Deer Lodge, Montana

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Deer Lodge
Deer Lodge MT - aerial.jpg
Location of Deer Lodge, Montana
Location of Deer Lodge, Montana
Deer Lodge is located in the United States
Deer Lodge
Deer Lodge
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 46°23′46″N 112°43′59″W / 46.39611°N 112.73306°W / 46.39611; -112.73306Coordinates: 46°23′46″N 112°43′59″W / 46.39611°N 112.73306°W / 46.39611; -112.73306
CountryUnited States
 • Total1.51 sq mi (3.91 km2)
 • Land1.51 sq mi (3.91 km2)
 • Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
4,567 ft (1,392 m)
 • Total3,111
 • Estimate 
 • Density1,888.15/sq mi (729.19/km2)
Time zoneUTC-7 (Mountain (MST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-6 (MDT)
ZIP code
Area code(s)406
FIPS code30-19825
GNIS feature ID0782261

Deer Lodge is an incorporated city in, and the county seat of, Powell County, Montana, United States.[4] The population was 3,111 at the 2010 census. The city is perhaps best known as the home of the Montana State Prison, a major local employer. The Montana State Hospital in Warm Springs, and former state tuberculosis sanitarium in nearby Galen are the result of the power the western part of the state held over Montana at statehood due to the copper and mineral wealth in that area.[5] Deer Lodge was also once an important railroad town, serving as a division headquarters for the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad ("the Milwaukee Road") before the railroad's local abandonment in 1980.

The current Montana State Prison occupies a campus 3.5 miles (5.6 km) west of town. The former prison site, at the south end of Deer Lodge's Main Street, is now the Old Prison Museum. In addition to a former cellblock building, the museum complex includes a theater, antique and automobile museums, and a former Milwaukee Road "Little Joe" electric locomotive.

Powell County Courthouse, Deer Lodge

Deer Lodge is also the location of Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, dedicated to the interpretation of the frontier cattle ranching era. This site was the home of Conrad Kohrs, one of the famous "Cattle Kings" of Montana whose land holdings once stretched over a million acres (4,000 km2) of Montana, Wyoming, and Alberta, Canada. The Grant-Kohrs ranch was built in 1862 by Johnny Grant, a Scottish/French/Metis fur-trader and trapper who encouraged his people to settle in Deer Lodge because of its pleasant climate and large areas of bunch grass prairie, ideal for raising cattle and horses. The city's name derives from a geological formation known as Warm Springs Mound which contained natural saline that made for a natural salt lick for the local deer population, the protected valley in which Deer Lodge is located was where most of the local wildlife would winter as the temperatures lowered in the high country.[6]

Deer Lodge was the site of the College of Montana, the first institution of higher learning in the state.


Extant mentions of the Deer Lodge Valley prior to 1860 are found as occasional remarks in records written for other purposes.[7][8][9] Consistent record-keeping begins with the writings of Granville Stuart and others in the early 1860s.[10][11][12][a] 1860 marks the beginning of permanent occupation of both the valley and the future site of the city of Deer Lodge by European-Americans.[13][14]

Fur Trade Era[edit]

Before 1860, the Deer Lodge Valley was not the territory of any American Indian group.[15] Gatherings were held there, including horse races.[16] American Indian groups from the west, Flatheads, Pend d'Oreilles et al. passed through the valley as an alternative route to and from the buffalo hunting grounds to the east.[17][18]

The first documented visit to this area by European-American explorers occurred in 1805–1806, when Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery expedition passed by the Deer Lodge Valley without entering it.[19] Evidence of earlier incursion, probably by Spaniards, was noted by miner James B. Beattle on Sugar Loaf mountain in the Race Track mining district [20] on the west side of the Deer Lodge Valley.[21]

Early European trapper/traders passing through the valley referred to it as "the Deer House Plains". The Clark Fork river was called the Arrow Stone river in the 1830s.[17] By the 1850s it was called the Deer Lodge Creek/Hellgate River.[22] Catholic Father Pierre-Jean De Smet brought the first wagons known to have passed through the valley, in 1841.[9]

In 1846, the Deer Lodge Valley became part of the United States and Oregon Territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty by the U. S. and Great Britain. From 1853 to 1863 it was in Washington Territory, then briefly part of Idaho Territory until the creation of Montana Territory in 1864.[23][b]

European-American settlement of the valley gained momentum during the 1850s and 60's, with the primary site being at present-day Deer Lodge. During the 1850s, trapper/traders from Fort Hall began wintering herds of horses and cattle in the valley.[24] Also during that decade placer gold finds were made near present-day Gold Creek, first in 1852 by Francois (Bennetsee) Findley, followed in 1856 by Hereford, Saunders, Madison et al.,[25] and in 1858–61 by James and Granville Stuart, Reese Anderson et al.[26] In 1860–62, Lt. John Mullan oversaw construction of the Mullan Road, which connected Walla Walla, Washington Territory with Fort Benton, then in Dakota Territory.[27] The Mullan Road passed through the north end of the Deer Lodge Valley.

European-American Settlement, Montana Gold Rush[edit]

Johnny Grant in his prime

John Francis (Johnny) Grant built the first permanent structures in the valley in 1859–60, at Grantsville near present-day Garrison.[14] Grant had begun grazing cattle and horse herds in the north valley several years previously and "wintered over" there in 1857–58.[28] In 1860, feeling as he said "lonely", he returned to Fort Hall for summer trading and induced several fellow trader/trappers and their families to return to the valley with him at the end of the season.[c] Instead of locating at Grantsville, his friends chose to build at the site of present-day Deer Lodge, where several Mexican trapper/traders and their Metis families had already established the seasonal settlement of Spanish Fork.[e] While Johnny Grant had been at Fort Hall, several people had come from Fort Union down the Mullan Road route and begun building homes at Grantsville.[32][f]

In 1861, the Stuart brothers and Reese Anderson established American Fork near present-day Gold Creek.[26] Also in that year Johnny Grant moved his large family to his newly built house at Deer Lodge, at the present-day site of Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site.[33][g] During the next two years, placer gold discoveries at Grasshopper Creek, Alder Gulch and other locations to the south caused a population decline in the valley, including the abandoning of Grantsville and American Fork.[34] Beginning in 1864 with gold strikes to the north, Deer Lodge City grew rapidly as a base for supplies to mines in the surrounding mountains.[13]

Montana Territory[edit]

By 1861–1862, Spanish Fork was more often referred to as Cottonwood.[35][36] In 1862, a Deer Lodge Town Committee was established to lay out the town site, to be called LaBarge City, after Missouri River steamboat Captain Joseph LaBarge whose firm, LaBarge, Harkness & Company,[37] had proposed to start a business in Cottonwood.[h][i] Creation of Idaho Territory in 1863 induced a name change to Idaho City.[39] And with the 1864 designation of Montana Territory, Deer Lodge City became the choice. Montana's first territorial legislature defined most of the boundaries of Deer Lodge County, establishing the county seat at the placer mining camp of Silver Bow City, near Butte. In September 1865, county voters transferred the seat to Deer Lodge City.[36][40]

During the first half of the 1860s, Granville Stuart described valley social life as including many gay dances and parties,[41] which was the way of the Metis.[42] By 1866, Johnny Grant and many of his fellow Metis had become disenchanted with their increasingly numerous neighbors from "the States".[43] In that year, Grant sold most of his Deer Lodge Valley holdings to Conrad Kohrs and in 1867 led a mass exodus of Metis families to the Red River country of Manitoba, Canada.[44][j][k]

In 1869, the Territorial Prison was located at Deer Lodge.[46] Also that year, the town site plat for Deer Lodge City was recorded.[13] In 1878, Montana Collegiate Institute was established at Deer Lodge City. It opened for classes in 1883 and closed in 1914.[47]

Attorney Horace Clagett, of the Deer Lodge firm Clagett and Dixon, was elected U.S. Representative from Montana Territory for the 1871–73 term. He was defeated for reelection by Martin Maginnis. Clagett was noted for introducing the legislation establishing Yellowstone National Park. Clagett's partner, William W. Dixon, later moved to Butte and upset Thomas H. Carter in 1891 to serve a single term as U.S. Representative from the State of Montana.

Clagett and Dixon platted the first addition to Deer Lodge City, in 1872.[48] Perhaps its most prominent building was the former St. Joseph's Hospital.[l]

State of Montana, Powell County[edit]

Deer Lodge City was incorporated in 1888,[49] with a mayor and aldermen as officers. Montana achieved statehood in 1889 and a battle ensued between Helena and Anaconda over the location of the capitol in which Helena finally triumphed in 1894.[50][51] In 1896, Anaconda took the Deer Lodge County seat away from Deer Lodge. This began a battle which culminated in the creation of Powell County in 1901, with its county seat at Deer Lodge.[52][m][n]

Frank Conley[edit]

Mayoral portrait of Frank Conley, mayor of Deer Lodge, Montana (with breaks) from 1892 until 1928

After statehood, the State of Montana let a contract to run Montana State Prison, which was awarded to Frank Conley and Thomas McTague.[56] They held the contract until 1908. In that year, the State took over running Montana State Prison, appointing Frank Conley as warden.[57] Conley remained in that capacity until 1921, when Governor Joseph M. Dixon replaced Conley with M. W. Potter.[58] The Governor then commissioned an investigation of Conley's administration. This resulted in the MacDonald Report, which would be used as the basis for a civil lawsuit by the State of Montana against Conley.[59] The year following, Montana Attorney General Wellington Rankin[60] sued Conley for misuse of state funds and materials, in the case State of Montana vs Frank Conley The case took three months to try and resulted in the State of Montana being ordered to reimburse Conley.[61][62] Deer Lodge City celebrated with a victory party.[63][64]

Frank Conley was elected the fifth (1892–93), seventh (1895–1903) and tenth (1907–1928) mayor of Deer Lodge City.[65] When he resigned for the last time, an article in the Billings Gazette called him 'the longest serving mayor in American history'. Mayor Conley was instrumental in bringing the division headquarters and shops of the Milwaukee Road to Deer Lodge City in 1910.[66] Over the next decade, he presided over upbuilding the town's infrastructure to accommodate the rapidly expanding population. He was also responsible for the building of the City Hall.[citation needed]

Montana State Prison[edit]

In 1908, inmates W.A. Hayes and George Rock killed guard John Robinson and seriously wounded Warden Conley in an attempted prison breakout.[67] In 1959, a prolonged riot occurred at the prison, led by Jerry Miles and Lee Smart, which resulted in the slaying of Deputy Warden Ted Rothe and the eventual suicides of Miles and Smart.[68] All inmates were moved in 1977–79 to a new state prison facility outside of Deer Lodge. The town of Deer Lodge employs the Powell County Museum & Arts Foundation to manage the old facility as a museum.

Superfund Site[edit]

In the 1870s, Butte developed into a rich silver mining camp.[69] Marcus Daly's discovery of rich copper veins in his Anaconda mine launched the Copper Kings era at Butte. In 1883, Daly established his smelter facilities at newly platted Anaconda, Montana.[70] Anaconda immediately became Deer Lodge County's major population center and employer. Smelting activities at Butte and Anaconda left behind enormous amounts of toxic wastes. Flooding on Silver Bow Creek and Warm Springs Creek, particularly in the great valley flood of 1908,[71][o] spread toxic wastes from Butte through Deer Lodge City, to the Milltown Dam,[p] just east of Missoula.[73][74] As a result of legal actions begun in 1983 and culminating in 2008, the course of the Clark Fork River from Anaconda to the Milltown Dam was declared to be a Superfund cleanup site. Cleanup costs are financed from the settlement with ARCO (now BP-ARCO).[75][q][r]

Economic Decline[edit]

Interstate 90 bypassed Deer Lodge in 1960. In 1961, the Milwaukee Road ended its Olympian Hiawatha passenger trains. Limited passenger service between Minneapolis and Deer Lodge continued until 1964, at which time all Milwaukee Road passenger service to Deer Lodge ended.[s]

In the 1970s, the Anaconda Copper Company suffered financial setbacks which ultimately caused its 1977 merger with ARCO. By 1982, ARCO had closed down the smelter at Anaconda and stopped mining copper at Butte.[76][t] In 1980, the Milwaukee Road shut down its western extension. All of its infrastructure from Seattle, Washington to Miles City, Montana was torn out, including the rails themselves.[77][u]


Deer Lodge in 1869[78]

Deer Lodge is located at 46°23′46″N 112°43′59″W / 46.39611°N 112.73306°W / 46.39611; -112.73306 (46.396183, -112.732922).[79]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.44 square miles (3.73 km2), all land.[80]


This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold—sometimes severely cold—winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Deer Lodge has an Alpine influenced climate Semi Arid climate,[81]


Historical population
Census Pop.
2019 (est.)2,853[3]−8.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[83]
2015 Estimate[84]

As of the census[2] of 2010, the city of Deer Lodge had lost about one third of its peak census population of 1960.[v] Powell County continued its century-long trend of adding about 10 people per year to its population[2][85]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 3,111 people, 1,386 households, and 847 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,160.4 inhabitants per square mile (834.1/km2). There were 1,549 housing units at an average density of 1,075.7 per square mile (415.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 96.8% White, 0.6% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.6% Asian, and 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population.

There were 1,386 households, of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.9% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 38.9% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.79.

The median age in the city was 45.7 years. 22.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 6.3% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 20.3% were from 25 to 44; 30.4% were from 45 to 64; and 20.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.7% male and 50.3% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[86] of 2000, there were 3,421 people, 1,442 households, and 911 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,369.3 people per square mile (917.3/km2). There were 1,593 housing units at an average density of 1,103.3 per square mile (427.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 95.67% White, 0.03% African American, 1.02% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 0.61% from other races, and 2.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.84% of the population.

There were 1,442 households, out of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.8% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.3% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,859, and the median income for a family was $36,108. Males had a median income of $27,903 versus $20,227 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,883. About 8.7% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.3% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over.


The Silver State Post is Powell County's only newspaper. KBCK (1400 AM) and KQRV (96.9 FM) are two local radio stations licensed in Deer Lodge.

Government and infrastructure[edit]

The United States Postal Service operates the Deer Lodge Post Office.[87]

The Montana Department of Corrections operates the current Montana State Prison facility in a nearby unincorporated area in Powell County, near Deer Lodge.[88]

Deer Lodge-City-County Airport is a public use airport located 2 miles west of town.


Deer Lodge Schools educates students from kindergarten through 12th grade.[89] High school education in Powell County is served by Powell County High School located in Deer Lodge. In recent years[when?] the school has had an enrollment of about 300 students. The school currently competes athletically in the 6B conference with Superior, Missoula Loyola, Valley Christian, Darby and Florence. Although being in existence since 1903 the school won its first athletic team state championship in golf in 2005.[citation needed] The team name is the Wardens.[90]

The William K. Kohrs Memorial Library, built in Deer Lodge in 1902, is "the only dedicated public library in Powell County."[91] The Kohrs library is modeled after the Carnegie Libraries. "It was built "for $30,000 by pioneer cattle baron Conrad Kohrs and his wife Augusta as a memorial to their son."[91] As of December 2012, the library was struggling financially, and was operating without a library director.[91]

Notable people[edit]

The following individuals are either notable current or former residents of Deer Lodge (R), were born or raised in Deer Lodge in their early years (B), or otherwise have a significant connection to the history of the Deer Lodge area (C).

Film credits[edit]

Deer Lodge has been a filming location for a number of movies including:

UFO documentary[edit]

In a 2004 documentary titled The Secret of Redgate by Lynda J. Cowen and Jim Marrs, a number of Deer Lodge residents explain about their experiences with extraterrestrial beings and the rumours surrounding these events. These occurrences which date back some fifty years took place at a location named Redgate on the eastside of Deer Lodge.[95]


  1. ^ Here I assume absence of evidence (for continuous writings before 1861) to be evidence of absence.
  2. ^ Eastern and western Montana were first joined as part of Idaho Territory[23]
  3. ^ Johnny Grant noted that Louis Deschenault, Leon Quesnelle, Louis Demers, David Contois, Fred Burr, the Stuart boys (James & Granville), the Cosgrove boys, Jackson, Jack Meek and two sons of Michaud Leclerc came back with him. They mostly settled at Spanish Fork/Cottonwood.[29]
  4. ^ Pizanthia, also called "the greaser", was executed at Virginia City in 1864 by vigilantes for killing George Copely and wounding Smith Ball.[30]
  5. ^ Included were Thomas Lavatta, Joe Hill, Alejo Barasta, Joe Pizanthia[d] et al and their families.[31]
  6. ^ These included Joe Prudhomme and "quite a number of families" associated with the American Fur Company[29]
  7. ^ This is still the main house at Grant-Kohrs.
  8. ^ Capt. LaBarge's partner, James Harkness, embarked from St. Louis to Fort Benton to Cottonwood/Deer Lodge City in 1862 to explore business possibilities. After spending a week in the valley, he dropped the idea and returned to St. Louis.[38]
  9. ^ La Barge, Wyoming is named for Capt. LaBarge's father.
  10. ^ Grant reported that his party had 62 wagons, 12 carts and about 500 horses. There were 106 men plus their families. People were bound variously for Manitoba or for "the states"[45]
  11. ^ A large and well-armed force was considered necessary as they were passing through territory controlled by Blackfeet and Sioux.
  12. ^ W. B. Dance's addition was also platted in 1872.
  13. ^ In 1894, the name 'Deer Lodge City' was changed to 'Deer Lodge'.[53]
  14. ^ On March 8, 1901, an act of the state legislature changed the names of Deer Lodge County to Daly County and Powell County to Deer Lodge County.[54] On April 8, 1901, this action was nullified by the Montana Supreme Court, reverting the two counties to their previous names[55]
  15. ^ Significant flooding in the valley also occurred in 1887, 1892, 1894, 1899 and 1902.[72]
  16. ^ One reason the earlier floods had less obvious impact was that the Milltown Dam didn't exist until early 1908, when W. A. Clark had it constructed to support his lumber mill at the site.
  17. ^ As of 2016, fish are reported to be in the Deer Lodge River and white-tailed deer are frequently seen in the valley.
  18. ^ The clean-up of the area of Butte and Silver Bow Creek down to Anaconda is a separate superfund site.
  19. ^ The previous major highway through the Deer Lodge Valley, US 10, ran down Main Street in Deer Lodge. Both US 10 and the Milwaukee Road contributed patrons for Deer Lodge businesses. Also, I90 made it easier for people in the Deer Lodge area to get to Butte and Missoula to do business.
  20. ^ A number of smelter employees lived in Deer Lodge.
  21. ^ The Milwaukee Road was perhaps the biggest employer in Deer Lodge.
  22. ^ Within Powell County in the 2010 census, Deer Lodge was the only incorporated town with more than 250 people.
  1. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  3. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  5. ^ Kinsey, Joseph. Montana: High, Wide, and Handsome. N.p.: Bison, n.d., p. 65.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-09-14. Retrieved 2008-10-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Ferris 1940, Chapter XIX.
  8. ^ Mullan 1855, Papers Annexed to Report: # 24, p. 342-345.
  9. ^ a b Where It All Began 1989, p. 14.
  10. ^ Stuart, James & Granville (1866). Joint Diary: 1861-1866. Beinecke Library, Yale: Western Americana Collection 449.
  11. ^ Officers and Members (1876). Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. I. Helena, Montana: Rocky Mountain Publishing Company., pp 46-56
  12. ^ "Letters From (various)". The Montana Post. Virginia City, Montana.articles and advertisements - 1864-1869
  13. ^ a b c Powell County Museum and Arts Foundation: Historic Action Committee (1989). Powell County: Where It All Began. Powell County Museum & Arts Foundation., p. 118
  14. ^ a b Grant, John Francis; ed: Gerhard J. Ens (2008). A Son of the Fur Trade:The Memoirs of Johnny Grant. The University of Alberta Press. ISBN 978-0-88864-491-6.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link), Chapter 26
  15. ^ Where It All Began 1989, p. 13.
  16. ^ Where It All Began 1989, p. 102.
  17. ^ a b Ferris, Warren Angus, edited by Paul C. Phillips (1940). Life in the Rocky Mountains; etc. Denver, Col.: F. A. Rosenstock, Old West Pub. Co.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link), Chapter XIX
  18. ^ Ferris 1940, Curious Indian Letter.
  19. ^ Lewis, Meriwether; Clark, William (January 26, 2013). "THE JOURNALS OF LEWIS AND CLARK". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  20. ^ "none". The Philipsburg Mail. Philipsburg, Montana. June 16, 1887., p. 4, col. 3
  21. ^ Cushman, Dan (1966). The Great North Trail. McGraw-Hill Book Company., p. 67
  22. ^ Mullan, John; et al. (1855). Reports on Explorations and Surveys etc., Vol. I. Washington, DC: Beverley Tucker, Printer., Papers Annexed to Report: # 24, p. 342-345
  23. ^ a b Malone, Michael P.; Roeder, Richard B.; Lang, William L. (1976). Montana: A History of Two Centuries. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97129-0., p. 94
  24. ^ A Son of the Fur Trade 2008, Introduction xii.
  25. ^ Leeson, Michael A. (1885). History of Montana:1739-1885. Chicago: Warner, Beers and Company., p. 209
  26. ^ a b Where It All Began 1989, p. 15.
  27. ^ McDermott, Paul D.; Grim, Ronald E.; Mobley, Philip (2015). The Mullan Road, etc. Missoula, Montana: Montana Press Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87842-632-4.
  28. ^ A Son of the Fur Trade 2008, p. 66.
  29. ^ a b A Son of the Fur Trade 2008, p. 94.
  30. ^ Langford, Nathaniel Pitt (1893). Vigilante Days and Ways: The Pioneers of the Rockies. 2. New York and St. Paul: D. D. Merrill Company., Chapter XI: Death of Pizanthia
  31. ^ History of Montana:1739-1885 1885, pp. 551–552.
  32. ^ A Son of the Fur Trade 2008, Chapter 26 and 27.
  33. ^ "Grant-Kohrs Ranch:John Francis Grant". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  34. ^ Where It All Began 1989, p. 54.
  35. ^ A Son of the Fur Trade 2008, p. 99.
  36. ^ a b History of Montana:1739-1885 1885, p. 560.
  37. ^ "Joseph LaBarge (1815-1899)". The State Historical Society of Missouri. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  38. ^ Contributions to the Historical Society, II 1896, pp. 343–361.
  39. ^ Where It All Began 1989, p. 117.
  40. ^ Officers and Members (1896). Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana. II. Helena, Montana: State Publishing Company., p. 65
  41. ^ Where It All Began 1989, pp. 186–187.
  42. ^ A Son of the Fur Trade 2008, Chapter 47.
  43. ^ A Son of the Fur Trade 2008, Chapter 41.
  44. ^ A Son of the Fur Trade 2008, Chapter 41 & 50.
  45. ^ A Son of the Fur Trade 2008, p. 170.
  46. ^ Where It All Began 1989, p. 148, 232.
  47. ^ Where It All Began 1989, pp. 137–141.
  48. ^ "TWO LOTS EACH...FRONTING ON Second Street...Clagett and Dixon's addition". New North West. Deer Lodge, Montana. July 20, 1872.
  49. ^ Deer Lodge City Council Minutes. Records vault at Deer Lodge, Montana City Hall., Book 1
  50. ^ Where It All Began 1989, p. 167.
  51. ^ Kohrs, Conrad (1998). Conrad Kohrs: Autobiography of a Pioneer Cattleman. Wildcat Press. ISBN 978-1-88913-500-7., p. 95
  52. ^ Where It All Began 1989, pp. 164–166.
  53. ^ Where It All Began 1989, pp. 378.
  54. ^ Montana Legislature (1901). Laws and Resolutions of the State of Montana Passed at the Seventh Regular Session of the Legislative Assembly. Helena: State Publishing Company., Senate Bill No. 84
  55. ^ Crane, Oliver T., editor (1902). Reports of Cases Argued and Determined by the Supreme Court of the State of Montana From January 7, 1901, to August 1, 1901. San Francisco: Bancroft-Whitney Company.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  56. ^ Edgerton, Keith (2004). Montana Justice. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-29580-003-5., p. 70
  57. ^ "STATE WILL RUN PENETENTIARY, FRANK CONLEY WILL BE WARDEN". Anaconda Standard. Anaconda, Montana. June 9, 1908.
  58. ^ "A Blow to Montana". Helena Independent. Helena, Montana. April 15, 1921.
  59. ^ "MacDonald Report". Great Falls Tribune. Great Falls, Montana. February 22, 1922.
  60. ^ Steele, Volney (2002). Wellington Rankin: His Family, Life and Times. Champions Publishing. ISBN 978-1-88855-010-8.
  61. ^ "Gov. Joseph M. Dixon's Dirty Deal Discredited". Powell County Post. Deer Lodge, Montana. December 1, 1922. p. 1.
  62. ^ Karlin, Jules (1974). Joseph M. Dixon of Montana Part 2: Governor versus The Anaconda 1917-1934. Missoula: University of Montana. ISBN 978-0-68634-463-6., Chapter 8: THE CONLEY CASE
  63. ^ "Conley Cheered at Celebration". The Helena Independent. Helena, Montana. December 5, 1922.
  64. ^ "Friends Gather to Shake Hand of Former Warden". The Producers News. Plentywood, Montana. December 29, 1922.
  65. ^ Picture and plaque at City Hall, Deer Lodge, Montana
  66. ^ "Milwaukee Shops at Deer Lodge". The River Press. Fort Benton, Montana. November 20, 1907.
  67. ^ "Murder at Penitentiary". The Silver State. Deer Lodge, Montana. March 18, 1908. p. 2.
  68. ^ Giles, Kevin S. (2005). Jerry's Riot. Sky Blue Waters Press.
  69. ^ Malone 1976, pp. 187–188.
  70. ^ Malone 1976, pp. 202–205.
  71. ^ "Train Service Demoralized". The River Press. Fort Benton, Montana. June 10, 1908. p. 1.
  72. ^ Geomorphology 1998, p. 5.
  73. ^ "Bonner Milltown History:The Great Flood of 1908". Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
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