Deckle

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This image shows red pigmented flax fiber on a hand paper mould, still contained by a deckle. This sheet is quite thick which is why there is fiber spilling onto the deckle. Next it is couched onto felts and pressed.

A deckle is a removable wooden frame or "fence" used in manual paper-making. It can also mean deckle edge paper, which is a type of industrially produced paper with rough cut, distressed edges used in the book trade.

A hand-made piece of flax paper that has been pressed, but has not dried yet.

Deckle frame[edit]

In manual paper-making, a deckle is a removable wooden frame or "fence" placed into a mould to keep the paper pulp slurry within the bounds of the wire facing on a mould, and to control the size of the sheet produced. The mould and deckle is dipped into a vat of water and paper pulp that has been beat (fibrillated). The pulp is quickly scooped out of the vat and the mould and deckle is shaken as excess water is drained off. The deckle is then removed and the newly formed sheet is "couched" (set) onto felts. Fiber that has been beat longer generally requires more time to drain. If the paper slurry gets under, or if long fibers settles on top of the deckle, it will cause a more irregular edge.[1]: 119, 177–178 

Deckle edge[edit]

Deckle edge

Paper with a feathered edge is described as having a deckle edge, in contrast to a cut edge.[2] Machine-made paper may artificially have its edges produced to resemble a deckle edge.[1]: 456, 458 

Before the 19th century, the deckle edge was unavoidable, a natural artifact of the paper-making process in which sheets of paper were made individually on a deckle. The deckle could not make a perfect seal against the screen at the edges and the paper slurry would seep under, creating a rough edge to the paper. The deckle edge could be trimmed off, but this extra step would add to the cost of the book.[2] Beginning in the early 1800s with the invention of the Fourdrinier machine, paper was produced in long rolls and the deckle edge became mostly obsolete. Although there was some deckle on the ends of the rolls, it was cut off, and the individual sheets cut out from the roll would have no deckle in any case.[2]

With the appearance of smooth edges in the 19th century, the deckle edge slowly emerged as a status symbol. Many 19th-century presses advertised two versions of the same book: one with edges trimmed smooth, the other a higher-priced deckle version. This suggested the deckle book was made with higher-quality paper, or with more expensive methods. This tradition carried forward into the 20th and 21st centuries. As of 2016, modern deckle is produced by a purpose-built machine to give the appearance of a true deckle edge by cutting a smooth edge into patterns. Ironically, the apparent value of a deckle edge is, in part, the impression that it is hand-made, an inherently greater expense than mass-production.

Many readers consider the deckle edge to be inferior, given the awkwardness of turning the pages of deckle-edge books, while others are entirely unfamiliar with it and assume it to be an accidental defect. For example, Amazon.com has left notes to book buyers clarifying that the deckle is not an unintentional flaw in the product.[2] A deckle edge is unrelated to the practice of unopened pages, in which a reader must cut open pages with a knife.[2]

Other uses[edit]

In film processing, deckles are die inserts that set the coating width of a slot die coater or the extrusion width of an extrusion die. They work by constraining the flow as the material exits the die. Since some materials have a tendency to neck in or spread out after leaving the die, workers may need to adjust the deckle position to achieve target width.

Deckle can also refer to the fatty part of a cut of brisket.[3]

A deckled edge is also a feathery, unfinished paper edge. Many fine art works, and hand-made, fine art finished, or digital prints deckle the paper edge. Again, as in book printing, this was once considered an imperfection as the by-product of hand-made paper-making. Now makers use it to create the appearance of greater value, hand-made products costing more than those mass-produced.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hunter, Dard (1978) [1947]. Papermaking, the History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-23619-6.
  2. ^ a b c d e G.F. (Jul 15, 2012). "Deckle detecting". The Economist. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  3. ^ "Do you know your deckle from your flat? A glossary of brisket terms". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 August 2019.