Declaration of Independence of Ukraine
|Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine
Ukrainian: Акт проголошення незалежності України
As printed on the ballot for the national referendum on December 1, 1991.
|Created||24 August 1991|
|Ratified||24 August 1991|
|Location||Central State Archive of the higher governing bodies of Ukraine, Kiev.|
|Purpose||Declaration of independence|
The Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Акт проголошення незалежності України, translit. Akt proholoshennya nezalezhnosti Ukrayiny) was adopted by the Ukrainian parliament on 24 August 1991. The Act established Ukraine as an independent state.
The Act was adopted in the aftermath of the coup attempt on 19 August when hardline Communist leaders of the Soviet Union tried to restore central Communist party control over the USSR. In response (during a tense 11-hour extraordinary session), the Supreme Soviet (parliament) of the Ukrainian SSR in a special Saturday session overwhelmingly approved the Act of Declaration. The Act passed with 321 votes in favor, 2 votes against, and 6 abstentions (out of 360 attendants). The author of the text was Levko Lukyanenko. The Communists (CPU) felt there was no choice other than a decision to secede and, as they expressed it, distance themselves from the events in Moscow, particularly the strong anti-Communist movement in the Russian Parliament. "If we don't vote for independence, it will be a disaster," stated first secretary of the CPU Stanislav Hurenko during the debate.
The same day (24 August), the parliament called for a referendum on support for the Declaration of Independence. The proposal for calling the national referendum came jointly from opposition leaders Ihor Yukhnovsky and Dmytro Pavlychko. The Parliament also voted for the creation of a national guard of Ukraine and turned jurisdiction over all the armed forces located on Ukrainian territory over to itself.
In the days that followed a number of resolutions and decrees were passed: nationalizing all CPU property and handing it over to the Supreme Soviet and local councils; issuing an amnesty for all political prisoners; suspending all CPU activities and freezing CPU assets and bank accounts pending official investigations into possible collaboration with the Moscow coup plotters; setting up a committee of inquiry into official behavior during the coup; and establishing a committee on military matters related to the creation of a Ministry of Defense of Ukraine.
On 26 August 1991 the Permanent Representative of the Ukrainian SSR to the United Nations (the Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations) Hennadiy Udovenko informed the office of the Secretary General of the United Nations that his permanent mission to this international assembly would officially be designated as representing Ukraine.
On 26 August 1991 the executive committee of Kiev also voted to remove all the monuments of Communist heroes from public places, including the Lenin monument on the central October Revolution Square. The large square would be renamed Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) as would the central Metro station below it, the executive committee decided.
In the independence referendum on 1 December 1991, the people of Ukraine expressed widespread support for the Act of Declaration of Independence, with more than 90% voting in favor, and 82% of the electorate participating.
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|December 2, 1991||Canada|
|December 2, 1991||Poland|
|December 2, 1991||Russian SFSR|
|December 4, 1991||Latvia|
|December 4, 1991||Lithuania|
|December 25, 1991||United States|
|December 26, 1991||Brazil|
|December 26, 1991||Soviet Union|
|December 28, 1991||Japan|
(Text of) Act of Independence
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politics and government of
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Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine
- In view of the mortal danger surrounding Ukraine in connection with the state coup in the USSR on August 19, 1991,
- Continuing the thousand-year tradition of state development in Ukraine,
- Proceeding from the right of a nation to self-determination in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and other international legal documents, and
- Implementing the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine,
The territory of Ukraine is indivisible and inviolable.
From this day forward, only the Constitution and laws of Ukraine are valid on the territory of Ukraine.This act becomes effective at the moment of its approval.— VERKHOVNA RADA OF UKRAINE, August 24, 1991
- A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples by Paul Robert Magocsi, University of Toronto Press, 2010, ISBN 1442610212 (page 722/723)
- Historic vote for independence, The Ukrainian Weekly (1 September 1991)
- "Activities of the Member States - Ukraine". United Nations. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- U.N. Mission stresses statehood of Ukraine, The Ukrainian Weekly (1 September 1991)
- NEWSBRIEFS FROM UKRAINE, The Ukrainian Weekly (1 September 1991)
- Ukraine Intelligence & Security Activities and Operations Handbook, International Business Publications, 2009, ISBN 0739716611 (page 268)
- Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0742510182 (page 100)
Canadian Yearbook of International Law, Vol 30, 1992, University of British Columbia Press, 1993, ISBN 9780774804387 (page 371)
Russia, Ukraine, and the Breakup of the Soviet Union by Roman Szporluk, Hoover Institution Press, 2000, ISBN 0817995420 (page 355
- Russia's Revolution from Above, 1985-2000: Reform, Transition, and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime by Gordon M. Hahn, Transaction Publishers, 2001, ISBN 0765800497 (page 482)
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The Limited Partnership: Building a Russian-US Security Community by James E. Goodby and Benoit Morel, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0198291612 (page 48)
- Ukrainian Independence, Worldwide News Ukraine
- (Ukrainian) Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine – Official Verkhovna Rada website
- (English) Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine – Official Verkhovna Rada website
- (English) Act of Declaration of the Independence of Ukraine – The Ukrainian Weekly, translation by The Ukrainian Weekly
- (English) Declaration of Independence of Ukraine – The Windsor Viter, Volume 12, Number 1, July, 2001 Part 2, translation by Andrew Gregorovich
- (Ukrainian) "Great Saturday" – an interview with writer and parliament deputy Stepan Pushyk on the events of August 24, 1991.