Declaration by United Nations

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Declaration by United Nations
Naciones Unidas 3.jpg
Wartime poster for the Allies of World War II, created in 1943 by the US Office of War Information.
Traditional Chinese聯合國共同宣言
Simplified Chinese联合国共同宣言
Russian name
RussianДекларация Объединённых Наций
RomanizationDeklaratsiya Ob"yedinonnykh Natsiy
English name
EnglishDeclaration by United Nations

Declaration by United Nations was the main treaty that formalized the Allies of World War II; the declaration was signed by 47 national governments between 1942 and 1945. The original signatories on 1–2 January 1942, at the Arcadia Conference in Washington DC, included the so-called "Big Three": the Soviet Union (USSR), United Kingdom and the United States (USA). Together with China(Republic of China, ROC), the UK, USA and USSR were sometimes known as the "Four Policemen".[1][2]

The other original signatories (1–2 January 1942) were: the four Dominions of the British Commonwealth (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa); eight European governments-in-exile (Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia); nine countries in The Americas (Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama); and one non-independent government, the British-appointed Government of India.

Declaration by United Nations became the basis of the United Nations (UN),[3] which was formalized in the United Nations Charter signed by 50 countries on 26 June 1945.

Drafting the Declaration[edit]

The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U.S. Department of State in 1939.[4] The Declaration was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins. It incorporated Soviet suggestions, but left no role for France. Roosevelt first coined the term "United Nations" to describe the Allied countries. Roosevelt suggested "United Nations" as an alternative to the name "Associated Powers". Churchill accepted it, noting that the phase was used by Lord Byron in the poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (Stanza 35). The term was first officially used on 1–2 January 1942, when 26 governments signed the declaration. One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, which Stalin approved after Roosevelt insisted.[5][6] By spring 1945 it was signed by 21 more states.[7]

Declaration by United Nations was the basis of the modern UN.[3] The term "United Nations" became synonymous during the war with the Allies and was considered to be the formal name that they were fighting under.[8] The text of the declaration affirmed the signatories' perspective "that complete victory over their enemies is essential to defend life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve human rights and justice in their own lands as well as in other lands, and that they are now engaged in a common struggle against savage and brutal forces seeking to subjugate the world". The principle of "complete victory" established an early precedent for the Allied policy of obtaining the Axis' powers' "unconditional surrender". The defeat of "Hitlerism" constituted the overarching objective, and represented a common Allied perspective that the totalitarian militarist regimes ruling Germany, Italy, and Japan were indistinguishable.[9] The declaration, furthermore, "upheld the Wilsonian principles of self determination", thus linking U.S. war aims in both world wars.[10]

By the end of the war, 21 other states had acceded to the declaration, including the Philippines (a non-independent, US commonwealth at the time), France, every Latin American state except Argentina,[11] and the various independent states of the Middle East and Africa. Although most of the minor Axis powers had switched sides and joined the United Nations as co-belligerents against Germany by the end of the war, they were not allowed to accede to the declaration. Occupied Denmark did not sign the declaration, but because of the vigorous resistance after 1943, and because the Danish ambassador Henrik Kauffmann had expressed the adherence to the declaration of all free Danes, Denmark was nonetheless invited among the allies in the San Francisco Conference in March 1945.[12][13]

Text[edit]

A Joint Declaration By The United States Of America, The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland, The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics, China, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia

The Governments signatory hereto,

Having subscribed to a common program of purposes and principles embodied in the Joint Declaration of the President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister of Great Britain dated August 14, 1941, known as the Atlantic Charter,

Being convinced that complete victory over their enemies is essential to defend life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve human rights and justice in their own lands as well as in other lands, and that they are now engaged in a common struggle against savage and brutal forces seeking to subjugate the world,

Declare:

(1) Each Government pledges itself to employ its full resources, military or economic, against those members of the Tripartite Pact and its adherents with which such government is at war.

(2) Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto and not to make a separate armistice or peace with the enemies.

The foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism.[14]

Signatories[edit]

Wartime poster for the United Nations, created in 1941 by the US Office of War Information.
Wartime poster for the Allies of World War II, created in 1942 by the US Office of War Information, showing the 26 members of the alliance.
Original signatories[15]
Big Four[2][16]
Dominions of the British Commonwealth
Independent countries in The Americas
European governments-in-exile
Non-independent members of the British Empire British Raj India (UK-appointed administration, 1858–1947)
Later signatories[15]
1942 (non-independent US Commonwealth in 1934–1946)
1943
1944
1945

The parties pledged to uphold the Atlantic Charter, to employ all their resources in the war against the Axis powers, and that none of the signatory nations would seek to negotiate a separate peace with Germany or Japan in the same manner that the nations of the Triple Entente had agreed not to negotiate a separate peace with any or all of the Central Powers in World War I under the Unity Pact.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ma, Xiaohua (2003). The Sino-American alliance during World War II and the lifting of the Chinese exclusion acts. New York: Routledge. pp. 203–204. ISBN 0-415-94028-1. JSTOR 41279769.
  2. ^ a b "The Moscow Declaration on general security". Yearbook of the United Nations 1946-1947. Lake Success, NY: United Nations. 1947. p. 3. OCLC 243471225. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  3. ^ a b Townsend Hoopes; Douglas Brinkley (1997). FDR and the Creation of the U.N. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06930-3. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  4. ^ Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley, FDR and the Creation of the U.N. (1997) pp 1-55
  5. ^ David Roll, The Hopkins Touch: Harry Hopkins and the Forging of the Alliance to Defeat Hitler (2013) pp 172–175
  6. ^ Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, An Intimate History (1948) pp 447–453
  7. ^ Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: T to Z. Taylor & Francis. p. 2445.
  8. ^ The name "United Nations" for the World War II allies was suggested by President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States as an alternative to the name "Associated Powers". British Prime Minister Winston Churchill accepted it, noting that the phrase was used by Lord Byron in the poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (Stanza 35). Manchester, William; Reid, Paul (2012). The Last Lion: Defender of the Realm. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill. 3. New York: Little Brown and Company. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-316-54770-3.
  9. ^ Bevans, Charles I. Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776–1949. Volume 3. "Multilateral, 1931–1945". Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1969, p. 697.
  10. ^ Thomas A. Bailey The Marshall Plan Summer: An Eyewitness Report on Europe and the Russians in 1947. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1977, p. 227.
  11. ^ "Act of Chapultepec". The Oxford Companion to World War II, I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot (2001)
  12. ^ Drakidis, Philippe (1995). The Atlantic and United Nations Charters: common law prevailing for world peace and security. Centre de recherche et d'information politique et sociale. p. 131 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ United Nations Department of Public Information (1986). Everyone's United Nations. 10. p. 7. ISBN 9789211002737 – via Google Books.
  14. ^ Text from "The Washington Conference 1941-1942"
  15. ^ a b "The Declaration by United Nations". Yearbook of the United Nations 1946-1947. Lake Success, NY: United Nations. 1947. pp. 1–2. OCLC 243471225. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  16. ^ Ma, Xiaohua (2003). The Sino-American alliance during World War II and the lifting of the Chinese exclusion acts. New York: Routledge. pp. 203–204. ISBN 0-415-94028-1. JSTOR 41279769.

References[edit]