Deep peroneal nerve
|Deep peroneal nerve|
Nerves of the right lower extremity Posterior view.
|From||common peroneal nerve|
|Innervates||anterior compartment of leg|
|Latin||Nervus fibularis profundus,
nervus peronaeus profundus
|Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy|
The deep peroneal nerve (deep fibular nerve) begins at the bifurcation of the common peroneal nerve between the fibula and upper part of the peroneus longus, passes infero-medially, deep to extensor digitorum longus, to the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, and comes into relation with the anterior tibial artery above the middle of the leg; it then descends with the artery to the front of the ankle-joint, where it divides into a lateral and a medial terminal branch.
It lies at first on the lateral side of the anterior tibial artery, then in front of it, and again on its lateral side at the ankle-joint.
The deep peroneal nerve begins at the bifurcation of the common peroneal nerve (into the superficial and deep peroneal nerves), between the fibula and upper part of the peroneus longus, passes infero-medially, deep to extensor digitorum longus, to the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, and comes into relation with the anterior tibial artery above the middle of the leg; it then descends with the artery to the front of the ankle-joint, where it divides into lateral and medial terminal branches.
Medial terminal branch
The medial terminal branch (internal branch) accompanies the dorsalis pedis artery along the dorsum of the foot, and, at the first interosseous space, divides into two dorsal digital nerves which supply the adjacent sides of the great and second toes, communicating with the medial dorsal cutaneous branch of the superficial peroneal nerve.
Lateral terminal branch
The lateral terminal branch (external or tarsal branch) passes across the tarsus, beneath the extensor digitorum brevis, and, having become enlarged like the dorsal interosseous nerve at the ankle, supplies the extensor digitorum brevis.
The first of these sends a filament to the second interosseus dorsalis muscle.
It runs with the lateral tarsal artery.
In the leg, the deep peroneal nerve supplies muscular branches to the anterior compartment of extensor muscles in the leg which include the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius, and extensor hallucis longus (propius), and an articular branch to the ankle-joint. After its bifurcation past the ankle joint, the lateral branch of the deep peroneal nerve innervates the extensor digitorum brevis and the extensor hallucis brevis, while the medial branch goes on to provide cutaneous innervation to the webbing between the first and second digits.
Damage to the deep peroneal nerve, as is possible with traumatic injury to the lateral knee, results in foot drop. The deep peroneal nerve is also subject to injury resulting from lower motor neuron disease, diabetes, ischemia, and infectious or inflammatory conditions. Injury to the common peroneal nerve is the most common isolated mononeuropathy of the lower extremity and produces sensory problems on the lateral lower leg in addition to foot drop.
- Anatomy photo:16:st-0601 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Foot: Nerves"