Devine began his career with Ipswich Town but was unable to make the breakthrough at Portman Road and returned home. Devine then plied his trade with a number of Irish League clubs as well as Derry City and won the Ulster Young Footballer of the Year Award in 1994 when playing for Roy McCreadie's Omagh Town side. Devine was capped right up to U-21 level with Northern Ireland, winning an U-21 cap in a 0–0 draw against Romania in 1994. He tasted success with Glentoran, helping them to defeat Glenavon in the Irish Cup final in the 1995–96 season. However, at the end of that season Devine moved to the Brandywell for a combined fee of £42,000 which included Liam Coyle, where he provided backup to Tony O'Dowd as Derry City went on to win the title. Devine was restricted to a limited number of appearances and his highest profile appearance was that in the 1997 FAI Cup final. Derry City, aiming for the double, were rocked with the news of the sudden death of the younger brother of Tony O’Dowd just days before the final and Devine stepped up to take his place between the sticks. They were defeated 2–0 by Shelbourne in Dalymount Park on a weekend where football very much took a back seat. Devine remained at the Brandywell for the start of the 1997–98 season but again found his opportunities limited and returned to Omagh Town. He was on the move again the following season and ended up with Institute, becoming one of the many players who have played for the two clubs in the Derry.
Having stopped playing at the end of the 2001–02 season, Devine became involved in coaching at an underage level. He returned to Derry City as the Youth Development officer in 2003 and was initially involved in the delivery of the community coaching and Football in the Community programmes which were run by the club at that time. The installation of former teammate, Gavin Dykes, as manager in 2003 meant a promotion for Devine and he took on the role of first team coach. Stephen Kenny opted to retain Devine as first team coach when he arrived at the club the following season, and the back room setup, including Paul Hegarty, guided Derry City to successive second place finishes as well as success in the FAI Cup, League Cup and memorable European runs. Following this success, Kenny lured Devine to join him at Dunfermline Athletic when he left for Fir Park and he was appointed first team coach there on 5 December 2006. Devine described the move as a "massive wrench" but felt for personal reasons that he needed to move on. However, after Stephen Kenny's return to Derry City in late 2007, Devine, too followed him back to the club. He was instrumental in guiding the team to the First Division title and a third place finish in the 2011 season. Following the departure of Stephen Kenny to Shamrock Rovers in December 2011, Devine was appointed manager of Derry City on 6 January 2012, beating off Willie McStay to land the post. He agreed a two-year deal along with Paul Hegarty who was appointed as his assistant manager. In his first season in charge, the club finished 5th in the league, won the FAI Cup, and were runners-up in the Setanta Sports Cup. In the wake of this success, Devine signed a one-year contract extension to keep him at the club until the end of the 2014 season. At the beginning of his second season in charge, after an opening day defeat to Sligo Rovers, Devine guided his team to a 10-match unbeaten run and top of the table until they were defeated again by Sligo in the second series of fixtures. Devine left the club at the end of the year by mutual consent despite having qualified for Europe and a 6-0 victory against Limerick.
Saint Patricks Athletic are said to have approached Devine about becoming their No.2 after Declan left the Derry City hot seat. Liam Buckley has confirmed he had approached Devine about bringing him to Inchicore but no official response has been revealed yet. Devine was also closely linked with taking a coaching role with the IFA but no clarification has been revealed by St.Pats or the IFA.