Deep integration

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Deep integration, as defined by Simone Claar and Andrea Nölke, means trade agreements which not only contain rules on tariffs and conventional non-tariff trade restrictions, but which also regulate the business environment in a more general sense. Issues of deep integration include competition policy, investor rights, product standards, public procurement and intellectual property rights, for example.[1]

Canada and United States[edit]

Deep integration can also specifically refer to the harmonization of policies and regulations of Canada and the United States. Some (who?) believe that doing so will result in the formation of a new North American Union that will allow the United States to take over Canada.

Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru[edit]

In 2011, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru initiated steps to create a Deep Integration bloc. [2] [3]

It is called "The Pacific Alliance".[4]


See also[edit]