Jump to content

Deer fly

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Deer fly
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Tabanidae
Subfamily: Chrysopsinae
Lutz, 1905
  • Silvinae Lutz, 1909[2]

Chrysopsinae is an insect subfamily in the family Tabanidae commonly known as deer flies or sheep flies and are bloodsucking insects considered pests to humans and cattle.[3] They are large flies with large brightly-coloured compound eyes, and large clear wings with dark bands.[4] They are larger than the common housefly and smaller than the horse-fly. [5][6]

Deer flies lay between 100 and 800 eggs in batches on vegetation near water or dampness. During the larval stage, which lasts one to three weeks, they feed on small creatures or rotting organic matter near or in the water.[3] After a pupal stage, they emerge as adults in late spring and summer. While male deer flies collect pollen, female deer flies feed on blood, which they require to produce eggs.[7] Females feed primarily on mammals. They are attracted to prey by sight, smell, or the detection of carbon dioxide. Other attractants are body heat, movement, dark colours, and lights in the night. They are active under direct sunshine and hours when the temperature is above 22 °C (71.6°).[7] When feeding, the females use scissor-like mandibles and maxillae to make a cross-shaped incision and then lap up the blood. Their bite can be painful. Anti-coagulants in the saliva of the fly prevents blood from clotting and may cause severe allergic reactions. Parasites and diseases transmitted by the deer fly include tularemia, anthrax, anaplasmosis, equine infectious anemia, hog cholera, and filiariasis. DEET is not an effective repellent.[4]

Predators of the deer fly (and other Tabanidae) include nest-building wasps and hornets, dragonflies, and some birds, including the killdeer. Deer flies are difficult to control because insecticides cannot be applied in the sensitive wetlands where their larvae typically develop. Additionally, adults may have developed a significant distance from where the eggs were laid.[4] Trapping devices and protective clothing, such as long-sleeved shirts and hats, can help avoid the annoyance and bites of aggressive deer flies.

Silvius gigantulus


These 33 genera belong to the subfamily Chrysopsinae:[8]


  1. ^ a b c Enderlein, G. (1922). "Ein neues Tabanidensystem". Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin. 10: 333–351. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  2. ^ Lutz, A.; Neiva, A. (1909). "Contribuições para o conhecimento da fauna indijena de Tabanidas". Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1 (1): 28–32. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  3. ^ a b Townsend, Lee. "Horse Flies and Deer Flies". University of Kentucky. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  4. ^ a b c "Horse and Deer Flies". Medical Entomology. Purdue University. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  5. ^ Moucha, J. (1976). "Horse-flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the World. Synoptic Catalogue" (PDF). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae Supplements. 7: 1–320. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  6. ^ Burger, J. F. (1995). "Catalog of Tabanidae (Diptera) in North America north of Mexico". International Contributions on Entomology. 1 (1). Associated Publishers: 1–100.
  7. ^ a b "Chrysops sp". The Virtual Nature Trail at Penn State New Kensington. Penn State University. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  8. ^ Turcatel, Mauren (2014). A Molecular Phylogeny of Deer Flies and their Closest Relatives (PhD). North Carolina State University.
  9. ^ Austen, E.E. (1912). "New genera and species of Tabanidae in the British Museum (Natural History)". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 9 (8): 1–33. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  10. ^ a b Quentin, R.M. (1990). "Le groupe des Orgizomyia de Madagascar (Diptera: Tabanidae: Chrysopsonae: Rhinomyzini)". Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 26: 431–436.
  11. ^ a b Oldroyd, H. (1970). "A new genus of Rhinomyzini (Diptera: Tabanidae), the first from South America". Journal of Natural History. 4: 249–253.
  12. ^ Meigen, J. W. (1803). "Versuch einer neuen Gattungs-Eintheilung der europaischen zweiflugligen Insekten". Mag. Insektenkd. 2: 259–281.
  13. ^ Saunders, W.W. (1842). "Descriptions of four new dipterous insects from Central and Northern India". Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 3(1)[1841]: 59–81. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
  14. ^ a b c Philip, C.B.; Mackerras, I.M. (1960). "On Asiatic and related Chrysopinae (Diptera: Tabanidae)". Philipp, J. Sci. 88 (1959): 279–324.
  15. ^ Dias, J.A. T.S. (1956). "Um novo genero para a tribu Bouvieromyiini (Enderlein, 1922)". Bolm Soc. Estud. Mocamb. 26 (98): 75–79.
  16. ^ Ricardo, G. (1906). "[Description of a new fly of the family Tabanidae]". Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1906 (6).
  17. ^ Hine, J. S (1912). "Five new species of North American Tabanidae" (PDF). The Ohio Naturalist. 12: 513–516. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  18. ^ Rondani, Camillo (1856). Dipterologiae Italicae Prodromus. Vol: I. Genera italica ordinis Dipterorum ordinatim disposita et distincta et in familias et stirpes aggregata. Parmae [= Parma].: A. Stocchi. pp. 226 + [2]. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  19. ^ McAtee, W.L.; Walton, W.R. (1918). "District of Columbia Diptera: Tabanidae". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 20: 188–206, pl. 10. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  20. ^ Dias, J.A. T.S. (1955). "Denominacao e definica de um novo agrupamento generica para a subfamilia Pangoiinae Loew, 1860 (Diptera, Tabanidae)". Mems. Estud. Mus. zool. Univ. Coimbra. 237: 1–3.
  21. ^ a b c Grunberg, K. (1906). "Einige neue Tabaniden gattungen des athiopischen Faunen gebiets". Zool. Anz. 30: 349–362.
  22. ^ Oldroyd, H. (1957). The horse-flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Ethiopian Region. III. Subfamilies Chrysopinae, Scepsidinae and Pangoniinae and a revised classification. London: British Museum (Natural History). pp. xii + 489.
  23. ^ Taylor, F.H. (1920). "Australian phlebotomic Diptera:--New Culicidae Tabanidae and synonomy". Proc. R. Soc. Vic. 32: 164–167.
  24. ^ a b Ricardo, G. (1915). "Notes on the Tabanidae of the Australian Region [part]". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 16 (8): 259–286.
  25. ^ Wiedemann, Christian Rudolph Wilhelm (1828). Aussereuropäische zweiflügelige Insekten. Als Fortsetzung des Meigenschen Werks. Hamm: Zweiter Theil. Schulz. pp. xxxii + 608 pp., 7 pls.
  26. ^ Wiedemann, Christian Rudolph Wilhelm (1820). Munus rectoris in Academia Christiano-Albertina iterum aditurus nova dipterorum genera. Offert iconibusque illustrat. Kiliae Holsatorum [= Kiel]: C. F. Mohr. pp. 23 pp. 1 pl.
  27. ^ Meigen, J.W. (1820). Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäische n zweiflugeligen Insekten. Aachen: Zweiter Theil. Forstmann. pp. xxxvi + 363. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  28. ^ Austen, E.E. (1937). "New genera and species of Ethiopian Tabanidae, subfamily Pangoniinae (Diptera)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (C). 107: 31–34.

Further reading[edit]

  • Curran, Charles Howard (1934). The families and genera of North American Diptera. New York: C.H. Curran. p. 512. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.6825. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  • Goodwin, J.T.; Drees, B.M. (1996). "The horse and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Texas". Southwestern Entomologist, Supplement. 20.
  • McAlpine, J.F.; Petersen, B.V.; Shewell, G.E.; Teskey, H.J.; et al. (1987). Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Agriculture Canada, Research Branch. ISBN 978-0660121253.
  • Teskey, H.J. (1990). "The horse flies and deer flies of Canada and Alaska (Diptera: Tabanidae)". The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 16. Agriculture Canada. ISBN 978-0660132822. ISSN 0706-7313.

External links[edit]