December 1964

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December 6, 1964: Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer adapted to television

The following events occurred in December 1964:

December 1, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Supreme Court of the Soviet Union announced a change in the nation's historic presumption of guilt in criminal proceedings, in favor of the presumption of innocence, often described as "innocent until proven guilty". Justice Alexander Gorkin, the President of the Supreme Court and the USSR's highest judicial officer, gave notice in the government newspaper Izvestia of the new criminal procedure, and added that the practice of summary secret police trials, common during the era of Joseph Stalin, was over.[1]
  • Gustavo Díaz Ordaz took office as for a six-year term as the 49th president of Mexico, succeeding Adolfo López Mateos. Díaz Ordaz would serve until December 1, 1970.[2]
  • U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers met to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam. After some debate, they agreed on a two-phase bombing plan with an objective of ending North Vietnamese support of Viet Cong operations in South Vietnam and maintaining the security of other non-Communist nations in Southeast Asia.[3]
  • The Ankara Agreement, signed on September 12, 1963, between representatives of Turkey and the European Economic Community (EEC), went into effect, beginning the preparatory stage for Turkey's eventual full membership in the EEC. More than fifty years later, Turkey maintains a relationship with the EEC's successor, the European Union, but has not attained membership.[4]
  • Alex Quaison-Sackey of Ghana was elected to a one-year term as President of the United Nations General Assembly, becoming the first black African to hold the post and, at age 40, the youngest. In 1961, Mongi Slim of Tunisia had been the first from an African nation.[5]
  • Civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. and FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover met for 70 minutes at FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C. in order to clear up the animosity between the two men. King had said that the FBI had done a poor job of investigating civil rights violations in the South, and Hoover had called King "the most notorious liar in the country", and the two met at King's request.[6]
  • Died:

December 2, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Mario Savio addressed a crowd of 5,000 students at the University of California in Berkeley, delivering what would be a famous speech now known as the "Bodies Upon the Gears" speech, guiding them to occupy the university's administration building, Sproul Hall. More than 1,000 walked into the building to begin a sit-in; UC officials estimated that 814 of the occupiers were arrested and "that most of those who sat in and were jailed were students"[7] "There is a time," Savio said, "when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop. And you've got to indicate to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all." The Free Speech Movement would expand from Berkeley to other university and college campuses in America and beyond.[8]
  • Juan Perón, the former President of Argentina who had been overthrown in 1955, attempted to secretly return from exile in Spain and to take power again as the Argentine dictator. When his flight from Madrid stopped in Brazil at Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian authorities boarded the aircraft and ordered Perón to disembark. Argentine union leader Augusto Vandor, who had organized "Operation Return" and had accompanied Perón on the flight from Spain, was allowed to continue to Argentina. Perón, however, was sent back on the Iberia DC-8 jet on its return flight from Rio to Madrid.[9] Peron's Iberia Airlines flight had been scheduled to land in Montevideo in Uruguay, where Peron had planned to travel by land to Paraguay nad then back to Argentina.[10] Peron would finally return to Argentina in 1973 and would serve as President until his death in 1974.

December 3, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Sirimavo Bandaranaike lost a vote of confidence as Prime Minister of Ceylon by a single vote, as 14 members of parliament from her Sri Lanka Freedom Party went against her. The final result on the resolution that the House of Representatives had lost confidence in her government was 74 for, 73 against.[11] The immediate cause had been her decision to form a coalition government with the Lanka Sama Samaja Party and to nationalize opposition newspapers. New elections would be held in March, and opposition leader Dudley Senanayake would form a new government with his United National Party.[12]
  • Police arrested about 814 students at the University of California, Berkeley, following their takeover of and massive sit-in at the Sproul Hall administration building.[13] The sit-in most directly protested the U.C. Regents' decision to punish student activists for what many thought had been justified civil disobedience earlier in the conflict.[7]
  • Canadian murderer George Marcotte, who had dressed as Santa Claus to hold up a bank in the Montreal suburb of St. Laurent, Quebec and killed two policemen responding to the alarm, had his death sentence commuted 12 hours before he was scheduled to be hanged. The decision was made by a vote of the cabinet of Prime Minister Lester Pearson at the request of Justice Minister Guy Favreau.[14]
  • Owners of the 20 National League and American League baseball teams voted to create the Major League Baseball draft in order to make a more uniform distribution of amateur players.[15] In an imitation of the drafting process in other professional sports leagues, the teams would select "in reverse order off the standings at the end of the previous season". Though the proposal was initially opposed by both New York teams (the Yankees and Mets), both Los Angeles teams (the Dodgers and Angels), the St. Louis Cardinals, the Minnesota Twins, and the Washington Senators,[16] the resolution passed unanimously. The teams would have the first option, for a limited time, to negotiate exclusively with the players selected. The first draft would be held on June 8, 1965.
  • The Danish football club Brøndby IF was founded as a merger between the two local clubs Brøndbyøster Idrætsforening and Brøndbyvester Idrætsforening. The club would win the national championship in the Danish Superliga 10 times, and the national Danish Cup six times.
  • Died: U.S. Navy Admiral Charles P. Snyder, 85, the first Naval Inspector General

December 4, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

December 5, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The National Academy of Engineering was founded in the United States by the National Academy of Sciences, with the approval by the NAS of the new academy's Articles of Organization.[21]
  • An American LGM-30B Minuteman I missile was on strategic alert at Launch Facility (LF) L-02 at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, when two airmen were dispatched to repair the inner zone security system. In the midst of their checkout of that system, one retrorocket in the spacer below the Reentry Vehicle fired, causing the missile to fall about 75 feet to the floor of the silo. When the missile struck bottom, the arming and fusing/altitude control subsystem containing the batteries were torn loose, thus removing all sources of power from the missile, which structure receives considerable damage. All safety devices operate properly in that they do not sense the proper sequence of events to allow arming the warhead. There was no detonation or radioactive contamination.[22][23]
  • Pope Paul VI returned to Vatican City after a four-day pilgrimage to India, but not before two Turkish Air Force fighters flew dangerously close to the DC-8 airliner that was carrying him. When the Alitalia flight from Bombay to Rome crossed into the airspace of Turkey at 33,000 feet (10,000 m), an escort of four planes joined alongside for 25 minutes in what was intended as a show of respect, before responding to a request by the Alitalia pilot to move away. Two of the planes "flew less than a wing length away", a claim confirmed by a photograph taken by one of the DC-8 passengers.[24]
  • Controllers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California successfully corrected the trajectory of Mariner 4 by the timed firing of retrorockets to send the probe toward the planet Mars. The course correction was implemented after it was calculated that the Mariner probe's heading would have caused it to miss Mars by more than 150,000 miles (240,000 km); the new heading was calculated to bring the probe within 5,400 miles (8,700 km).[25]

December 6, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The one-hour stop-motion animated special Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, based on the popular Christmas song, was broadcast for the first time, on NBC.[26] Filmed by Rankin/Bass Productions, and narrated by Burl Ives, the show was sponsored originally by the General Electric Company and was telecast at 5:30 p.m. Eastern Time. It became a Christmas tradition in the United States, still being shown on television more than 50 years later. Associated Press TV critic Cynthia Lowry praised the show as "a program of sheer delight for young and old".[27] Another critic, however, commented that "efforts to 'modernize' Christmas with such insipid treacle as last night's 'Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer' presentation should be resisted in the streets, the alleys and on the beaches."[28]
  • Rioting that would eventually kill 250 people began in Khartoum, the capital of the Sudan, between the predominantly black South Sudanese minority and the white Arab northern Sudan residents. The triggering incident was a rumor of the death of the highest-ranked black African cabinet member in Prime Minister al-Sirr's cabinet, Interior Minister Clement Mboro. A crowd of wellwishers had gone to the Khartoum Airport to welcome Mboro back from a tour of the south Sudan, and the airplane did not show up at the scheduled time. Word spread that Mboro had been murdered and, after hours had passed, angry southerners attack Khartoum's northerners, and crowds of northerners retaliated.[29][30][31]
  • Antonio Segni resigned as President of Italy slightly more than halfway through his seven-year term, after suffering a stroke in August.[32] Cesare Merzagora, leader of the Italian Senate, was sworn in as acting president until parliament could elect a successor to Segni.[33]
  • Died: Consuelo Vanderbilt, 87, American-born Duchess of Marlborough

December 7, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

  • The United States Supreme Court struck down, as unconstitutional, a Florida law that prohibited cohabitation between a white man and a black woman, or a black man and a white woman, noting that Florida did not prohibit cohabitation between the same conduct by persons of the same race. The case of McLaughlin v. Florida arose when Dewey McLaughlin, a black man, and Connie Hoffman, a white woman, had been sentenced to 30 days in jail after living together in Miami. The Court avoided commenting on state laws prohibiting interracial marriage.[34]
  • Born:

December 8, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

December 9, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

December 10, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Martin Luther King, Jr. was presented the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo for his work in the American civil rights movement.[40] Dr. King commented, "I must ask why this prize is awarded to a movement... which has not won the very peace and brotherhood which is the essence of the Nobel Prize. I conclude that this award, which I receive on behalf of that movement is profound recognition that nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral question of our time— the need for man to overcome oppression and violence without resorting to violence and oppression."[41]
  • The Japanese fishing trawler Uji Maru, owned by Japan Marine Products Company, disappeared with 33 crewmen aboard.[42] The 535-ton ship had been in the south Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Angola when it had last sent a radio message. Its wreckage would be found two weeks later in 280 feet (85 m) deep waters.[43]
  • Born:
  • Died:
    • Percy Kilbride, 76, American film actor best known as the co-star of the Ma and Pa Kettle movie series
    • Pina Pellicer, 30, Mexican film and television actress known for playing the female lead opposite Marlon Brando in One-Eyed Jacks, and as co-star with Ignacio López Tarso in the Mexican classic film Macario, committed suicide.

December 11, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • Che Guevara addressed the U.N. General Assembly. Guevara, a guerrilla leader in the Cuban Revolution, was serving at the time as the Minister for Industry in Cuba as part of the cabinet of Fidel Castro. Guevara charged that the United States was a warmonger and said that there had been 1,323 provocations by the U.S. along the boundary between the Guantanamo Naval Base and the rest of Cuba. "A gigantic flock of 200 million Latin Americans is giving a warning note to the Yankee imperialists," Guevara said. "The hour of vindication is being pointed to with precision."[44][45][46]
  • During Guevara's address, an anti-tank rocket was fired at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City by a person holding a bazooka. Police found the weapon on a street in Queens, "mounted beneath a Cuban flag", and apparently fired by a Cuban exile. The shell fell 100 yards from the UN Building and landed in the East River where it exploded.[47]
  • Born: Ayelet Waldman, Israeli born American lawyer and mystery novelist; in Jerusalem
  • Died:
    • Sam Cooke, 33, African-American singer and songwriter known for such songs as "You Send Me", was shot dead by the manager of the Hacienda Motel in Los Angeles, located at 9137 South Figueroa Street. Bertha Lee Franklin, who was also African-American, told police that Cooke had kicked in the door to her office and struck her with his fist, and accused her of hiding a prostitute who had been registered at the motel with him. Mrs. Franklin said she pulled a pistol from her desk and fired three shots at Cooke, one of which struck him in the chest; the young woman told police that Cooke had forced her to his room and attempted to rape her.[48] A coroner's jury would later conclude that the death was justifiable homicide.[49] Cooke's funeral was held at the Mount Sinai Baptist Church in Los Angeles, "where a crowd of 5,000 packed a 1,500-capacity sanctuary for an emotional, tear-filled service."[50] Cooke would be one of the original inductees into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986.[51]
    • Alma Mahler, 85, Austrian socialite who had been married to Gustav Mahler, Walter Gropius, and Franz Werfel
    • Mariano Rossell y Arellano, 70, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Guatemala

December 12, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

  • On the first anniversary of its independence from the United Kingdom, the Dominion of Kenya became a republic, with Prime Minister Jomo Kenyatta as its first President. Malcolm MacDonald ended his service as the first, and only, Governor-General of Kenya but would continue to serve in a diplomatic role as Britain's High Commissioner and envoy to Kenya.[52] Kenyatta would continue as President of Kenya until his death on August 22, 1978, and would be succeeded by Daniel Arap Moi.[53]
  • The first group of 20 volunteers in the new VISTA (Volunteers In Service To America) program were welcomed at the White House by the President and Mrs. Johnson.[54]
  • Four of the crew of the West German coaster Deutschland were killed when the ship sank in the Lower Elbe river after colliding with a Norwegian ship, the SS Vera.[55]
  • Born: Terry Brunk, American professional wrestler billed as "Sabu"; in Staten Island, New York
  • Died: Sir William Rootes, 70, British auto manufacturer and co-founder of the University of Warwick

December 13, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, an international convention between nations agreeing to prohibit the production, manufacture, export and import, and distribution of narcotics for any uses other than for medical and scientific purposes, went into effect less than four years after it had been signed on March 30, 1961.[56] The Convention would be amended effective August 8, 1975.
  • The Dutch coaster MV Tjoba capsized and sank in the Rhine river at Sankt Goar, West Germany. The ship was raised after eight days and it was discovered that the ship's cat had survived in an air pocket. The cat was taken to a veterinarian in Koblenz for treatment.[57]
  • Born: Hideto Matsumoto, Japanese heavy metal musician who performed under the stage name "HIDE" (committed suicide, 1998)
  • Died: Ernesto Almirante, 87, Italian stage and film actor

December 14, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

  • In two separate cases, Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States and Katzenbach v. McClung, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in its prohibition of racial discrimination in lodging and in restaurants, respectively.[58] Associate Justice Tom C. Clark wrote the majority opinions in both cases. In both cases, the Court rejected the argument that the businesses were not within the jurisdiction of the "Commerce Clause" of the U.S. Constitution, which permits (in Article I, Section 8) Congress "To regulate Commerce... among the several States" because neither the Atlanta motel, nor the Birmingham restaurant (Ollie's Barbecue) owned by McClung, were engaged in interstate commerce. Clark noted that the motel served travelers from other states, and that even if the restaurant's clientele were local, the food served by the restaurant moved in interstate commerce. Quoting in the Heart of Atlanta case from a 1949 Supreme Court decision, Justice Clark noted that "If it is interstate commerce that feels the pinch, it does not matter how local the operation which applies the squeeze."[59]
  • Operation Barrel Roll, the secret bombing of the neutral Kingdom of Laos by U.S. planes, began with U.S. Air Force bombers flying out of Thailand to attack suspected concentrations of Viet Cong guerrillas. Originally, attacks were limited to eight sorties per week[60] but would increase in intensity and would last until the end of the war in 1973.[61]
  • Forbes Burnham was sworn in as the new Premier of British Guiana (now Guyana) after the British colonial government was forced to remove his predecessor, Cheddi Jagan, from office following the December 7 assembly elections. Jagan, who had held office for 11 years, had refused to resign, charging that the election was fraudulent. Queen Elizabeth II signed a parliamentary order amending British Guiana's constitution to allow the colonial governor to remove the premier. The new law provided that "if any time before the House of Assembly meets the Governor informs the Premier that he is about to reappoint him or to appoint another person as Premier, then the Premier, and all other ministers and parliamentary secretaries, are forthwith to vacate their offices." The Governor, Sir Richard Luyt, then informed Jagan that Burnham would be appointed as the new Premier, and Burnham was sworn in on the same day.[62] In 1992, Jagan would be elected as the third President of Guyana.[63]
  • Born:
  • Died:

December 15, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • San Marco 1, Italy's first satellite, was launched from Wallops Island in the United States by at team of Italian scientists, marking the first time that a foreign launching crew had been allowed access to U.S. facilities. The 254-pound spacecraft was successfully placed into orbit around the Earth for purposes of studying the ionosphere.[64][65]
  • After a lengthy debate that ended at 2:12 in the morning, Canada's House of Commons voted 163 to 78 to approve the new Flag of Canada, with its pattern of a red maple leaf on a white background between two red bars.[66] Voting then moved on to the Canadian Senate.
  • Glenn T. Seaborg received a U.S. Patent No. 3,161,462 for the synthesized chemical element Curium. Seaborg had been granted a patent for Americium on November 10.[67]

December 16, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • NASA Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr. authorized the Voyager program for exploration of the planets of the outer solar system. With the go-ahead given, aerospace engineer Gary Flandro calculated that Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune could all be reached over a series of years in a single "Grand Tour program" mission; by 1980, the four planets would be on the same side of the solar system and, Flandro would determine, "Such an opportunity would not present itself again for another 176 years."[68][69] Voyager 2 would be ready for launch on August 20, 1977 and would reach Jupiter on April 25, 1979; Saturn on June 5, 1981; Uranus on November 4, 1985; and Neptune on June 5, 1989.
  • Born: Heike Drechsler, German athlete and winner of Olympic gold medals in the women's long jump in 1992 and 2000; in Gera, East Germany
  • Died:

December 17, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The new Flag of Canada was hoisted up a flagpole by the government for the first time, displayed outside the Canadian Parliament hours after the Senate of Canada voted, 38 to 23, to approve the new maple leaf design. The House of Commons had approved the flag earlier in the week.[70]
  • Thirty-two sailors on the Liberian-registered cargo ship SS San Patrick, nearly all of them from Spain, were killed when the vessel, a converted T2 tanker, ran aground on Ulak Island, the second most western of the Aleutian Islands. The 521 foot ship had been transporting grain from Vancouver to Yokohama when it encountered a heavy winter storm and sent out three SOS distress calls; a search by the U.S. Navy did not discover the ship until three days later.[71]
  • Fernando Belaúnde Terry, the President of Peru, announced that the new agrarian law passed in the South American nation would be implemented in 1965, with the government expropriating farm lands (with payment for their owners financed through the sale of government bonds) and redistributing individual plots to the 56,000 peasant farmers who had been working on the farms as sharecroppers.[72]
  • In the United Kingdom, the House of Commons voted, 311 to 291, to transfer control of the British nuclear arsenal to NATO or to "some sort of new Atlantic command". In the debate in Commons, Prime Minister Harold Wilson told his chief critic, former Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home, "Are you willing to go it alone in a war with Russia? Would you push the button setting off a kind of war that would mean total annihilation of all human life in Britain? If you can't answer that, you don't understand what the argument is all about."[73]
  • Died: Victor Francis Hess, 81, Austrian-born physicist and 1936 Nobel Prize laureate for his discovery of cosmic rays

December 18, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Johnson announced at a press conference that he would seek to replace the 1903 Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty that gave the U.S. sovereignty over the Panama Canal, noting that "I have decided to propose to the government of Panama the negotiation of an entirely new treaty."[74] Johnson noted that the new agreement would allow the U.S. to operate and protect the canal during a transitional period, with sovereignty of the Canal Zone being eventually turned over to Panama. In addition, said Johnson, he would start negotiations with Panama, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Colombia for the rights to build a new canal.[75][76]
  • The Soviet Union partially reversed a policy of discouraging private individuals from owning their own farms. Gosbank, the national bank of the U.S.S.R., was authorized to make loans to collective farm workers to purchase livestock for their own use.[77]
  • The deadly Christmas flood of 1964, that would kill 47 people during the holiday season, began with a powerful Pacific Ocean storm that brought record snowfalls in northern California, Oregon and Washington, with accumulations of up to ten feet in Oregon's Cascade Mountains. As warmer temperatures arrived from another front,[78] the snowstorm "changed over to a torrential warm rain, with two months' worth falling in just five days and melting the snow at even the highest elevations"[79] and swelling the Willamette River and the Umpqua River (and their tributaries.
  • Born: Stone Cold Steve Austin, American professional wrestler, as Steven James Anderson in Austin, Texas

December 19, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

  • In a military coup, the ruling military junta of South Vietnam, led by General Nguyen Khanh, dissolved the High National Council and arrested some of its members.[80][81] The next day, General Khanh announced that an Armed Forces Council would rule the nation.[82][83]
  • The American Conservative Union (ACU), the oldest lobbying organization for conservative political action in the United States, was founded at a meeting by about 100 conservative leaders in Washington, D.C.[84] Outgoing U.S. Congressman Donald C. Bruce was elected as the first Chairman of the organization.[85]
  • U.S. Congressman Gerald R. Ford of Michigan announced his intention to challenge minority leader Charles A. Halleck in January when Republican Party members of the U.S. House of Representatives would vote on their leader.[86][87] Ford would narrowly win the vote on January 4, by a margin of 73 to 67, and would remain in the position until 1973, when he would be selected as the new Vice President of the United States and, ultimately, the nation's President upon the resignation of U.S. President Richard M. Nixon.
  • A total lunar eclipse[88] afforded astrophysicist J. M. Saari the opportunity to make infrared pyrometric scans of the lunar surface with improved equipment, following up on Richard W. Shorthill's discovery of "hot spots" in the Tycho carter during the March 13, 1960 eclipse. Saari carried out his observations from the Helwan Observatory in Egypt.[89][90] The eclipse began at 0059 UTC (Friday evening in North and South America) and was visible from Western Europe and Africa as well.[91]
  • Born: Arvydas Sabonis, Lithuanian professional basketball player and inductee into both the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame in the U.S. and the FIBA Hall of Fame in Madrid; in Kaunas, Lithuanian SSR, Soviet Union

December 20, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Forty-one train passengers were killed and 75 injured in Mexico in the village of Tacotalpa when a freight train smashed into their car. A member of the freight train crew told authorities that "the engineer was apparently dozing and unaware of the train on the main track until the last moment"; the engineer sustained minor injuries and fled from the scene of the accident.[92]
  • Fifty-seven coal miners were killed in Peru in an explosion at the Cerro de Pasco underground mine outside the mountain village of Goyllarisquizga.[93]
  • Born: Clara Rojas, Colombian politician who was kidnapped along with presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt during the 2002 campaign and held captive for almost six years; in Bogotá

December 21, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

  • The supersonic F-111 tactical fighter aircraft, referred to commonly as the TFX (Tactical Fighter Experimental), made its first flight. The plane took off from Carswell Air Force Base in Texas, near the General Dynamics aircraft plant in Fort Worth. Richard L. Johnson and Val E. Prahl took the plane aloft but terminated the scheduled 90-minute flight after only 21 minutes when a wing flap jammed.[94] Described as "probably the most controversial combat aircraft in American history" because of its mechanical problems and cost overruns, the F-111 also had one of the best safety records, and would still be used by the Royal Australian Air Force 50 years after its introduction.[95]
  • Britain's House of Commons voted, 355 to 170, to abolish the death penalty for five years. The House of Lords would pass the Murder Act 1965 ten months later and it would receive royal assent on November 8, 1965; in 1969, the five year experiment would be made permanent.[96]
  • The James Bond film Goldfinger premiered in the United States, after being released in British theaters in September. The first U.S. showing was at the DeMille Theater in New York;[97] Goldfinger remains one of the most successful and popular Bond films ever made.
  • At the conclusion of his obscenity trial, American comedian Lenny Bruce was sentenced to four months in prison for "three counts of giving obscene performances in a Greenwich Village cafe" in New York City; the owner of Cafe Au Go Go was fined $1,000. Bruce was allowed to remain free on bond while he pursued an appeal of the verdict.[98] and would die of an overdose in 1966 while the conviction was still on appeal. Thirty-nine years later, on December 23, 2003, he would be granted a posthumous pardon by New York Governor George Pataki.[99]
  • A 30-year-old woman from Oakland, California, became the first person to survive a suicide attempt at the Bay Bridge, after leaping 230 feet (70 m) into the San Francisco Bay. Mrs. Isabelle Kainoa was despondent over an illness that kept her from seeing her children; a U.S. Coast Guard boat was patrolling the bay and came to her rescue. At least 59 people had preceded her in jumping from the span.[100] Mrs. Kainoa sustained a fractured pelvis, but survived; in 1937, shortly after the bridge opened, a movie stuntman had successfully performed a dive for movie cameras.[101]
  • Died: Carl Van Vechten, 84, American photographer

December 22, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • At Palmdale, California, the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird made its first flight. Lockheed's chief test pilot, Bob Gilliland, took the plane up to 50,000 feet and pushed it to a speed of Mach 1.5, then returned without incident.[102]
  • As part of his Order of the Day,[103] a regular message to the armed forces over Radio Vietnam, General Nguyen Khanh went back on his promise to leave the country and announced that "We make sacrifices for the country's independence and the Vietnamese people's liberty, but not to carry out the policy of any foreign country."[104]
  • Died: Rosa Borja de Ycaza, 75, Ecuadorian playwright and activist

December 23, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

December 24, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Apparently aimed at visiting American comedian Bob Hope, a time bomb set by Viet Cong terrorists exploded at Brinks, a U.S. Army officers club in Saigon, killing two Americans and wounding 50 others.[114] Three years later, a captured memorandum was located that had criticized the terrorists for the fact that "The bomb exploded 10 minutes before the set time. Shortly after the explosion the cars of the Bob Hope entertainment group arrived. If the bomb exploded at the scheduled time, it might have killed an additional number of guests who came to see the entertainment."[115]
  • Hope was making his first Christmas visit to South Vietnam, and he and his 60-member troupe entertained 1,200 servicemen at the Bien Hoa Air Base. He opened by joking, "Hello, advisers. Here I am in Bien Hoa... which is Vietnamese for 'Duck!!'". Referring to his surroundings as "Sniper Valley", he said, "As I flew in today, they gave us a 21-gun salute... Three of them were ours."[116]
  • Unemployed electronics engineer Tom Osborne completed the prototype of the first desktop electronic calculator after more than a year of work at his home workshop, then spent another six months trying to find a buyer for his "Green Machine" (so called because he constructed the prototype casing from balsa wood painted green). After more than 30 rejections, he was able to sell the invention to the Hewlett-Packard company in Palo Alto, California.[117][118]
  • Arthur C. Clarke completed the first draft of his manuscript, "Journey Beyond the Stars", which would be adapted by Stanley Kubrick as the film 2001: A Space Odyssey.[119]
  • Died:

December 25, 1964 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Soviet Union announced in its government newspaper, Izvestia, that it would experiment with a profit-oriented capitalist economy in certain factories in Lvov, the capital of the Ukrainian SSR, starting on January 1. Economist Evsei Liberman of the University of Lvov had proposed that directors of factories be given wide latitude in making production decisions with minimum oversight from the nation's central planning commission, and the test in two textile factories (in Moscow and in Gorky) had proven effective enough that Liberman selected be expanded from light industry into heavy industries. The factories that would carry out the pilot program in 1965 were "a plant producing loading machines"; the television set factory operated by the Progress Enterprise; the Zarya textile factory; and the Velkomostovskaya Number 9 coal mine.[121]
  • Born:

December 26, 1964 (Saturday)[edit]

December 27, 1964 (Sunday)[edit]

December 28, 1964 (Monday)[edit]

December 29, 1964 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Congolese government forces and white mercenary rescued 120 white hostages from the captivity of the Simba rebels, after successfully storming the town of Wamba in the northeastern part of the African nation. Located in the Haut-Uele province on the upper Uele River, Wamba was one of the few remaining locations where a large number of European hostages had been kept. At least 25 other foreign hostages had been killed by the rebels; a news dispatch noted that "Reliable sources quoted survivors as saying that the rebels had killed and eaten about 10 white hostages on Christmas day."[131]
  • Beloved film actor and action hero John Wayne went against the advice of his agent and several advisers, and revealed that he had been treated for lung cancer with the removal of his left lung in September. He told reporters at his home in Encino, California, "I licked the Big C. I know the man upstairs will pull the plug when he wants to, but I don't want to end my life being sick." The Associated Press commented that "The always honest Wayne refused to abide by the Hollywood code that cancer or any other serious illness could destroy a box office image."[132] After four months rest, Wayne, who had been a five-pack a day cigarette smoker, returned to film making to appear in the western The Sons of Katie Elder Michael Munn, John Wayne: The Man Behind the Myth (Penguin, 2005); he would survive for more than 14 years, winning an Academy Award for Best Actor in True Grit, and portraying a cancer sufferer in his final film, The Shootist. Wayne would die of stomach cancer on June 11, 1979.
  • The three-act play Tiny Alice, written by Edward Albee, premiered on Broadway at the Billy Rose Theatre and ran for 167 performances. Its female lead, Irene Worth, would win a Tony Award for Best Actress, and the play would receive five other Tony Award nominations. p84
  • Died: Vladimir Favorsky, 78, Russian artist and engraver

December 30, 1964 (Wednesday)[edit]

December 31, 1964 (Thursday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "New Red Trial Order: Must Prove Guilt", Chicago Tribune, December 2, 1964, p2
  2. ^ "Mexico (United Mexican States)", in Heads of States and Governments Since 1945, by Harris M. Lentz (Routledge, 1994) p550
  3. ^ Lt.-General Stanley R. Larsen, Allied Participation In Vietnam (Pickle Partners Publishing, 2014) p11
  4. ^ Sedef Koray, Ayse Sahin and Faruk Sen Turkey and the European Community (Springer, 2013) p9
  5. ^ "U.N. DODGES A SHOWDOWN— Selects Its President by Acclamation", Chicago Tribune, December 2, 1964, p1
  6. ^ "King Confers with Hoover to End Spat", Chicago Tribune, December 2, 1964, p3
  7. ^ a b Robert Cohen, The Essential Mario Savio: Speeches and Writings that Changed America (University of California Press, 2014) p4
  8. ^ Harvey Helfand, University of California, Berkeley: An Architectural Tour and Photographs (Princeton Architectural Press, 2002) p194
  9. ^ Antonius C. G. M. Robben, Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010) p34
  10. ^ "Brazil Sends Peron Back to Spain— Ex-Dictator Halted Short of Argentina", Chicago Tribune, December 3, 1964, p1
  11. ^ "Leftist Loses Vote; Ceylon House Closed", Chicago Tribune, December 4, 1964, p1B-9
  12. ^ A. Jeyaratnam Wilson, The Gaullist System in Asia: The Constitution of Sri Lanka (1978) (Springer, 1980) p4
  13. ^ "NAB 800 IN COLLEGE SIT-IN— Gov. Brown orders 500 Cops to Act", Chicago Tribune, December 4, 1964, p1
  14. ^ "Canada Gives Santa Slayer a Yule Gift", Chicago Tribune, December 4, 1964, p18
  15. ^ "Baseball Adopts Draft, Creates 'Czar' Power", Pittsburgh Press, December 4, 1964, p41
  16. ^ James Edward Miller, The Baseball Business: Pursuing Pennants and Profits in Baltimore (University of North Carolina Press, 1991) p94
  17. ^ "FBI Seizes 21 in Mississippi", Chicago Tribune, December 5, 1964, p1
  18. ^ Bruce Watson, Freedom Summer: The Savage Season of 1964 That Made Mississippi Burn and Made America a Democracy (Penguin, 2010)
  19. ^ "Frees 19 of 21 Taken by FBI in 3 Slayings", Chicago Tribune, December 2, 1964, p3
  20. ^ "Beatles for Sale (LP)", in The Beatles Encyclopedia: Everything Fab Four, by Kenneth Womack (ABC-CLIO, 2016)
  21. ^ 2014 NAE Annual Meeting, National Academy of Engineering website
  22. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/ops/broken-arrow.htm
  23. ^ "The Story Behind The Pentagon's Broken Arrows", by Gary Hanauer, Mother Jones Magazine (April 1981) p24
  24. ^ "Turkish Jets Peril Pope on Flight Home", Chicago Tribune, December 6, 1964, p3
  25. ^ "Mariner Will Skin by Mars Next July 14", Chicago Tribune, December 11, 1964, p3
  26. ^ "Rudolph Lights Video", Pittsburgh Press, December 6, 1964, p5-10
  27. ^ "Good Show, Rudolph", by Cynthia Lowry, Miami News, December 7, 1964, p15A
  28. ^ "Put Rudolph In Stable of Bum Steers", by Bill Pittman, Indianapolis News, December 7, 1964, p39
  29. ^ Edgar O'Ballance, Sudan, Civil War and Terrorism, 1956-99 (Springer, 2000) p28
  30. ^ "Khartoum Negroes, Arabs Clash; 14 Die", Chicago Tribune, December 8, 1964, p2
  31. ^ "Report Sudan Rioting Toll More than 250", Chicago Tribune, December 16, 1964, p3
  32. ^ "Italy (Italian Republic)", in Heads of States and Governments Since 1945, by Harris M. Lentz (Routledge, 1994) p437
  33. ^ "Ailing Segni Bows out as Italy's Chief", Chicago Tribune, December 7, 1964, p3
  34. ^ "Annul Florida Race Cohabitation Law— Mixed Marriage Issue Avoided by Court", Chicago Tribune, December 8, 1964, p5
  35. ^ James N. Gibson, Nuclear Weapons of the United States: An Illustrated History (Schiffer Publishing, 1996) p74
  36. ^ S.A. Akintan, The Law of International Economic Institutions in Africa (A. W. Sijthoff, 1977) p167
  37. ^ Timothy McCarthy and John McMillian, The Radical Reader: A Documentary History of the American Radical Tradition (The New Press, 2011) p485
  38. ^ Steve Grinczel, Michigan State Football: They are Spartans (Arcadia Publishing, 2004)
  39. ^ Sharon Detrick, A Commentary on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Martinus Nijhoff, 1999) p64
  40. ^ "Dr. King Accepts Nobel Peace Prize", Chicago Tribune, December 2, 1964, p2
  41. ^ Timothy D. Etson, Inner Strength, Quiet Resolve (Trafford Publishing, 2010) p17
  42. ^ "Japanese Crew Of 33 Missing In Shipwreck", Tucson (AZ) Daily Citizen, December 21, 1964, p60
  43. ^ "Wreck of Trawler, Body Found", Miami News, December 28, 1964, p18
  44. ^ "Top Castro Aide Charges U.S. Is a War Monger", Chicago Tribune, December 12, 1964, p1
  45. ^ "Chronology (1964-66)". Misión permanente de la república de Cuba ante las naciones unidas. Permanent Missions To The United Nations. Retrieved 2006-10-09.[dead link]
  46. ^ Geoff Simons, Cuba: From Conquistador to Castro (Springer, 1996) p318
  47. ^ "BAZOOKA ATTACK ON U.N.— Shell Blasted at Building Falls 100 Yards Short", Chicago Tribune, December 12, 1964, p1
  48. ^ "Woman Slays Singer Cooke", Chicago Tribune, December 12, 1964, p4
  49. ^ "Motel Aide Exonerated in Slaying of Singer", Los Angeles Times, December 17, 1964, p36
  50. ^ Charles Farley, Soul of the Man: Bobby "Blue" Bland (University Press of Mississippi, 2011) p127
  51. ^ Tom Aswell, Louisiana Rocks!: The True Genesis of Rock and Roll (Pelican Publishing, 2013) p84
  52. ^ "MacDonald, Malcolm John", in Historical Dictionary of Kenya, by Robert M. Maxon and Thomas P. Ofcansky
  53. ^ "Kenya, Republic of", in Heads of States and Governments Since 1945, by Harris M. Lentz (Routledge, 1994) p478
  54. ^ Congressional Record, November 12, 2003, p28597
  55. ^ "Four Die After Ships Collide". The Times (56194). London. 14 December 1964. col B, p. 10.
  56. ^ Bulletin on Narcotics: A Century of International Drug Control, ed. by Sandeep Chawla (United Nations Publications, 2010) p84
  57. ^ "Cat Survives After Week Under Water". The Times (56202). London. 23 December 1964. col D, p. 6.
  58. ^ "RIGHTS ACT SURVIVES TEST"— High Court OK's Accommodation Section of Law; Motel, Cafe Told Negroes Must Be Served", Chicago Tribune, December 14, 1964, p1
  59. ^ "Civil Rights Act of 1964", by Darryl Paulson, in Encyclopedia of the United States Congress, ed. by Robert E. Dewhirst (Infobase Publishing, 2014) p98
  60. ^ "Laos", by Earl H. Tilford, Jr., in Air Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, ed. by Walter J. Boyne (ABC-CLIO, 2002) p362
  61. ^ Micheal Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015 (McFarland, 2017) p670
  62. ^ "Burnham Takes Over as Guiana Premier— Queen Approves Change in Law; Jagan Out", Chicago Tribune, December 15, 1964, p16
  63. ^ "Guyana, Cooperative Republic of", in Heads of States and Governments Since 1945, by Harris M. Lentz (Routledge, 1994) p352
  64. ^ Michelangelo De Maria and Lucia Orlando, Italy in Space: In Search of a Strategy, 1957-1975 (Editions Beauchesne, 2008) p94
  65. ^ "Italians Orbit Spacecraft from U.S. Soil", Chicago Tribune, December 16, 1964, p5
  66. ^ "Red Leaf Flag Approved In 163 To 78 Vote", Ottawa Journal, December 15, 1964, p1
  67. ^ State of the World 2006, Special Focus: China and India, ed. by Danielle Nierenberg (Island Press, 2015) p91
  68. ^ "The maths that made Voyager possible", by Christopher Riley and Dallas Campbell, BBC News, 23 October 2012
  69. ^ Edward Clinton Ezell and Linda Neuman Ezell, On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet, 1958-1978, The NASA History (Courier Corporation, 2013) p101
  70. ^ "Flag Debate Ended", Ottawa Journal, December 18, 1964, p1
  71. ^ "Liberian Ship Aground; Crew Believed Lost", Miami News, December 21, 1964, p16
  72. ^ "56,000 Peru Peasants to Get Title to Farms", Chicago Tribune, December 18, 1964, p8
  73. ^ "Wilson Wins Commons Vote on Nuclear Force Plan, 311 to 291", Chicago Tribune, December 18, 1964, p1A-13
  74. ^ William J. Jorden, Panama Odyssey (University of Texas Press, 2014) pp101-102
  75. ^ "U.S. WILL CUT NEW CANAL— Four Routes Through Cental America Eyed; Panama Offered New Treaty", Chicago Tribune, December 19, 1964, p1
  76. ^ Sheldon Spear, Daniel J. Flood: The Congressional Career of an Economic Savior and Cold War Nationalist (Lehigh University Press, 2008) p69
  77. ^ Karl-Eugen Wädekin, The Private Sector in Soviet Agriculture (University of California Press, 1973) p321
  78. ^ "Short Life Seen for Snow in Salem— Wind, Warmer Weather Predicted", Capital Journal (Salem OR), December 19, 1964
  79. ^ Christopher C. Burt, Extreme Weather: A Guide & Record Book (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007) p128
  80. ^ "Viet Council Is Purged by Army Group, Chicago Tribune, December 20, 1964, p1
  81. ^ Moyar, Mark (2004). "Political Monks: The Militant Buddhist Movement during the Vietnam War". Modern Asian Studies (New York City, New York: Cambridge University Press) 38 (4): 749–784. doi:10.1017/S0026749X04001295, p. 769
  82. ^ Christopher M. Gacek, The Logic of Force: The Dilemma of Limited War in American Foreign Policy (Columbia University Press, 1994) p192
  83. ^ Christine Bragg, Khanh would be removed from power on February 24. Vietnam, Korea and US Foreign Policy (Heinemann, 2005) p129
  84. ^ John A. Andrew, The Other Side of the Sixties: Young Americans for Freedom and the Rise of Conservative Politics (Rutgers University Press, 1997) p214
  85. ^ "100 Form New Conservative Action Group", Chicago Tribune, December 22, 1964, p5
  86. ^ "Ford Seeks to Grab Job of Halleck", Chicago Tribune, December 20, 1964, p1
  87. ^ "Party Leadership Change in the United States House of Representatives", by Robert L. Peabody, in Inside Congress, ed. by Bruce F. Norton (MSS Information Corporation, 1971) p38
  88. ^ Hermit Eclipse: Saros cycle 134
  89. ^ F. Link, Eclipse Phenomena in Astronomy (Springer, 2012) p119
  90. ^ "Eclipse Shows up Moon's Hot Spots", New Scientist magazine, March 18, 1965, p718
  91. ^ "Lunar Eclipse Visible Today", Chicago Tribune, December 18, 1964, p2
  92. ^ "Freight Slams into Passenger Train; 41 Killed", Chicago Tribune, December 21, 1964, p1
  93. ^ "57 Peru Coal Miners Killed in Explosion", Chicago Tribune, December 21, 1964, p1
  94. ^ "TFX JET FLIES FIRST TIME— Plane Easy to Handle, Pilot Says", Chicago Tribune, December 22, 1964, p1
  95. ^ Dennis R. Jenkins and Don Pyeatt, Experimental and Prototype U.S. Air Force Jet Fighters (Specialty Press, 2008) p214
  96. ^ H. L. A. Hart, ed., Punishment and Responsibility: Essays in the Philosophy of Law (Oxford University Press, 2008) p iv
  97. ^ Alan Barnes and Marcus Hearn, Kiss Kiss Bang Bang: The Unofficial James Bond Film Companion (Batsford, 1997) p41
  98. ^ "Lenny Bruce Gets 4 Months for Obscenity", Chicago Tribune, December 22, 1964, p6
  99. ^ "Lenny Bruce Pardoned", CBS News.com
  100. ^ "Woman Leaps 230 Feet, Lives", Chicago Tribune, December 22, 1964, p1
  101. ^ "Girl Survives Leap From Bay Bridge", Arizona Daily Star (Tucson), July 5, 1966, p1
  102. ^ Paul F. Crickmore, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015) pp8-9
  103. ^ Hammond, William M. (1988). Public Affairs : The Military and the Media, 1962–1968. Washington, D.C.: Center for Military History, United States Army. ISBN 0-16-001673-8, p. 118
  104. ^ Moyar, Mark (2006). Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965. New York City, New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-86911-0, p. 346.
  105. ^ "At Least 1,800 Dead in India, Ceylon Storm", Chicago Tribune, December 28, 1964, p5
  106. ^ "500 swept to death in Dhanushkodi", The Indian Express (Madras), December 24, 1964, p1
  107. ^ "Dhanushkodi town is erased— Passenger train lies under water", The Indian Express (Madras), December 26, 1964, p1
  108. ^ "An ecological study of some pools near Mandapam (South India) formed as a result of the cyclone and tidal wave of 1964", by P. V. Ramachandran et al., Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India (1965) pp420–439
  109. ^ "Memory of the disaster still lingers", by C. Jaishankar, in The Hindu, December 24, 2005
  110. ^ "Cyclone, Tidal Wave Kill Hundreds in India", Honolulu Star-Bulletin, December 24, 1964, p4
  111. ^ "150 on Train Swept Away by Tidal Wave", Chicago Tribune, December 26, 1964, p2
  112. ^ "Dhanushkodi reborn: PM unveils new NH to mainland", by S. P. Loganathan, Deccan Chronicle (Hyderabad), July 28, 2017
  113. ^ Keith Skues and David Kindred, Pirate Radio: An Illustrated History (Amberley Publishing, 2014)
  114. ^ "Saigon Bomb Kills 2, Hurts 107 in U.S. Officers Billet", Chicago Tribune, December 24, 1964, p2
  115. ^ "Tell Viet Cong Bomb Plot to Kill Bob Hope", Chicago Tribune, March 17, 1967, p10
  116. ^ "Yanks Laugh at Bob Hope in Viet Nam", Chicago Tribune, December 24, 1964, p2
  117. ^ "Tom Osborne's Story in His Own Words", Hewlett-Packard website
  118. ^ Michael S. Malone, Bill & Dave: How Hewlett and Packard Built the World's Greatest Company (Penguin, 2007) pp182-183
  119. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, The Lost Worlds of 2001 (Sidgwick and Jackson, 1972) p35, quoted in BFI Classics — 2001: A Space Odyssey, by Peter Krämer (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010) p108
  120. ^ "No. 43698". The London Gazette (Supplement). 25 June 1965. p. 6203.
  121. ^ "Russ Widen Profit Trial in Industry", Chicago Tribune, December 26, 1964, p1
  122. ^ Topping, Peter (1989), Topping: The Autobiography of the Police Chief in the Moors Murder Case, Angus & Robertson, ISBN 0-207-16480-0
  123. ^ Michael Curtis, Verdict on Vichy: Power and Prejudice in the Vichy France Regime (Arcade Publishing, 2002) p272
  124. ^ Richard J. Goldstone and Adam M. Smith, International Judicial Institutions: The Architecture of International Justice at Home and Abroad (Routledge, 2015) p92
  125. ^ "Bills Bruise Chargers; Win A.F.L. Title, 20-7", Chicago Tribune, December 27, 1964, p2-1
  126. ^ "Browns Win Title; Whip Colts, 27 to 0", Chicago Tribune, December 28, 1964, p1
  127. ^ a b c "Picture Gallery". The Times (56205). London. 29 December 1964. col C-D, p. 6.
  128. ^ "Crew of Over 30 Feared Lost". The Times (56201). London. 22 December 1964. col G, p. 10.
  129. ^ "Captain Attacks Crew's Action". The Times (56214). London. 8 January 1965. col B, p. 9.
  130. ^ "Saragat Is Elected Italy's First Socialist President", Chicago Tribune, December 29, 1964, p1
  131. ^ "Congo Troops Liberate 120 More Whites", Chicago Tribune, December 30, 1964, p4
  132. ^ "Cancer Beaten By John Wayne", Charleston (WV) Daily Mail, December 30, 1964, p1
  133. ^ Jorri Duursma, Fragmentation and the International Relations of Micro-states: Self-determination and Statehood (Cambridge University Press, 1996) p199
  134. ^ Robert Headland, The Island of South Georgia (Cambridge University Press, 1984) p104
  135. ^ "India Finds Plot; Seizes Top Reds", Chicago Tribune, December 31, 1964, p2
  136. ^ Patrick Seale, Asad: The Struggle for the Middle East (University of California Press, 1990) p119
  137. ^ Natasha Iskander, Creative State: Forty Years of Migration and Development Policy in Morocco and Mexico (Cornell University Press, 2015)