Decree of Turda

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Decree of Turda
Created 28 June 1366
Author(s) King Louis I of Hungary
Purpose Determination of procedural rules

The Decree of Turda was a decree by Louis I Anjou of Hungary.


King Louis I of Hungary stayed in Transylvania for six months—from October to April—in 1366.[1] On 28 June 1366, while residing in Torda (present-day Turda), the monarch issued a decree at the request of the Transylvanian noblemen.[2] The latter had informed the King that they "have been suffering, day by day, many troubles because of the evil arts of many malefactors, especially Romanians, ...because of their way of being and their disorderly behaviour".[3][4] The royal decree granted special privileges to the Transylvanian noblemen "in order to remove, from this country, malefactors belonging to any nation, especially Romanians".[4][5] For this purpose, the decree determines the rules of the legal procedure.[5]

Historians have not reached a consensual view of the exact circumstances of the issuing of the decree and its main purpose.[6] István Petrovics writes that the mobile way of life of the increasing Romanian population caused their conflicts with the sedentary Hungarians.[7] According to Ioan-Aurel Pop, the decree shows the Romanians' "muted resistance" against the monarch and the noblemen who had attempted to deprive them of their property, especially their inherited estates.[8]


  1. ^ Pop 2013, p. 467.
  2. ^ Pop 2013, p. 458.
  3. ^ Pop 2013, pp. 458-459.
  4. ^ a b Pop 2003, p. 122.
  5. ^ a b Pop 2013, p. 459.
  6. ^ Pop 2013, p. 461.
  7. ^ Petrovics 2009, p. 461.
  8. ^ Pop 2013, pp. 469-470.


  • Makkai, László (1994). "The Emergence of the Estates (1172–1526)". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit. History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 178–243. ISBN 963-05-6703-2. 
  • Petrovics, István (2009). "Foreign Ethnic Groups in the Towns of Southern Hungary in the Middle Ages". In Keene, Derek; Nagy, Balázs; Szende, Katalin. Segregation-Integration-Assimilation: Religious and Ethnic Groups in the Medieval Towns of Central and Eastern Europe. Ashgate. pp. 67–88. ISBN 978-0-7546-6477-2. 
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2003). "Nations and Denominations in Transylvania (13th-14th Century)". In Lévai, Csaba; Vese, Vasile. Tolerance and Intolerance in Historical Perspective. Plus. pp. 111–123. ISBN 88-8492-139-2. 
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2013). "De manibus Valachorum scismaticorum...": Romanians and Power in the Mediaeval Kingdom of Hungary: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Peter Lang Edition. ISBN 978-3-631-64866-7.