Dee Snider

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Dee Snider
Snider showing the Sign of the horns
Snider performing at Wacken Open Air 2016
Background information
Birth nameDaniel Snider
Born (1955-03-15) March 15, 1955 (age 67)
New York City, U.S.
Genres
Occupation(s)
  • Singer
  • songwriter
  • actor
  • radio personality
  • television personality
Years active1974–present
Member of
Formerly of
Websitedeesnider.com

Daniel "Dee" Snider[1] (born March 15, 1955)[1] is an American singer, songwriter, radio personality, and actor. He was the lead singer and songwriter of the heavy metal band Twisted Sister. He was ranked 83 in the Hit Parader's Top 100 Metal Vocalists of All Time.[2]

Early life[edit]

Born in Astoria, Queens, New York City, Snider was raised in nearby Freeport, New York and Baldwin, New York,[1][3] both on Long Island. His father, Bob, is a retired New York State Trooper and Nassau County court clerk, and his mother, Marguerite, is a retired art teacher.[4] His father is Jewish, whereas his mother is from a Catholic family of Swiss descent.[5] He is also of Ukrainian descent from his grandfather.[6] Snider and his siblings were raised as Episcopalians after his mother joined the church.[5]

As a child, he sang in a church choir, several school choruses, and concert choir in high school. Snider was also selected for the All-State Chorus for singing.[7] He graduated from Baldwin Senior High School in 1973.[8]

Career[edit]

1970s–1980s[edit]

In early 1976, Snider joined Twisted Sister and became the band's sole songwriter. The group released their first studio album, Under the Blade, in September 1982 and developed a following in the UK. Less than a year later, Twisted Sister released their second album, You Can't Stop Rock 'n' Roll. Their third album, Stay Hungry, hit shelves on May 10, 1984. This became the band's most successful record with the hits "We're Not Gonna Take It" and "I Wanna Rock." To emphasize the "twisted sister" image, Snider adopted a trademark persona of metal-inspired drag with long blond curly hair, an excessive amount of eye shadow and rouge, a beauty mark and bright red lipstick.

During the mid-1980s, before the premiere of Headbangers Ball, the first MTV program to consist entirely of heavy metal videos was Heavy Metal Mania. The first episode aired in June 1985 and was hosted by Snider. It featured metal news, interviews with metal artists, and in-studio co-hosts. That same year in November, Twisted Sister released Come Out and Play which sold over 500,000 copies in the US but was marred by a poor concert tour.

In 1985, Snider was involved in a Senate hearing instigated by the Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC), which sought to introduce a parental warning system that would label all albums containing offensive material. Prior to the PMRC's appearance in Congress, they had singled out a list of songs titled the "Filthy Fifteen" to demonstrate the dangers of such material to youth, with "We're Not Gonna Take It" featuring on the list alongside Prince's "Darling Nikki", Madonna's "Dress You Up", and Venom's "Possessed", among other titles. The PMRC proposed a system involving letters which identified the types of objectionable content to be found in each album (e.g., "O" for occult themes, "X" for sex and profanity, "D/A" for drugs and alcohol, "V" for violence, etc.). Snider, John Denver, and Frank Zappa all testified against censorship and the proposed warning system.[9] Though the system was never implemented, the hearing led to the music industry adopting what is now the generic "Parental Advisory: Explicit Content" label.

The PMRC involved prominent public figures such as Tipper Gore, the wife of Senator Al Gore (D-TN), and Susan Baker, the wife of then-Secretary of State James Baker. Tipper Gore and Snider had a publicly antagonistic relationship as a consequence, with Snider accusing her of having a "dirty mind" for alleging that the lyrics of "Under the Blade" contained sadomasochistic undertones, when they were in fact about medical surgery.[10] Snider also alleged during the Senate hearing that Tipper Gore had fabricated evidence concerning merchandise sold by the band when she stated that "the t-shirts that kids wear" featured "Twisted Sister and a woman in handcuffs sort of spread-eagled".[11] Snider challenged her to produce such a shirt, to which Al Gore clarified that "the word 't-shirts' was in plural, and one of them referred to Twisted Sister and the other referred to a woman in handcuffs".[12][13]

1987's Love Is for Suckers was the fifth Twisted Sister album. The record was originally planned to be a Snider solo effort, but Atlantic Records encouraged a release under the Twisted Sister name. Touring lasted only into October that year and on the 12th of that month, Snider announced his departure from the band. It was during this time that Snider formed Desperado, a band featuring ex-Iron Maiden drummer Clive Burr, ex-Gillan guitarist Bernie Torme, and bassist Marc Russel.[14] The group's only album, Ace, has never been officially released, but was heavily bootlegged on CD under the title Bloodied But Unbowed.

1990s[edit]

Snider performing in Manchester, England, in his iconic stage makeup

In the 1990s, Snider formed Widowmaker with Joe Franco, a good friend to Twisted Sister and drummer on the album Love Is for Suckers, as well as Al Pitrelli and Marc Russel. The quartet recorded two albums with limited underground success, titled Blood and Bullets and Stand By for Pain. In the late 1990s, Snider toured with a "self-tribute" band called Dee Snider's SMFs (Sick Mother Fuckers), sometimes featuring ex-Twisted Sister drummer A.J. Pero. The usual lineup included Snider, Derek Tailer, Charlie Mills, Keith Alexander, and Spike.

In 1993, he composed the theme song for The Terrible Thunderlizards. By 1994 Snider had, by his own admission, "lost every penny I made. I was riding a bicycle to a desk job for $200 a week answering phones in an office".[10]

In 1997, Snider began hosting The House of Hair, a syndicated 1980s hard rock/heavy metal radio show on over 200 radio stations across North America. It is syndicated by the United Stations Radio Networks. The show's format runs two or three hours depending on which version of the show a radio station carries and features Snider's closing catchphrase, "If it ain't metal, it's crap!"

In 1998, Snider had penned a song entitled "The Magic of Christmas Day (God Bless Us Everyone)," which Celine Dion recorded for her album These Are Special Times. According to Snider, Dion at the time was not aware of who wrote the song. Later that year, he also wrote and starred in the horror film Strangeland. Snider has also penned the script to a sequel with the working title of Strangeland: Disciple. In January 2008, however, Snider was less than optimistic that it would ever see the light of day, saying in an interview with Bullz-Eye.com that he had reached a point where he should "put a sign on my website that says, 'Y'got ten million dollars? Give me a call. I've got the script ready to go. Robert Englund's attached, I'm attached. If somebody's serious and wants to make it, call me. But don't call me 'til you're ready to hand the check over.'" In May 2009, Snider revealed on his radio show "The House of Hair" that Strangeland: Rising Sons will go ahead and is set to begin shooting in the fall of 2009 and was originally slated for a 2010 release. Snider indicated in a fall of 2016 interview that there was still no movement on the development of Strangeland: Disciple.

Radio 104 Dee Snider Euro Sticker

2000s–present[edit]

From June 1999 to August 2003, Snider hosted a morning radio show on a Hartford, Connecticut Clear Channel station, Radio 104 (104.1 FM WMRQ), called Dee Snider Radio. His show returned to the air at night in August 2004 on 93.3 WMMR in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania until June 2005. He fondly referred to his listeners as his "Peeps", and "DEE" euro stickers, printed by the station, could be seen on the bumpers of his fans' cars throughout Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Massachusetts. Other members of the morning show included Nick Lentino, Beth Lockwood, "Psycho Dan" Williams, Sean Robbins, and "Darkside Dave" Wallace.[15] He frequently featured high-profile guests, including Ozzy Osbourne, pro wrestler Mick Foley, and Kiss singer/bassist Gene Simmons.

In 2001, Snider was the voice of Gol Acheron, the main villain for the PlayStation 2 video game Jak and Daxter: The Precursor Legacy. The following year, he rejoined with the reunited Twisted Sister. Snider also played himself in the 2002 TV-movie Warning: Parental Advisory. In 2003, he appeared with actor Arnold Schwarzenegger at campaign events during his drive to recall incumbent California Governor Gray Davis. Snider sang the Twisted Sister hit, "We're Not Gonna Take It," which was adopted by the Schwarzenegger campaign.

Snider also voiced Angry Jack in the episode "Shell Shocked" for the Nickelodeon cartoon SpongeBob SquarePants. He admitted to being a massive fan of the show during an hour-long 10th anniversary documentary of the show in 2009, and to be asked to voice a character on the show was an absolute honor. He changed the lyrics of his famous "I Wanna Rock" to "Goofy Goober Rock" for The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie.

Snider narrates and hosts many shows and specials on VH1, film trailers, behind-the-scenes segments, and DVD special features. He was featured as the "voice" in the bumpers for MSNBC's 2001/2002 "Fiercely Independent" branding campaign.

In 2003, Snider collaborated on a Halloween-themed project called Van Helsing's Curse. The project's first album, Oculus Infernum, was released by Koch Records and featured a blend of heavy metal and orchestral elements in the style of Trans-Siberian Orchestra.[16] The band began touring in 2004 and later released a DVD of the concert entitled Live in Philly '05.[17]

Snider returned to radio in June 2006 with Fangoria Radio on Sirius Satellite Radio channel 102 from 9–12 Eastern.

Snider hosted VH1's 2008 "Aftermath" concert in remembrance of the victims and survivors of the 2003 Station nightclub fire. During the winter of 2008, Snider was featured as a contestant on CMT's Gone Country. The show invited musical celebrities to compete against each other to win the chance to release a country song. In 2008 Snider also appeared on the first episode of Kitchen Nightmares (Season 2), chosen by Gordon Ramsay as part of the marketing for the re-launch of the Handlebar restaurant. On the show, Snider donated a motorcycle on which Handlebar clientele could bid via the restaurant's website.

Snider hosts Dead Art on Gallery HD, a show about cemeteries' beauty and art. He also hosts House of Hair, a radio show that plays heavy metal music. Snider has made appearances on the IFC Channel's original series Z Rock as himself playing the character of a "rock guru."

On July 27, 2010,[18] Snider and his family began appearing in the reality television show Growing Up Twisted, airing on the Arts and Entertainment Network.

On October 8, 2010, started an 11-week run in the cast of Rock of Ages as Dennis, the owner of The Bourbon Room, with his official start date being October 11.[19]

In 2011, Snider performed with Ohio-based metalcore band Attack Attack! on stage at the Bamboozle Festival playing their song "Turbo Swag." On the May 15, 2011 episode of The Apprentice, Snider appeared to assist John Rich with his final challenge. He starred in a commercial featuring a mock audition where he came on as himself, and after drinking a soda turns into the lead singer from Twisted Sister (himself). Snider agreed to come because he is personal friends with Rich and wanted to support the charity effort for St. Jude Medical Center.

Snider guest starred in the video for "Immaculate Misconception" by the metalcore band Motionless in White.[20] Snider's son, Cody Blue Snider, directed the video.[21]

Snider performing in 2017

Snider and his family appeared on Celebrity Wife Swap January 10, 2012. His wife Suzette traded places with Flavor Flav's long-time fiancée Liz.[22]

On the Valentine's Day 2012 taping of Late Night with Jimmy Fallon, Snider partnered with Donald Trump in a skit based upon the format of the TV game show, Password. On February 19, 2012, Snider began appearing as one of 18 contestants vying to become Trump's next Celebrity Apprentice and was fired after the eighth task during the seventh episode.

In 2012, Snider appeared as the main character of a commercial airing for the company Unibet. The video[23] has been broadcast on commercial Norwegian television from March 5, 2012, thorough the whole summer. In the spot Snider sings, in his distinctive look as leader of Twisted Sister, a rock song called "Bet," written by Snider himself and composed by the Norwegian heavy metal artist Ronni Le Tekrø.

Snider asked Republican vice presidential running mate Paul Ryan's camp not to play his hit song in their campaign.[24]

On September 6, 2012, Snider performed "We're Not Gonna Take It" on America's Got Talent. Also in 2012, Snider played Larry, the owner of a dive bar in the mockumentary Future Folk[25] about an alien bluegrass band.

On January 24, 2013, at the City National Grove of Anaheim, Snider was honored as roastee at the Revolver Magazine/Guitar World Rock and Roll Roast of Dee Snider.[26]

On November 4, 2014, he debuted his original Christmas musical, Dee Snider's Rock and Roll Christmas Tale, at the Broadway Playhouse in Chicago.[27] During the 2015 Christmas season, he took the musical to Toronto.[28]

Snider provided the narration for Attack of Life: The Bang Tango Movie, which is a documentary film directed by Drew Fortier about the 1980s hard rock band Bang Tango.[29][30]

On May 27, 2021, Snider announced his new upcoming solo album Leave A Scar. He also released the single "I Gotta Rock (Again)" which he described as the "driving motivation" and "starting gun for this album".[31] Leave A Scar will be produced by Jamey Jasta, the lead singer of the band Hatebreed, with mixing and mastering done by Nick Bellmore.[32] The album features guest appearances by Cannibal Corpse's singer Corpsegrinder on the track "Time To Choose". Music videos were released for the songs "I Gotta Rock (Again)", "Down But Never Out", and "Time To Choose".[33] The album was released on July 30, 2021.

Uses of "We're Not Gonna Take It"[edit]

On July 11, 2013, after abortion rights activists sang "We're Not Gonna Take It" to protest abortion restrictions in Texas,[34] Snider tweeted that he is "pro-choice",[35] and that he did not believe that being Christian and "pro-choice" were mutually exclusive.[36]

In the wake of teachers' strikes in West Virginia and Oklahoma, Snider dedicated "We're Not Gonna Take It" to teachers during his "Rocktopia" performance at the Broadway Theatre in New York on April 9, 2018.[37] The song had become an anthem for protesting teachers in West Virginia, Kentucky, Oklahoma and elsewhere, and Snider had tweeted his "support [of the] underpaid teacher's cause" after seeing a video of music teachers in Oklahoma performing the song.[37]

In 2021, Snider objected to the use of the song by demonstrators in Fort Lauderdale protesting face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.[38] During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Snider approved the use of "We're Not Gonna Take It" by the Ukrainians.[39]

People are asking me why I endorsed the use of 'We're Not Gonna Take It' for the Ukrainian people and did not for the anti-maskers. Well, one use is for a righteous battle against oppression; the other is infantile feet stomping against an inconvenience.[39]

Personal life[edit]

Snider has been married to his wife Suzette, a costume designer, since 1981.[40] They have four children, Jesse Blaze Snider (born September 19, 1982), Shane Royal Snider (born February 29, 1988), Cody Blue Snider (born December 7, 1989), and Cheyenne Jean Snider (born October 31, 1996) who was in the band They All Float. He also has four grandchildren.

In the 1985 Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) Senate hearings, Snider stated: "I was born and raised a Christian, and I still adhere to those principles."[41]

In 2003, Snider's brother-in-law, Vincent Gargiulo, was murdered.[42] The killer was apprehended in 2009.

Snider lived part-time in East Setauket, New York.[43] He appeared on MTV Cribs in 2005 to show his Long Island home, along with two of his four children, Shane and Cheyenne.

In 2008, he stated in a TMZ interview that he would be voting for Barack Obama because John McCain (whom he liked and supported for many years) would not acknowledge George W. Bush's mistakes that he made while in office.[44]

Projects[edit]

Books[edit]

In 1987, Snider and co-author Philip Bashe published Dee Snider's Teenage Survival Guide, a self-help manual for adolescence.[45] His autobiography, Shut up and give me the mic, was published in 2012.[46] He wrote We're Not Gonna Take It, a children's book illustrated by Margaret McCartney, which was published in 2020.[47] In 2022, a graphic novel collaboration between Snider, writer Frank Marraffino, and artist Steve Kurth, was announced by Z2 Comics,[48] scheduled for publication in 2023.[49]

Bands[edit]

  • Twisted Sister (Disbanded 2016)
  • Desperado
  • Widowmaker
  • Bent Brother (Twisted Sister occasionally made small tours around the world, in full makeup, and previous to those performances, performed as Bent Brother, practicing their set and appearing without makeup, usually at reduced ticket prices)

Discography[edit]

Solo albums[edit]

Guest appearances[edit]

Tribute albums[edit]

Soundtracks[edit]

Other works[edit]

TV appearances[edit]

Radio appearances[edit]

Filmography[edit]

Voice-over work[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Dee Snider's Teenage Survival Guide with Philip Bashe, 1987, Dolphin/Doubleday
  • Shut Up and Give Me the Mic: a twisted memoir, 2012, Gallery Books
  • We're Not Gonna Take It: A Children's Picture Book, 2020, Akashic Books
  • Dee Snider: He's Not Gonna Take It with Frank Marraffino and Steve Kurth, 2023, Z2 Comics

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Tayler, Letta, Twisted Sister's Dee Snider remembers his challenging Long Island upbringing, "Newsday", March 15, 2016. Archived here
  2. ^ "Hit Parader's Top 100 Metal Vocalists of All Time". Hearya.com. December 4, 2006. Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  3. ^ Snider, Dee [@deesnider] (September 22, 2015). "Freeport and Baldwin Long Island. Born in Astoria Queens, NY" (Tweet). Archived from the original on March 1, 2022 – via Twitter.
  4. ^ "Long Island Journal: Once a Twisted Sister Now a Homebody". The New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  5. ^ a b Snider, Dee (2012). Dee Snider's Shut Up and Give Me the Mic. pp. 17–18.
  6. ^ Snider, Dee [@deesnider] (February 26, 2022). "I absolutely approve of Ukrainians using 'We're Not Gonna Take It' as their battlecry. My grandfather was Ukrainian, before it was swallowed up by the USSR after WW2. This can't happen to these people again!" (Tweet). Retrieved May 16, 2022 – via Twitter.
  7. ^ "Dee Snider". Newsday.com. August 18, 2004. Archived from the original on August 18, 2004.
  8. ^ "Sounding Off in Suburbia". Newsday. June 6, 2004. Archived from the original on June 6, 2004.
  9. ^ "33 Years Ago: Dee Snider Single-Handedly Humiliated Congress For The Whole World To See".
  10. ^ a b Grow, Kory (September 18, 2015). "Dee Snider on PMRC Hearing: 'I Was a Public Enemy'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  11. ^ "When Dee Snider fought against censorship in the '80s". October 29, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2021.
  12. ^ McPadden 9/21/2015, Mike. "6.66 Heavy Metal Highlights of the PMRC Hearings". VH1 News. Retrieved December 18, 2021.
  13. ^ "Committee On Commerce, Science, And Transportation". Joesapt.net. Retrieved December 18, 2021.
  14. ^ "About Desperado". Deesnider.com. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
  15. ^ Anderson, Kyle (November 29, 2010). "Dee Snider Reflects On His Time In Hartford On 'Dee Snider Radio'". MTV News. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  16. ^ Van Helsing's Curse Maximum Metal Reviews, Ken Pierce, June 2004
  17. ^ Van Helsing's Curse to Tour this Fall Brave Words, July 20, 2004
  18. ^ "Twisted Sister's Dee Snider gets A&E reality TV show". Newsday. May 11, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  19. ^ "Dee Snider (performer)". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  20. ^ "Twisted Sister Go BIblical for new video". Female First. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  21. ^ Burkart, Gregory (November 11, 2011). "Exclusive Premiere: Motionless In White's 'Immaculate Misconception' [NSFW]". Fearnet. Archived from the original on March 1, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  22. ^ "TV Shows". Abc.go.com. March 28, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
  23. ^ Reklame / commercial: Unibet, Ronny Johnsen (Manchester United) og Dee Snider (Twisted Sister) on YouTube
  24. ^ "Dee Snider To Paul Ryan: Stop Playing My Song". Associated Press. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
  25. ^ "The History of Future Folk". IMDb.com. 2012.
  26. ^ "The Guitar World & Revolver Rock & Roll Roast Comedy Show!". Rock and Roll Roast. June 20, 2014. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  27. ^ [1][dead link]
  28. ^ Slotek, Jim. "Twisted Sister's Dee Snider set to wow audiences with 'Rock 'n' Roll Christmas T". Torontosun.com. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  29. ^ Lucchese, J Cooch. "Dee Narrates Bang Tango Documentary". Deesnider.com. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  30. ^ "Twisted Sister's Dee Snider To Narrate Bang Tango Movie – Sleaze Roxx". sleazeroxx.com. June 3, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  31. ^ "Dee Snider Preps 'Leave a Scar' LP and Releases New Song". Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  32. ^ "Dee Snider: 'Leave A Scar' Album Details Revealed". May 27, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  33. ^ "Dee Snyder Releases Music Video For 'Down But Never Out' From 'Leave A Scar' Solo Album". July 30, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  34. ^ "Texas Senate prepares final vote on abortion bill". July 13, 2013. Archived from the original on July 13, 2013.
  35. ^ "Dee Snider on Twitter: "Don't know why some people are so shocked I'm Pro-choice. The first line of We're Not Gonna Take It is "We've got the right to choose!""". Twitter. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  36. ^ "Dee Snider on Twitter: "@FoxieNews Absolutely! Being a Christian and being pro choice are not mutually exclusive."". Twitter. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  37. ^ a b Chandler, Chris (April 11, 2018). "Twisted Sister frontman dedicates 'We're Not Gonna Take It' to teachers". Wlky.com. Hearst Television. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  38. ^ Huriash, Lisa J. (March 5, 2022). "Dee Snider slams anti-maskers in state in pro-Ukraine tweet". The Orlando Sentinel.
  39. ^ a b Lovece, Frank (March 2, 2022). "Snider OKs song as Ukrainian battle cry". Newsday. p. A18.
  40. ^ "Dee Snider - Biography". IMDb.com. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  41. ^ 'Dee Snider PMRC Senate Hearing Speech' (Full) on YouTube
  42. ^ Maddux, Mitchel (April 25, 2013). "Twisted Sister singer Dee Snider stands by wife Suzette at trial of LI killer gym rat". nypost.com.
  43. ^ "Dee Snider's House in East Setauket, NY". Virtual Globetrotting. August 25, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  44. ^ Dee Snider Talks About Obama on YouTube
  45. ^ Zvirin, Stephanie (August 8, 1987). "Dee Snider: unlikely candidate to advise teens". Indiana Gazette. p. 37.
  46. ^ "Shut Up and Give Me the Mic: A Twisted Memoir by Dee Snider". PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  47. ^ "We're not gonna take it". WorldCat.
  48. ^ Dominguez, Noah (June 30, 2022). "Twister Sister Frontman Dee Snider Debuts Anti-censorship 'He's Not Gonna Take It' Graphic Novel". CBR.
  49. ^ "Dee Snider: He's Not Gonna Take It". WorldCat.
  50. ^ "Dee Snider - Dee Does Broadway". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  51. ^ "We Are the Ones by Dee Snider on Apple Music". Itunes.apple.com. October 28, 2016. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  52. ^ Jones, Nate (February 2, 2014). "Celebrating Every '80s Reference in That RadioShack Super Bowl Commercial". People. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  53. ^ Iahn, Buddy (November 20, 2018). "AXS TV's 'The Top Ten Revealed' returns for second season". The Music Universe. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  54. ^ Iahn, Buddy (April 6, 2022). "AXS TV reveals 'Top Ten Revealed' & 'Year in Music' fifth season premieres". The Music Universe. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  55. ^ Schonter, Allison (June 21, 2021). "Dee Snider's Wife and Daughter Turn Heads During 'Celebrity Family Feud' Appearance". TV. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  56. ^ "MP3 File". Archive.org. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  57. ^ "Yes, Really: 'The Last Sharknado' May be the Best Sharknado - Bleeding Cool". August 19, 2018.

External links[edit]