was not considered, in that the First Republic government had been deposed earlier in the month.

December 17, 1920 (Friday)[edit]

December 18, 1920 (Saturday)[edit]

  • After the period for voluntary surrender of firearms expired in Germany, as required by the Treaty of Versailles, the Allies' German Disarmament Commission ordered the military to begin a house-to-house search for weapons.[60]
  • Ten of 11 delegates to the League of Nations Supreme Council voted in favor of publishing League documents in the "universal language" of Esperanto (as well as the two official languages, English and French).[61][62] The French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux, exercised France's veto power, and commented that "As a member of the French Academy, and representing a very beautiful and old language... I ask that our French language should defend its rights against any imposition of new languages and new creations and that we should, therefore, adjourn the question."[63]
  • American aviator Amelia Earhart, a 23-year old stenographer in California, traveled in an airplane for the first time when her father paid pilot Frank Hawks for a 10-minute ride from an airfield in Long Beach. Determined to learn how to fly an airplane, Earhart would pay for her first flying lesson 16 days later.[64] Earhart, who would later become the first woman to duplicate Charles Lindbergh's solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean, would disappear on July 2, 1937, along with navigator Fred Noonan, while attempting to fly around the world.
  • Born:

December 19, 1920 (Sunday)[edit]

December 20, 1920 (Monday)[edit]

  • Felix Dzerzhinsky reorganized the Soviet Union's intelligence service with the creation of the Foreign Intelligence Section of the Cheka secret police. The new agency was called the "IO" (Inostranniy Otdel), and its first director was Yakov Davtyan, who went by the codename Davidov.[66]

December 21, 1920 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The last U.S. War Savings Certificate stamps to raise revenue during World War One, were sold.[67] Issued since 1917, the stamps were a quarterly-compounded 4% investment with a five-year maturity date in 1917, were sold. The final series had a maturity date of January 1, 1926.
  • The first regularly scheduled daily radio broadcasts in the U.S. were started by the lone commercial radio broadcaster, Westinghouse Electric's KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh.[68]
Plymouth Rock
  • The 300th anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims and their ship, the Mayflower, was observed at Plymouth, Massachusetts.[69] On the day before the celebration, movers were hoisting the Plymouth Rock with chains to transfer it to the site of the festivities outside of the Old Colony Theatre. The split was along the repairs that had been made to the rock in 1880, and the two sections were cemented back together at the new site.[70]
  • The first patent for a hot comb, a self-heating comb used to straighten hair, was granted to Walter H. Sammons of Philadelphia, who received U.S. Patent number 1,362,823 after applying for it on April 9. The Sammons comb included thermometer that extended into a well-insulated handle after noting that previous devices had been unsatisfactory because "when placed in other than very experienced hands they have resulted in irreparable damage to the hair and not infrequently to the hands of the user."[71]
  • Born:

December 22, 1920 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The Soviet Union's Eighth All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers’, Peasants’, Red Army and Cossack Deputies was convened in Moscow for eight days, and adopted economist Gleb Krzhizhanovsky's economic plan that would guide Soviet planning for the next 65 years, the GOELRO plan (an acronym for Gosudarstvellaya Elektrifikashii Rossii, the State Commission for the Electrification of Russia).
  • The Brussels Conference came to a close as the victorious allies of World War One established a 42-year timetable for Germany to pay reparations to France and Belgium for damages caused by their invasion.[72]
  • At Nauvoo, Alabama, a member of Company M of the Alabama National Guard shot and killed Adrian Northcutt, one of the UMWA officials leading the strike of coal miners in Walker County. Northcutt's son-in-law, Willie Baird, shot and killed the guard, James Morris. Baird turned himself over to county officials to stand trial for charges of murder. On January 5, nine of the guardsmen of Company M broke into the county jail at Jasper, removed Baird, and executed him.[73]

December 23, 1920 (Thursday)[edit]

De Valera
  • The Government of Ireland Act 1920, passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, received Royal Assent from King George V at 11:50 p.m., taking effect ten days later at midnight. The King wrote that "I deplore the campaign of violence and outrage, whereby a small section of my subjects seek to sever Ireland from the empire, and I sympathize with the loyal servants of the crown who are endeavoring to restore peace and maintain order under conditions of unexampled difficulty and danger... I sincerely hope that this act, the fruit of more than 30 years of ceaseless controversy, will finally bring about unity and friendship between all the peoples of my kingdom."[74] The law provided for the partition of Ireland into the six predominantly Protestant counties of Northern Ireland and the predominantly Roman Catholic 26 northwestern and southern counties into Southern Ireland, each to have separate parliaments, and granting a measure of home rule.
  • With warrants for his arrest pending in the United Kingdom, Irish nationalist Éamon de Valera secretly returned to Dublin after being smuggled across the Irish Sea from Liverpool on the ocean liner RMS Celtic, ending ten days at sea that had started with his departure from New York City at the end of an American tour.[75] De Valera had been hidden in the cabin of the liner's second mate, and had almost been caught by the ship's captain and first mate when the liner was still in harbor at Liverpool. De Valera's Sinn Féin Party would win the 1921 elections for the Southern Ireland Parliament and he would become the first President of the Irish Free State in 1922.
  • France and the United Kingdom signed a convention at San Remo whereby France agreed that the British could cross the desert in the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon. With the easement across Syria, the British Empire achieved a direct land route to British India for the first time in history, with the ability to build a railway line from the Mediterranean Sea at Palestine, to existing railway lines in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) and Persia (Iran). [76]
  • Arturo Alessandri was inaugurated as President of Chile.[77]
  • Arthur Schnitzler's controversial play Reigen (later translated into French as La Ronde and in English as Hands Around) was publicly performed for the first time, 20 years after it had first been printed, with a debut in Berlin. [78] With ten scenes of couples seeking sexual relations, and the second partner in one moving on to a new relationship in the next scene (e.g., the first scene was "The Whore and the Soldier", followed by "The Soldier and the Parlor Maid" and then "The Parlor Maid and the Young Gentleman", etc.), the play elicited a violent reaction from the public and charges of immorality. The production would be met with a similar reaction at its debut in Vienna in February. [79]
  • The unincorporated community of Plehweville, Texas changed its name at the request of the U.S. Department of the Post Office because of the number of letters misdirected because of the difficulty in spelling its name. The new name of the Mason County community, conferred by the new postmaster, Eli Dechart, was "Art", drawn from the last three letters of his surname.[80]
  • Born: Charles Heidelberger, American cancer researcher who developed the anticancer medication 5-Fluorouracil in 1956 as an effective treatment for multiple cancers; in New York City (d. 1983)
  • Died: Cayetano Arellano, 73, the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, from 1901 to 1920

December 24, 1920 (Friday)[edit]

  • The six-day military campaign by Italy against the State of Fiume, Bloody Christmas (Natale di sangue) began after a blockade failed to cause Gabriele D'Annunzio to yield. General Enrico Caviglia led 8,000 troops against D'Annunzio's 2,500 defenders.[81] Before the city was retaken on the 29th of December 29, 25 Italian Army troops and 22 of Fiume's Legionnaires were killed.[82]
  • Diego Manuel Chamorro was declared to be the winner of the October 3 election for President of Nicaragua, by an almost unanimous decision of the Central American nation's Congress. Chamorro was inaugurated eight days later, on New Year's Day, succeeding his nephew, President Emiliano Chamorro. Supporters of Chamorro's opponent, former Foreign Minister Jose Andres Urtecha, had asked the U.S. Department of State to intervene.[83][84]
  • Born: Edy Reinalter, Swiss alpine skier and 1948 Olympic gold medalist (in 1948) for the slalom; in St. Moritz (d. 1962)

December 25, 1920 (Saturday)[edit]

December 26, 1920 (Sunday)[edit]

  • A record crowd to watch women play soccer football — 53,000 spectators — turned out at Goodison Park at the Walton in the British city of Liverpool, to watch the Dick, Kerr & Co. Ladies F.C. defeat the St. Helen's Ladies F.C., 4 to 0, in a charity fundraiser.[85][86][87] The match attendance set a world record that would stand for 98 years, until March 17, 2019, when 60,739 fans in Madrid watched the Atletico Madrid and Barcelona women's teams play.[88] In 1921, The Football Association of England stopped the increasing popularity of women's football by enacting a ban against female use of the FA's stadiums, including Goodison, the home stadium for the Everton F.C. men's team. The ban would not be lifted until 1971.[89]

December 27, 1920 (Monday)[edit]

  • One of the largest evacuations from underground took place after a loss of electrical power stranded ten subway trains inside New York City's Montague Street Tunnel, at 5,000 feet (1,500 m) the longest tunnel in the Metropolitan Transit Authority system. Because the tunnel goes underneath the East River to connect Manhattan and Brooklyn, most of the 10,000 people inside the trains were required to walk to a long distance along the tracks before they could reach an exit stairwell.[90]
  • Italian warships and battalions bombarded the city of Fiume in order to drive out Gabriele D'Annunzio, who had proclaimed himself as the leader of the Italian Regency of Carnaro.[91]
  • Horace Fairhurst, a defender for the English Second Division team Blackpool F.C., suffered a head injury during a 1 to 0 soccer football match over Barnsley. His condition worsened and he died 11 days later on January 7.

December 28, 1920 (Tuesday)[edit]

December 29, 1920 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The Italian Army brought an end to the Italian Regency of Carnaro that had been proclaimed earlier in the year by Gabriele D'Annunzio in the Free State of Fiume.[94] The semi-independent Fiume state, a buffer between Italy and Yugoslavia, would be annexed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1924, but later became part of Yugoslavia after World War II.
  • U.S. President Wilson vetoed a bill extending the immunity of railroads from the Clayton Act prohibition against interlocking Boards of Directors.[91]
  • The Philippines municipality of Tudela, located in the province of Misamis Occidental, was founded by Executive Order of the American Governor General, Francis Burton Harrison. The city now has 29,000 people.
  • Born:

December 30, 1920 (Thursday)[edit]

December 31, 1920 (Friday)[edit]

  • French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies during World War One, presented his year-end report to the Allies and announced that Germany had failed to fully comply with the disarmament agreement made in the Treaty of Versailles.[96] Although Germany had had dismantled its fortresses and had reduced its regular army, the Reichswehr, to the agreed number of 100,000 troops, Marshal Foch noted that Germany had made no attempt to disarm its militias in eastern Prussia or in Bavaria. German factories were also continuing to manufacture and export munitions and aviation components. German violations of the treaty would continue, and it would fall behind further on its scheduled reparation payments in 1921 and 1922, leading to the Occupation of the Ruhr, a French and Belgian military invasion of Germany's industrial region, in 1923.
  • At Auckland, the United States team of Bill Johnston and Bill Tilden reclaimed the Davis Cup of tennis from the defending champion, Australasia (representing Australia and New Zealand with Australians Norman Brookes and Gerald Patterson by winning the doubles competition, the third scheduled match of the best-3-of-5 series in the [[1920 International Lawn Tennis Challenge.[97] Tilden had beaten Brookes and Johnston beat Patterson the day before for the first two U.S. victories. On New Year's day, the U.S. completed the sweep as Tilden beat Patterson and Johnston beat Brookes. The seven nation competition had started in June when Canada, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, South Africa and the U.S. competed for the right to face Australasia.
  • The Continental Baseball Association was incorporated as the first challenger since 1914 to the established National League and American League, with the unprecedented format of teams of African-American players and teams of White players.[98] Promoter George Herman "Andy" Lawson announced in Boston that the eight franchises would be named for the states where they were located, naming Indiana (Indianapolis), Maryland (Baltimore), Massachusetts (Boston), Michigan (Detroit) New Jersey (Camden), New York (Buffalo or Brooklyn), Ohio (Cleveland) and Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh) as the prospective teams.[99] By May, the circuit (now called the Continental League) announced a season to run from May 19 to September 18 with teams in Boston, Buffalo, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia and Providence[100] with three teams "made up entirely of Negro ball players" (the Boston Pilgrims, Cleveland and Philadelphia) and three teams with "only whites" (Buffalo, New York City, and Providence). The Boston Pilgrims, "an aggregation of colored baseball stars", played an exhibition game on May 4, defeating the white Chelsea Knights of Columbus team, 11 to 5.[101]
  • Born: Rex Allen, American film and television actor nicknamed "The Arizona Cowboy"; in Willcox, Arizona (d. 1999)


  1. ^ "Simple Ceremony Marks Obregon Inauguration", by Robert B. Armstrong, Los Angeles Times, December 2, 1920, p2
  2. ^ Archie Brown, The Myth of the Strong Leader: Political Leadership in the Modern Age (Basic Books, 2014) p200
  3. ^ a b "Record of Current Events", The American Review of Reviews Volume 63 (January, 1921), pp24-28
  4. ^ "Armenia Goes Bolshevik; Wilson's Ward Declares Itself Soviet Republic", Austin (TX) American-Statesman, December 4, 1920, p1
  5. ^ "Today's Armenia", in The New Near East (January, 1922)
  6. ^ "Armenia, Democratic Republic of", in Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926, ed. by Jonathan D. Smele (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015) p135
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  8. ^ "Soviet Armenia", by Paxton Hibben, in The Nation magazine (March 22, 1922) p337
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  10. ^ "Armenia Picked Bare, Forced by Reds Into Armistice with Turk— Nation Loses All Territory Except Erivan and Lake Gokcha; All Armaments Confiscated", December 10, 1920, p1
  11. ^ "Withdraw Financial Aid If Constantine Reigns", Boston Daily Globe, December 4, 1920, p1
  12. ^ "Argentina's Quitting Divides League Views; Withdrawal Surprise— Small Nations Feel Slighted", Boston Sunday Globe, December 5, 1920, p1
  13. ^ "From fear to humanitarianism: changing patterns in Argentina's involvement in peace operations", by Rut Diamint, in South America and Peace Operations: Coming of Age, ed. by Kai Michael Kenkel (Routledge, 2013) p136
  14. ^ "Fight Moonshiners in Kentucky Hills; Federal Agents Capture Nine and Are Reported to Have Killed Others", The New York Times, December 5, 1920, p1
  15. ^ "14 Dry Agents Fight 40 Mountain Moonshiners; Several Reported Wounded, 1,000 Shots Fired", Louisville (KY) Courier-Journal, December 5, 1920, p1
  16. ^ "Pro Football Today— Canton Bulldogs and Buffalo All-Americans Meet Here", The New York Times, December 4, 1920, p15
  17. ^ "All-Americans Win Pro Gridiron Game; Buffalo Eleven Victor in Close Match With Thorpe's Bulldogs— Score, 7 to 3", The New York Times, December 5, 1920, pIX-1
  18. ^ "Constantine Requested to Return— Plebiscite Votes by Half the Electorate", Manchester Guardian, December 10, 1920, p6
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  20. ^ "Constantine In Great Triumph— Receives Huge Majority at Greek Election", Boston Daily Globe, December 6, 1920, p1
  21. ^ "Multidetector CT investigation of the mummy of Rosalia Lombardo (1918–1920)", by Stephanie Panzer, et al., Annals of Anatomy 195 (March 5, 2013)
  22. ^ "Why Does This Mummy Appear To Open And Close Her Eyes?", by Rossella Lorenzi, Discovery News online (The Discovery Channel), June 20, 2014
  23. ^ "Clothing Makers Announce Open Shop", Boston Daily Globe, December 7, 1920, p1
  24. ^ John Quigley, The Statehood of Palestine: International Law in the Middle East Conflict (Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp35-36, 258
  25. ^ "Congress Plans to Aid Business— Urged by President to Enact 'Workable Budget System'", Boston Daily Globe, December 8, 1920, p1
  26. ^ Vladimir Tismaneanu, Stalinism for All Seasons: A Political History of Romanian Communism (University of California Press, 2003) p49
  27. ^ Alexandru Dumitrescu, The Senate: A Fundamental Institution of the Modern Romanian State (Monitorul Oficial, 2000) p100
  28. ^ "Message by Wilson for Nobel Ceremony; Will Be Read Today", Boston Daily Globe, December 10, 1920, p3
  29. ^ attribution: National Library of Ireland
  30. ^ "CORK PUT TO TORCH; Black and Tans Take Vengeance", Chicago Tribune, December 13, 1920, p1
  31. ^ "Cork Business District Razed by Fire; Military Ambushed, Civilians Killed", Los Angeles Times, December 13, 1920, p1
  32. ^ "City of Cork in Flames— Reprisal for an Ambush", The Times (London), December 13, 1920, p12
  33. ^ "The burning of Cork, December 1920: the fire service response", by Pat Poland, History Ireland magazine (December 2015)
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  35. ^ "Both Sides Prepare for Clothing Fight; New Needle Alliance Completes Organization and Outlines Its Principles", The New York Times, December 12, 1920, p23
  36. ^ "Akron Eleven Plays Staleys for Pro Title", Chicago Sunday Tribune, December 12, 1920, p2-2
  37. ^ "Staleys and Akron Battle to 0-0 Tie for Pro Grid Title", Chicago Daily Tribune, December 13, 1920, p21
  38. ^ "100 years of joy— We’re dressing up to the nines for the anniversary year!", Haribo of America, Inc. website
  39. ^ Geoffrey R. Stone, Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism (W. W. Norton & Company, 2004) p240
  40. ^ Malcolm S. Longair, The Cosmic Century: A History of Astrophysics and Cosmology (Cambridge University Press, 2006) p45
  41. ^ "League of Nations Adopts World Court— No Compulsory Jurisdiction Or Penalties Provided", Boston Globe, December 14, 1920, p18
  42. ^ "Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee— An Overview", by Kashmir Singh, in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies, ed. by Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech (Oxford University Press, 2014)
  43. ^ "Irish Home Rule Passes House of Lords; Returns to Commons on Amendments", The New York Times, December 15, 1920
  44. ^ "Clearing Out of Persia— Fate of Anglo-Persian Agreement", Manchester Guardian, December 15, 1920, p6
  45. ^ Mikhail Volodarsky, The Soviet Union and Its Southern Neighbours: Iran and Afghanistan 1917-1933 (Routledge, 2014)
  46. ^ "A. R. Hinks and the First Everest Expedition, 1921", by T. S. Blakeney, The Geographical Journal (September 1970) reprinted in The Himalayan Journal (1971)
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  48. ^ "Most Destructive Known Earthquakes on Record in the World", United States Geological Survey
  49. ^ "Significant earthquake", National Geophysical Data Center
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  51. ^ "'Where the Mountains Walked': An account of the Recent Earthquake in Kansu Province, China, Which Destroyed 100,000 Lives", by Upton Close and Elsie McCormick, National Geographic Magazine (May, 1922) pp445-464
  52. ^ "Four Nations New Members of the League", Iowa City (IA) Press-Citizen, December 16, 1920, p1
  53. ^ "Four More States Admitted", The New York Times, December 17, 1920, p1
  54. ^ "League Council O.K.'s Mandates on German Colonies", El Paso (TX) Times, December 18, 1920, p5
  55. ^ "Albania Finds Itself Member of the League— Is Accepted Despite Adverse Report by Committee", Tampa (FL) Tribune, December 18, 1920, p1
  56. ^ "Over 150 Killed by Earthquake in Argentina", Baltimore Sun, December 20, 1920, p1
  57. ^ "To Increase House to 483 Members— Republican Caucus Votes to Add 48 to the Present Total So No State May Lose", The New York Times, December 18, 1920, p1
  58. ^ "Italian Senate Passes Treaty with Slavs— Vote Is 262 to 22 in Favor of the Settlement", The New York Times, December 18, 1920, p6
  59. ^ "Confidence in Leygues Voted by Deputies", Montreal Gazette, December 18, 1920, p1
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