Declaration of independence

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A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another state or failed state, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In the year 2010 AD, the UN's International Court of Justice ruled in an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence",[1] though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis.

List of declarations of independence[edit]

Region Declaration Date Year Association Signatories First recognising state
Albania Albanian Declaration of Independence November 28 1912 Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Assembly of Vlorë

Austria-Hungary Austro-Hungarian Empire

United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata
(present day
 Argentina
 Uruguay
 Bolivia)
Argentine Declaration of Independence July 9 1816 Spain Spain Congress of Tucumán Hawaiian Kingdom Kingdom of Hawaii
 Armenia Declaration of Independence of Armenia May 28 1918 Russia Armenian National Congress (1917) Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF Dashnak) Russia
 Azerbaijan Declaration of Independence of Azerbaijan May 28 1918 Russia Azerbaijani National Council (Hasan bey Aghayev, Fatali Khan Khoyski, Nasib Yusifbeyli, Jamo bey Hajinski, Şefi bey Rustambeyli, Nariman bey Narimanbeyov, Javad Malik-Yeganov, Mustafa Mahmudov) Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
 Azawad Azawadi declaration of independence April 6 2012  Mali National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
 Bangladesh Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence March 26 1971 Pakistan Pakistan Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh Bhutan Bhutan
 Belarus Third Constituent Charter March 25 1918 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian SFSR Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic
Flag of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919-1927).svg Belarus Announcement of the Declaration of Independence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Byelorussia July 31 1920 Poland Poland Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Byelorussia, trade unions Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Soviet Russia
 Belarus Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic July 27 1990 Soviet Union Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the BSSR Turkey Turkey
 Belgium Belgian Declaration of Independence October 4 1830  Netherlands Provisional Government of Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Declaration of Independence March 1 1992 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Bulgaria Bulgaria
 Empire of Brazil Independence of Brazil September 7 1822 Portugal Portugal Pedro I of Brazil United States United States
Bougainville Bougainville Declaration of Independence May 1990 Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Bougainville Interim Government
 Bulgaria Bulgarian Declaration of Independence September 22 1908 Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Ferdinand of Bulgaria and the Government of Bulgaria Russian Empire Russia (5 February 1909)
 Burma Burmese Declaration of Independence January 4 1948 United Kingdom United Kingdom
 Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan Republic as a state of the Iberian Federation April 14 1931 Spain Francesc Macià, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
 Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan state within the Federal Republic of Spain October 6 1934 Spain Lluís Companys, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
 Catalonia Declaration from the representatives of Catalonia as the Catalan Republic October 27 2017 Spain Spain
Federal Republic of Central America Central America Act of Independence of Central America September 15 1821 Spain
 Chile Chilean Declaration of Independence February 12 1818 Spain National Congress Portugal Portugal
 Colombia Colombian Declaration of Independence July 20 1810 Spain
 Croatia Declaration of the Establishment of the Sovereign and Independent Republic of Croatia June 25 1991 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Iceland Iceland
 Republic of Crimea Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea March 11 2014  Ukraine Supreme Council of Crimea Russia Russia
 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Declaration of Independence October 18 1918 Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Czechoslovak National Council United States United States
 Dominican Republic Dominican Declaration of Independence February 27 1844 Haiti Haiti United Kingdom United Kingdom
 East Timor East Timorese declaration of independence November 28 1975 Portugal Portugal Morocco Morocco
 Egypt Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence February 28 1922 United Kingdom United Kingdom Unilateral grant of independence by the British government United Kingdom United Kingdom
 Estonia Estonian Declaration of Independence February 24 1918 Russian Empire Russia Salvation Committee Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian SFSR
 Estonia Estonian Reconfirmation of Independence August 20 1991 Soviet Union Soviet Union Congress of Estonia Iceland Iceland (reconfirmed earlier recognition)
 Finland Finnish Declaration of Independence December 6 1917 Russian Empire Russia Parliament of Finland Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian SFSR
Florida Florida's Constitution of 1861 January 10 1861 United States United States Florida State Legislature
Galicia Declaration of the Republic of Galicia June 27 1931 Spain
 Georgia Democratic Republic of Georgia May 26 1918 Russian Empire Russian Empire Weimar Republic Germany
Georgia Georgia's secession declaration January 29 1861 United States United States
Kingdom of Greece Greece Greek Declaration of Independence January 1 OS 1822 Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire First National Assembly Haiti Haiti (1822)
 Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Declaration of Independence September 24 1973 Portugal Portugal
 Haiti Haitian Declaration of Independence January 1 1804 First French Empire France Jean-Jacques Dessalines France
(April 17, 1825)[2]
Hungary Hungarian Declaration of Independence April 14 1849 Habsburg MonarchyHabsburg Monarchy
 Iceland Icelandic Declaration of Independence June 17 1944 Denmark Denmark United States United States
Kingdom of Iraq Iraq Iraq Declaration of Independence October 3 1932 United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom
 India Declaration of the Independence of India January 26 1930 United Kingdom United Kingdom
 Indonesia Proclamation of Indonesian Independence August 17 1945 Netherlands Netherlands Sukarno & Mohammad Hatta  Egypt

Holy See Holy See[3]

Ireland Proclamation of the Irish Republic April 24
(Easter Monday)
1916 United Kingdom United Kingdom Provisional Government of the Irish Republic
Irish Republic Irish Declaration of Independence January 21 1919 United Kingdom United Kingdom Dáil Éireann Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian SFSR
 Israel Israeli Declaration of Independence May 14 1948 United Kingdom United Kingdom Jewish People's Council United States United States
Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus Northern Epirote Declaration of Independence February 28 1914 Albania Provisional Government of Northern Epirus
Katanga Katangan Declaration of Independence 1960 Congo-Léopoldville
 Korea Korean Declaration of Independence March 1 1919 Empire of Japan Japan Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea China (1933)
Republic of the North Solomons Declaration of Independence of the Republic of the North Solomons September 1 1975 Territory of Papua and New Guinea (Australia) Unknown Catholic Church
 Kosovo Kosovo declaration of independence February 17 2008 Serbia Serbia Assembly of Kosovo Afghanistan Afghanistan

Albania Albania

Costa Rica Costa Rica

Republic of Kosova Republic of Kosova Proclamation of the Republic of Kosova September 22 1992 Serbia and Montenegro Serbia & Montenegro Provincial Assembly of Kosovo Albania Albania
 Latvia Latvian Declaration of Independence November 18 1918 Weimar Republic Germany

Russia

People's Council of Latvia Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian SFSR
 Latvia On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia May 4 1990 Soviet Union Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR Iceland Iceland
 Liberia Liberian Declaration of Independence July 16 1847 American Colonization Society Liberian Constitutional Convention United Kingdom United Kingdom
 Lithuania Act of Independence of Lithuania February 16 1918 Weimar Republic Germany

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian SFSR

Council of Lithuania Weimar Republic Germany
 Lithuania Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania March 11 1990 Soviet Union Soviet Union Supreme Council of Lithuania Iceland Iceland
 Macedonia Independence of the Republic of Macedonia September 8 1991 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Bulgaria Bulgaria
Federation of Malaya Federation of Malaya
(present day Malaysia)
Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957 August 31 1957 United Kingdom United Kingdom Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaysia United Kingdom United Kingdom[4]
Mississippi A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union January 9 1861 United States United States
First Mexican Empire First Mexican Empire
(present day Mexico Mexico)
Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
(real independence)[clarification needed]
September 28 1821 Spain Spain Supreme Provisional Governmental Board United Kingdom United Kingdom (January 4, 1825)[5]
 Moldova Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova August 27 1991 Soviet Union Soviet Union Parliament of the Republic of Moldova Romania Romania
Morocco Morocco Moroccan Declaration of Independence January 11 1944 France France Istiqlal Party
 Montenegro Montenegro declaration of independence June 3 2006 Serbia and Montenegro Serbia and Montenegro Assembly of the Republic of Montenegro Iceland Iceland
 Netherlands Act of Abjuration July 26 1581 Spanish Empire Spanish Empire Union of Utrecht
 New Zealand Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand October 28 1835 Māori chiefs United Kingdom United Kingdom[6]
Northern America
(present day Mexico Mexico)
Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America November 6 1813 Spain Spain Congress of Anáhuac
Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus November 15 1983 Cyprus Cyprus Turkey Turkey
 Norway
(Kingdom of Norway)
Declaration of Independence of Norway (short after[clarification needed], sovereign under the Swedish monarchy), and the Constitution of Norway May 17 1814 Denmark–Norway Denmark-Norway
(As of Treaty of Kiel)
Norwegian Constituent Assembly
 Padania Padanian Declaration of Independence September 15 1996 Italy Italy
 Pakistan Pakistan Resolution March 24 1940 United Kingdom United Kingdom Muslim League (Pakistan)
 Palestine Palestinian Declaration of Independence November 15 1988 Palestinian territories Palestinian National Council Arab League Arab League
Peru Act of the Declaration of Independence of Peru July 28 1821 Spain Spain José de San Martín
 Philippines Philippine Declaration of Independence June 12 1898 Spain Spain 98 representatives of Dictatorial Government of the Philippines[7] (ratified on September 29, 1898 by the Malolos Congress[8])
 Rhodesia Rhodesian Unilateral Declaration of Independence November 11 1965 United Kingdom United Kingdom Ian Smith and the rest of the Cabinet none
 Romania Romanian Declaration of Independence May 22 1877 Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire King Carol I
 Russia Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic June 11 1990 Soviet Union Soviet Union First Congress of People's Deputies of Russia
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Bir Lehlou declaration February 27 1976 Spanish Sahara Spanish Sahara Polisario Front Madagascar Madagascar
 Scotland Declaration of Arbroath April 6 1320 Kingdom of England England Scottish leaders
Serbia The Proclamation (Proglašenije/Проглашеније) February 1809 Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Karađorđe Petrović and Serbian MPs
Singapore Singapore Proclamation of Singapore[9] August 9 1965 Malaysia Malaysia[10][11] Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore United Kingdom United Kingdom
(confirmed earlier recognition)[12]
 Slovakia Slovak National Council's Declaration of Independence of the Slovak Nation July 17 1992 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Slovak National Council
 Slovenia Slovenian Declaration of Independence June 25 1991 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia Croatia Croatia
 Somaliland Somaliland Declaration of Independence May 18 1991 Somalia Somalia none
South Carolina Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union December 24 1860 United States United States South Carolinians in Charleston
 Sri Lanka Declaration of Independence of Sri Lanka (Then known as "Ceylon") February 4 1948 United Kingdom United Kingdom
Republic of Texas Texas Texas Declaration of Independence March 2 1836 Mexico France France
Texas A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union February 1 1861 United States United States Texas Legislature
 Tibet Tibet's Declaration of Independence February 13 1913 China 13th Dalai Lama none
 Turkmenistan Declaration of independence   1991 Soviet Union Soviet Union none Turkey Turkey
 Ukraine IV Universal January 22 1918 Russia Central Council of Ukraine
 Ukraine Declaration of Independence of Ukraine August 24 1991 Soviet Union Soviet Union Verkhovna Rada Poland Poland

Canada Canada[13]

 United States United States Declaration of Independence July 2[a] 1776 Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of Great Britain Second Continental Congress Kingdom of France France
 Uzbekistan Declaration of Independence August 31 1991 Soviet Union Soviet Union Supreme Council of Uzbekistan Turkey Turkey
 Venezuela Venezuelan Declaration of Independence July 5 1811 Spain Spain National Congress
Vermont Republic Vermont Republic Vermont Declaration of Independence January 15 1777 New York and New Hampshire United States United States
 Vietnam Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam September 2 1945 France France Hồ Chí Minh Soviet Union Soviet Union
Lower Canada Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada February 22 1838 United Kingdom United Kingdom Robert Nelson none

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Continental Congress voted in favor of the Declaration of Independence on July 2.[14] Versions were not printed until July 4 and later, while the signatories did not sign the Matlack declaration until August.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo" (PDF). Icj-cij.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  2. ^ Ashmore, Harry S., ed. (1961). "Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 11". p. 85. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  3. ^ "Murti Hadi SJ: Soegija Bukan Film Dakwah". filmindonesia.or.id.
  4. ^ Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957
  5. ^ "Inglaterra: primer país que reconoce la Independencia de México" (in Spanish). Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
  6. ^ The Lord Glenelg (25 May 1836), "EXTRACT of a DESPATCH from Lord GLENELG to Major-General Sir RICHARD BOURKE, New South Wales", written at London, Documents > Declaration of Independence, Christchurch: Waitangi Associates, retrieved 22 May 2010
  7. ^ Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. 2004. p. 162. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
  8. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 364. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
  9. ^ Singapore was forced out of Malaysia by the Malaysian parliament, and the proclamations were then agreed by the two governments. See the Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965 (1985 Rev. Ed.) and the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  10. ^ Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state
  11. ^ Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state/proclamation of singapore
  12. ^ Singapore Act 1966
  13. ^ Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0742510182 (page 100)
    Canadian Yearbook of International Law, Vol 30, 1992, University of British Columbia Press, 1993, ISBN 9780774804387 (page 371)
    Szporluk, Roman. Russia, Ukraine and the Breakup of the Soviet Union. Hoover Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-9543-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link), p. 355
  14. ^ A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation : U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates 1774-1875. Library of Congress. 2003. pp. 506–507. Tuesday July 2, 1776 [...] Resolved, That these United colonies are, and, of right, ought to be, Free and Independent States; that they are absolved of all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain, is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.
  15. ^ Coelho, Chris (2013), Timothy Matlack, Scribe of the Declaration of Independence, McFarland, p. 61, ISBN 978-0-7864-7443-1

External links[edit]