Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment
|Location(s)||Fermilab, Sanford Underground Research Facility, Winfield Township, Lead, US|
|Related media on Wikimedia Commons|
The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a neutrino experiment under construction, with a near detector at Fermilab and a far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility that will observe neutrinos produced at Fermilab. It will fire an intense beam of trillions of neutrinos from a production facility at Fermilab (in Illinois) over a distance of 1,300 kilometers (810 mi) to an instrumented 70-kiloton volume of liquid argon located deep underground at the Sanford Lab in South Dakota. The neutrinos will travel in a straight line through the Earth, reaching about 30 kilometers (19 mi) underground near the mid-point; the far detector itself will be 1.5 kilometers (4,850 ft) under the surface). About 800,000 tons of rock will be excavated to create the caverns for the far detectors. More than 1,000 collaborators work on the project.
- a comprehensive investigation of neutrino oscillations to test CP violation in the lepton sector;
- determination the ordering of the neutrino masses;
- search for neutrinos beyond the currently known three;
- studies of supernovae and the formation of a neutron star or black hole;
- search for proton decay.
Funding and construction
The far detector current design is for four modules of instrumented liquid argon with a fiducial volume of 10 kilotons each. The first two modules are expected to be complete in 2024, with the beam operational in 2026. The final module is planned to be operational in 2027.
Excavation of the far detector cavities began on July 21, 2017, and prototype detectors are being constructed and tested at CERN. The first of the two prototypes, the single-phase ProtoDUNE (CERN experiment NP04), recorded its first particle tracks in September 2018. CERN's participation in DUNE marked a new direction in CERN’s neutrino’s research  and the experiments are referred to as part of the Neutrino Platform in the laboratory's research programme.
The project was originally started as a US-only project called the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE); in around 2012–2014 a descope was considered with a near-surface detector to reduce cost. However, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) concluded in its 2014 report that the research activity being pursued by LBNE "should be reformulated under the auspices of a new international collaboration, as an internationally coordinated and internationally funded program, with Fermilab as host", reverting to a deep-underground detector. The LBNE collaboration was officially dissolved on January 30, 2015, shortly after the new collaboration recommended by P5 was formed on January 22, 2015. The new collaboration selected the name Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).
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