State within a state
State within a state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("deep state"), such as the armed forces and civilian authorities (intelligence agencies, police, administrative agencies and branches of governmental bureaucracy), does not respond to the civilian political leadership. Although the state within the state can be conspiratorial in nature, the Deep State can also take the form of entrenched unelected career civil servants acting in a non-conspiratorial manner, to further their own interests (e.g., job security, enhanced power and authority, pursuit of ideological goals and objectives, and the general growth of their agency) and in opposition to the policies of elected officials, by obstructing, resisting, and subverting the policies and directives of elected officials. The term, like many in politics, derives from the Greek language (κράτος εν κράτει, kratos en kratei, later adopted into Latin as imperium in imperio or status in statu).
Sometimes, the term refers to state companies that, though formally under the command of the government, act de facto like private corporations. Sometimes, the term refers to companies that, though formally private, act de facto like "states within a state".
Certain political debates surrounding the separation of church and state revolve around the perception that if left unchecked, the Church might turn into a kind of State within a State, an illegitimate outgrowth of the State's natural civil power.
Alleged cases of state within a state
- Algeria's Department of Intelligence and Security
- Cameroon's Cameroon Development Corporation
- Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood
- Egypt's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Central and South America
- Brazil's Army between the 1940s and 1980s
- British Guiana's Booker-McConnell
- Guatemala's United Fruit Company
- Honduras's United Fruit Company
- PDVSA in pre-Chávez Venezuela
Russia and the Soviet Union
- Russia's FSB
- Russian Empire's Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery, Okhrana, Special Corps of Gendarmes
- Russian Tsardom's Oprichnina
- Soviet Union's Cheka, NKVD, KGB
Turkey and the Ottoman Empire
- Ottoman Empire's Committee of Union and Progress
- Ottoman Empire's Janissaries
- Ottoman Empire's Karakol society
- Ottoman Empire's Young Turks
- Deep state in Turkey
- Turkey's (and worldwide) Gülen Movement
- Francoist Spain's military forces
- Imperial Japan's Army and the Kwantung Army
- Ministry of Finance (Japan)
- Iran's IRGC
- Iran's SAVAK
- Italy's Propaganda Due
- Jordan's PLO
- Lebanon's PLO
- Lebanon's Hezbollah
- North Korea's OGD, State Security Department
- North Korea's Korean People's Army
- Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
- Persia Safavid Dynasty's Qizilbash
- Philippines' Iglesia ni Cristo
- Republic of Vietnam's ARVN
- United Kingdom's MI5 and City of London Corporation
- United States' Intelligence Community, military–industrial complex, CIA or NSA
- See also Deep state in the United States
- Shadow government (conspiracy)
- Fifth column
- Deep state in the United States
- Civilian control of the military
- Monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force
- Puppet government
- Military coup
- Military dictatorship
- Smoke-filled room
- Power behind the throne
- List of conspiracy theories
- from Baruch Spinoza: Tractatus politicus, Caput II, § 6.
- Daniel De Leon: "Imperium in imperio" in: Daily People, June 4, 1903.
- Cf William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England, IV, c.4 ss. iii.2, p. *54, where the charge of being imperium in imperio was notably levied against the Church
- "Great Seal of Ohio". Ohio History. 10: 392–393.
- Knabenshue, S. S. "The Great Seal of Ohio". Ohio History. 10: 489–490.
- BBC On This Day: May 26, 1981
- Who Controls Pakistan's Powerful ISI?, Radio Free Europe, August 14, 2008
- "Pakistan's shadowy secret service, the ISI". BBC News. 3 May 2011.
- Ambinder, Marc; Grady, D.B. (2013). Deep State: Inside the Government Secrecy Industry. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118146682.
- Priest, Dana; Arkin, William M. (2011). Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316182214. Lay summary – The Quiet Coup: No, Not Egypt. Here. (July 9, 2013).
- Scott, Peter Dale (March 10, 2014). "The State, the Deep State, and the Wall Street Overworld". The Asia-Pacific Journal. 12 (10, No. 5).
- Jordan Michael Smith (October 19, 2014). "Vote all you want. The secret government won't change.". The Boston Globe.
- Michael J. Glennon (2014). "National Security and Double Government" (PDF). Harvard National Security Journal. 5.
- Lofgren, Mike (2016). The Deep State: The Fall of the Constitution and the Rise of a Shadow Government. Viking. ISBN 0525428348. Lay summary – Controlled by shadow government: Mike Lofgren reveals how top U.S. officials are at the mercy of the “deep state” (January 6, 2016).