Deewaar

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Deewaar
Deewar poster.jpg
Release poster
Directed byYash Chopra
Written bySalim–Javed
Produced byGulshan Rai
StarringShashi Kapoor
Amitabh Bachchan
Neetu Singh
Nirupa Roy
Parveen Babi
CinematographyKay Gee
Edited byT.R. Mangeshkar
Pran Mehra
Music byRahul Dev Burman
Distributed byTrimurti Films Pvt. Ltd
Release date
  • 24 January 1975 (1975-01-24)
Running time
176 minutes
CountryIndia
LanguageHindi[1][2]
Box office75 million[3]

Deewaar (transl. The Wall) is a 1975 Indian action[4][5][6] crime drama film[7][8][9] written by Salim–Javed (Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar), directed by Yash Chopra, and starring Shashi Kapoor, Amitabh Bachchan, Neetu Singh, Nirupa Roy and Parveen Babi. The film tells the story of a pair of impoverished brothers who, after their family is betrayed by the misplaced idealism of their father, struggle to survive in the slums of Bombay, and eventually find themselves on opposing sides of the law.[10][11][12] The Deewaar ("wall") of the title is the wall that has sprung up between the two brothers, drawn apart by fate and circumstances in a time of socio-political turmoil.[13][14]

Upon release, Deewaar was both critically and commercially successful, with praise going towards the film's screenplay, story, and music, as well as the performances of the acting ensemble, particularly Bachchan, Kapoor and Roy's performances. It is often considered a ground-breaking cinematic masterpiece, with Indiatimes ranking Deewaar amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films,[15] as well as being one of three Hindi-language films to be included on the list of 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die. The film had a significant impact on Indian cinema, as well as wider Indian society, with the film's anti-establishment themes and Bachchan's criminal anti-hero vigilante character resonating with audiences,[16] cementing Bachchan's popular image as the "angry young man" of Bollywood cinema.[17][18] Forbes included Bachchan's performance in the film on its list, "25 Greatest Acting Performances of Indian Cinema".[19] The film also cemented the success of the writing duo Salim-Javed, who went on to write many more blockbuster films; the value of film writers skyrocketed thanks to Salim-Javed, who were paid as highly as leading actors at the time.[20] Deewaar's influence also extends to world cinema, influencing films from Hong Kong[21] and British cinema.[13]

Plot[edit]

The film opens with a depiction of the strong leadership of trade unionist Anand Verma (Satyendra Kapoor), who works hard to enhance the lives of struggling laborers. He lives in a modest home with his wife Sumitra Devi (Nirupa Roy), and their two young sons Vijay and Ravi. However, things took a turn for the worst when Anand is blackmailed by a corrupt businessman (Kamal Kapoor) who threatens to kill his family if Anand does not cease his protest activities. Forced into compliance, Anand is thus attacked by the very same laborers who jeer him for his betrayal, unaware that he was blackmailed to do so. His family is also persecuted by the angry workers. Out of shame, Anand leaves town, leaving Sumitra to care for their sons alone in poverty. Several of the angry workers kidnap Vijay and tattoo his arm with the Hindi words "मेरा बाप चोर है" (merā bāp chor hai; my father is a thief). Not knowing what else to do, Sumitra brings her children to Mumbai and struggles as a day laborer to care for her sons.

As the boys grow up to be young men, Vijay grows up with an acute awareness of his father's failure as he has been victimized for his father's supposed misdeeds. In the process of fighting for his rights, Vijay (Amitabh Bachchan) starts out as a boot polisher and later becomes a dockyard worker. When Vijay beats up several thugs working for the ruthless crime lord Samant (Madan Puri), this influences one of Samant's rivals Mulk Raj Daavar (Iftekhar) to bring Vijay to his inner circle. When Vijay successfully completes a task in nabbing several of Samant's goods for Daavar, the latter rewards him with money, allowing Vijay to buy a palatial home for his family. While continuing on his assignments for Daavar, Vijay also sacrifices his own education so Ravi (Shashi Kapoor) can study.

As Ravi finishes his studies, he started dating Veera Narang (Neetu Singh), the daughter of Police Commissioner DCP Narang (Manmohan Krishna). On the Commissioner's suggestion, Ravi applies for employment with the police and is sent for training. Several months later, he is accepted by the police and earns the rank of Sub-Inspector. When Ravi returns home, his first assignment is to apprehend and arrest some of Bombay's hardcore criminals and smugglers, which includes his brother, Vijay – much to his shock, as he had never associated his own brother with criminal activities. Ravi must now decide between apprehending Vijay and quitting the police force. At first, Ravi is reluctant of arresting his brother, but he is later moved when he non-fatally shoots a boy who stole two rotis in an attempt to catch him. When a remorseful Ravi goes to the boy's family by giving them some food and confessing what he did, the mother berates Ravi while the boy's father sends her back to the room. The father forgives Ravi and justifies his action by saying that stealing of a 'lakh' or of food is the same, which finally motivated Ravi to agree to take the case.

When Ravi finds out that Vijay has acquired wealth by crime, he decides to move out along with Sumitra (who too is disgusted), causing a feud to develop between Vijay and Ravi. Around the same time, Anand is found dead inside a train, and his body is cremated by Vijay. Ravi then takes the opportunity to complete his task in taking down and arresting many associates from both Samant and Daavar's gangs; even Daavar himself ends up being arrested by Ravi. Fuming over the loss of his family and many of his associates, Vijay enters into a relationship with a woman named Anita (Parveen Babi), whom he meets at a bar. When Anita falls pregnant with Vijay's child, Vijay decides to abandon his life in the underworld so that he can marry her, confess his sins, and seek forgiveness from Sumitra and Ravi. Unfortunately, Samant and his remaining goons arrived and murdered Anita, provoking an angry Vijay to brutally murder Samant and his remaining goons in revenge, leading himself to be branded a criminal forever.

Upon hearing about what happened following the deaths of Samant and his gang, Ravi meets with Vijay in a final clash, pleading him to stop running and surrender himself. Vijay refuses and ends up being fatally shot in the arm by Ravi while escaping to a temple where he reunites with Sumitra and pleads forgiveness. Vijay then dies in Sumitra's arms, leaving her extremely shattered. Around the same time, Ravi arrives to the temple and is completely distraught of what he has done to Vijay. The film ends with the police hosting a celebration for Ravi for his successful acts of pursuing justice and taking down the criminals, though Ravi is still wracked with remorse for killing Vijay.

Cast[edit]

Additionally Vikas Anand, Mohan Sherry, Kamal Kapoor, A. K. Hangal, Dulari, and Satyadev Dubey all appear in minor and cameo roles. In the song "Koi Mar Jaye", Aruna Irani appears as a guest dancer.

Production[edit]

Story and screenplay[edit]

The film's screenplay, story and dialogues were written by Salim–Javed (Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar). The main inspiration for the film's plot was the 1961 Dilip Kumar film Gunga Jumna (1961), which had a similar premise of two brothers on opposing sides of the law, with the elder criminal brother as the main character. The role of Amitabh Bachchan is partially based on Karna from the Mahabharata whereas Shashi Kapoor resembles Yudhisthira from the Mahabharata.[22][23] Deewaar is thus considered to be a spiritual successor to Gunga Jumna.[24] Salim-Javed credited Gunga Jumna as well as Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957) as the main inspirations for Deewaar, which they described as a "more urban, much more contemporary" take on their themes; while Mother India and Gunga Jumna took place in a rural context, Salim–Javed reinterpreted their themes in a contemporary urban context with Deewaar.[25]

Amitabh Bachchan's character, Vijay, was loosely inspired by the real-life Bombay underworld gangster Haji Mastan. [13][14] Vijay's story arc in the film parallels that of Mastan's life, such as the rise from a humble dockyard coolie worker to a powerful smuggler,[14][26] and Mastan's rivalry with smuggler Sukkur Narayan Bakhia is similar to Vijay's rivalry with Samant (Madan Puri).[14]

Salim–Javed's screenplay had dynamic dialogues and incorporated a number of symbolic motifs. For example, the scene where the two brothers meet as adults takes place under a bridge, symbolizing a bridge forming between the brothers.[16] Set in the Dharavi slums of Bombay, the film's story of gangsters in Dharavi was a critique of socio-political inequality and injustice in Bombay.[12] The characterisations of the two brothers are sociologically contextualised to represent a form of urban conflict and drama, aimed at presenting a causal explanation for the sequence of events and Vijay's social alienation, with the narrative explaining his every action and decision, grounded in his memories and experiences.[11]

The script generally has an atmosphere of secularism, while incorporating subtle religious motifs.[16] The mother Sumitra Devi (Nirupa Roy) and police brother Ravi (Shashi Kapoor) are religious Hindus, whereas the criminal brother Vijay (Bachchan) is generally not religious and "upset with God", yet he carries a badge numbered 786, which the Muslim Rahim Chacha (Yunus Parvez) points out to be a number of religious significance in Islam[16] (representing Bismillah) and has its own sub-plot.[21] The 786 badge plays a powerful and symbolic role in several scenes,[16] saving Vijay at key moments[27] and signifying something ominous when he loses it.[16]

Salim-Javed initially showed the script to Bachchan, who they had in mind for Vijay's role after having worked with him on Zanjeer (1973). At the time, Bachchan was working on another film with Yash Chopra, and told him about the script. After some initial scepticism, Chopra was eventually convinced to direct the film after Salim-Javed narrated the storyline to him.[16]

Casting and filming[edit]

Bachchan's "angry young man" performance as Vijay in the film was inspired by Dilip Kumar's intense performance as Gunga in Gunga Jumna, which Bachchan sharpened and reinterpreted in a contemporary urban context reflecting the changing socio-political climate of 1970s India.[28][29]

Salim-Javed "felt only Bachchan could do justice to Vijay's role." According to Akhtar, they "saw his talent, which most makers didn't. He was exceptional, a genius actor who was in films that weren't good." At Salim-Javed's insistence, Bachchan was cast in the role.[16] Director Yash Chopra's first choices for Vijay and Ravi's roles were Dev Anand and Rajesh Khanna respectively. After Anand rejected the script, casting plans changed and Khanna was to play Vijay and Navin Nischol was considered for Ravi. However, Salim-Javed had Amitabh Bachchan and Shatrughan Sinha in mind when they wrote the script; Sinha turned down the film when he heard Khanna was initially cast in the lead, due to a fallout between the two. Nirupa Roy's role as Sumitra Devi was also first offered to Vyjayanthimala; Nischol and Vyjayanthimala turned down the film after they found out Khanna would no longer be in the film. Shashi Kapoor was subsequently cast as Ravi, and Nirupa Roy as Sumitra Devi.[30]

In 2014, Bachchan revealed that his iconic look in the film – a "denim blue shirt worn with khakee pants and a rope dangling over the shoulder" – was the result of a mistake by the tailor. He said, "The knotted shirt and rope on the shoulder in [Deewaar] was an adjustment for an error in stitching, shirt too long so knotted it".[31] In certain scenes, Bachchan had some input on Chopra's direction, such as the father's funeral scene where Bachchan, instead of lighting the pyre with his right hand, suggests to use his left hand to show off the tattoo, "Mera baap chor hai" ("My father is a thief").[16] The film was shot mostly at night because Bachchan was shooting for Ramesh Sippy's Sholay at that time.[32]

The film contains a fight scene,[33] which involves Bachchan performing martial arts sequences inspired by Hong Kong martial arts cinema, which Deewaar was one of the first to do in Indian cinema.[34][35] Rather than following the Hollywood model, it follows the Hong Kong model, with an emphasis on acrobatics and stunts. The style of fighting seen in Deewaar combined kung fu (as it was perceived by Indians) with Indian martial arts (particularly Indian wrestling).[36]

Soundtrack[edit]

Deewaar
Soundtrack album to Deewaar by
Released1975
GenreFeature film soundtrack
LanguageHindustani
LabelUniversal
ProducerR.D. Burman

The soundtrack of the movie was composed by R. D. Burman, and the lyrics were penned by Sahir Ludhianvi. The soundtrack received praise.

Track listing
No.TitleSinger(s)Length
1."Kehdoon Tumhe, Ya Chup Rahun"Kishore Kumar, Asha Bhosle4:09
2."Maine Tujhe Maanga, Tujhe Paaya Hai"Kishore Kumar, Asha Bhosle4:29
3."Koi Mar Jaaye"Asha Bhosle, Usha Mangeshkar5:37
4."Deewaron Ka Jungle"Manna Dey5:06
5."Idhar Ka Mal Udhar"Bhupinder Singh3:23
6."I Am Falling in Love with a Stranger"Ursula Vaz5:15
Total length:27:19

Impact and worldwide recognition[edit]

Inspiration[edit]

The Hindu epic Mahabharata has been the sole inspiration for Akhtar to write the plot of the film, Amitabh Bachchan plays the role based on Karna (the main protagonist of the Mahabharata) who rises from the low streets to becoming among the top influential businessmen whereas the role of Nirupa Roy resembles Kunti (mother of Karna in the Mahabharata). Shashi Kapoor plays Arjuna (younger brother of Karna)

Cult[edit]

It was one of the three Hindi films featured in the book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die, the others being Kalyug (1981) which itself was inspired by Mahabharata and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995).[37]

Release[edit]

Release and sales[edit]

At the Indian box office, the film grossed 75 million[3] ($9 million).[a] In Bombay alone, the film grossed ₹10 million.[39] In terms of footfalls, the film sold an estimated 31 million tickets at an average 1975 price of ₹2.40 per ticket.[40] Adjusted for inflation, this is equivalent to an estimated ₹4.17 billion ($64 million) at an average 2017 price of ₹134.38 per ticket.[41]

Numerous DVD editions entered the market by companies like "Eros Entertainment", "Shemaroo Entertainment" and "Eagle Home Video". These were released as non-restored, non re-mastered editions and bare bones, void of supplementary features. Eagle Home Video came out with a restored edition of this movie, preserving the original aspect ratio in a 4:3 pillar box and a DTS Master Audio (HD) in 2.0. The restoration took place in Shemaroo studios.[citation needed]

Critical response and international impact[edit]

The performances of Amitabh Bachchan (left), Shashi Kapoor (not pictured), and Nirupa Roy (right) garnered critical acclaim; each received Filmfare Award nominations, with Kapoor winning.

Upon release, Deewaar was a major commercial success, ranking as the fourth highest-grossing Bollywood film of 1975,[42] and received critical acclaim, with critics praising the story, dialogue, screenplay, as well as the performances of the cast, particularly those of Bachchan, Kapoor and Roy. Indiatimes ranks Deewaar amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[15] It was one of the three Hindi films featured in the book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die, the others being Mother India (1957) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995).[43]

It was perceived by audiences to be anti-establishment, while Amitabh Bachchan's character Vijay was seen as a vigilante angry hero, establishing Bachchan's image as the "angry young man" of Indian cinema.[16] With the unprecedented growth of slums across India at the time, Vijay was seen as a new kind of hero, with his suppressed rage giving a voice to the angst of the urban poor.[11][12] Deewaar is also remembered for its iconic dialogues written by Salim-Javed. The most famous is when Shashi Kapoor delivers the line, "Mere paas maa hai" ("I have mother"), a line that is widely known in India and has become part of Indian popular culture.[44] The film Loins of Punjab Presents (2007) mocked how the line is sometimes wrongly attributed to Amitabh Bachchan.[45] It also established Parveen Babi as the "new Bollywood woman".[46]

The film cemented the success of the writing duo Salim-Javed, who went on to write many more blockbuster films. After the success of this film, the value of film writers skyrocketed thanks to Salim-Javed, and they soon were being paid as highly as some actors at the time.[20] Amitabh Bachchan described Salim-Javed's screenplay for Deewaar as "the perfect script"[16] and "the best screenplay ever" in Indian cinema.[9] Deewaar, one of the first Indian films with an action sequence modelled after Hong Kong martial arts cinema, popularised the use of martial arts sequences in Bollywood films from the 1970s to the 1990s.[34] The style of fighting popularised by Deewaar, with acrobatics and stunts, and combining Chinese kung fu (as it was perceived by Indians, based on 1970s Hong Kong films) with Indian pehlwani wrestling, became the standard model for Bollywood action scenes up until the 1990s.[36]

The film was later remade in Telugu as Magaadu (1976), in Tamil as Thee (1981), in Malayalam as Nathi Muthal Nathi Vare (1983), in Persian as Koose-ye Jonoob (1978), and in Turkish as Acıların Çocuğu (1985). The Brothers, a 1979 Hong Kong film produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio, is a remake of this film.[21] Another remake of Deewaar was the 1994 Bollywood film Aatish: Feel the Fire, starring Sanjay Dutt as the older criminal brother, Atul Agnihotri as the younger police brother, and Tanuja as the mother.[47] Hong Kong's Shaw Brothers studio remade Deewaar as The Brothers (1979),[21] which in turn inspired John Woo's internationally acclaimed breakthrough A Better Tomorrow (1986).[48] The Brothers also starred a Hong Kong actor that would later be known for heroic bloodshed films, Danny Lee (playing Shashi Kapoor's character), with a police officer persona later seen in Hong Kong crime films such as Woo's The Killer (1989).[21]

Deewaar had an influence on Hong Kong cinema and in turn Hollywood cinema, by playing a key role in the creation of the heroic bloodshed crime genre of 1980s Hong Kong action cinema.[48] Deewaar, along with several later 1970s "angry young man" epics it inspired, such as Amar Akbar Anthony (1977), had similarities to elements later seen in 1980s Hong Kong heroic bloodshed films.[49]

Deewaar was the inspiration behind director Danny Boyle (pictured above)'s Oscar-winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008).

British director Danny Boyle described Deewaar as being "absolutely key to Indian cinema" and cited the film as an influence on his Academy Award winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008).[13] The film's co-director Loveleen Tandan noted that "Simon Beaufoy studied Salim-Javed's kind of cinema minutely."[50] Actor Anil Kapoor noted that some scenes of Slumdog Millionaire "are like Deewaar, the story of two brothers of whom one is completely after money while the younger one is honest and not interested in money."[51] Slumdog Millionaire, which pays homage to Amitabh Bachchan, has a similar narrative structure to Deewaar. Composer A. R. Rahman referenced the film in his Oscar acceptance speech.[45]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Deewaar received the Filmfare Best Movie Award of 1976, and also won six more Filmfare Awards for Best Screenplay, Best Dialogue, Best Director, Best Sound, Best Story, and Best Supporting Actor (Kapoor), and received two other nominations for Best Actor (Bachchan) and Best Supporting Actress (Roy).[52][53]

Year Award Category Nominee Result Ref.
1976 Filmfare Awards Best Film Gulshan Rai Won [52]
Best Director Yash Chopra Won
Best Actor Amitabh Bachchan Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Shashi Kapoor Won
Best Supporting Actress Nirupa Roy Nominated
Best Story Salim–Javed Won
Best Screenplay Won
Best Dialogue Won
Best Sound M. A. Shaikh Won

Further reading[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 8.3759 Indian rupees per US dollar in 1975[38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lal, Vinay; Nandy, Ashis (2006). Fingerprinting Popular Culture: The Mythic and the Iconic in Indian Cinema. Oxford University Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-19-567918-0.
  2. ^ Aḵẖtar, Jāvīd; Kabir, Nasreen Munni (2002). Talking Films: Conversations on Hindi Cinema with Javed Akhtar. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-19-566462-1. JA: I write dialogue in Urdu, but the action and descriptions are in English. Then an assistant transcribes the Urdu dialogue into Devnagari because most people read Hindi. But I write in Urdu.
  3. ^ a b Box Office 1975, Box Office India. Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Deewaar (1975) - Yash Chopra". AllMovie.
  5. ^ "Obituary: Yash Chopra redefined romance, drama on screen". India Today.
  6. ^ "Deewaar was the perfect script: Amitabh Bachchan on 42 years of the cult film". Hindustan Times. 29 January 2017.
  7. ^ Rao, Sri (2017). Bollywood Kitchen: Home-cooked Indian Meals Paired with Unforgettable Bollywood Films. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-544-97125-7.
  8. ^ "Deewaar". Radio Times. Immediate Media Company. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Deewar had the best screenplay ever, says Amitabh Bachchan". The Indian Express. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  10. ^ "Deewar: the fiction of film and the fact of politics". Ejumpcut.org. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  11. ^ a b c Mazumdar, Ranjani. Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City. University of Minnesota Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4529-1302-5.
  12. ^ a b c Lee, Joseph Tse-Hei; Kolluri, Satish (2016). Hong Kong and Bollywood: Globalization of Asian Cinemas. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-349-94932-8.
  13. ^ a b c d Amitava Kumar (23 December 2008). "Slumdog Millionaire's Bollywood Ancestors". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
  14. ^ a b c d Virdi, Jyotika. "Deewaar: the fiction of film and the fact of politics." Jump Cut, No. 38, June 1993:26–32.
  15. ^ a b "25 Must See Bollywood Movies – Special Features-Indiatimes – Movies". Movies.indiatimes.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Deewaar was the perfect script: Amitabh Bachchan on 42 years of the cult film". Hindustan Times. 29 January 2017.
  17. ^ "Film legend promotes Bollywood". BBC News. 23 April 2002. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  18. ^ Mazumdar, Ranjani (23 April 2007). Bombay Cinema. ISBN 978-1-4529-1302-5. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  19. ^ Prasad, Shishir; Ramnath, N. S.; Mitter, Sohini (27 April 2013). "25 Greatest Acting Performances of Indian Cinema". Forbes. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  20. ^ a b "Topmoviestowatch.info". 2 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012.
  21. ^ a b c d e Mondal, Sayantan. "Amitabh Bachchan starrer 'Deewar' was remade in Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam – and Cantonese". Scroll.in. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  22. ^ Mahan, Deepak (4 March 2010). "Gunga Jamuna (1961)". The Hindu.
  23. ^ "Hindi classics that defined the decade: 1960s Bollywood was frothy, perfectly in tune with the high spirits of the swinging times". The Indian Express. 31 October 2017.
  24. ^ Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. Psychology Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-415-28854-5.
  25. ^ Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books. p. 72. ISBN 9789352140084.
  26. ^ "Amitabh Bachchan's Deewar is 40: 9 Things You Didn't Know About the Angry Young Man – NDTV Movies". NDTV. 22 January 2015.
  27. ^ Prasad, M. Madhava (2000). Ideology of the Hindi Film: A Historical Construction. Oxford University Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-19-565295-6.
  28. ^ Raj, Ashok (2009). Hero Vol.2. Hay House. p. 21. ISBN 9789381398036.
  29. ^ Kumar, Surendra (2003). Legends of Indian cinema: pen portraits. Har-Anand Publications. p. 51. ISBN 9788124108727.
  30. ^ "Indian cinema@100: 12 fun facts about Deewar – NDTV". Movies.ndtv.com. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  31. ^ "Amitabh Bachchan's Iconic look in Deewar Resulted From Tailoring Error – NDTV Movies". 3 July 2014.
  32. ^ Mazumdar, Arunima (16 October 2013). "Anupama Chopra's 100 favourite films!". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  33. ^ India Today. Thomson Living Media India Limited. 1993. p. 166.
  34. ^ a b Heide, William Van der (2002). Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film: Border Crossings and National Cultures. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789053565803.
  35. ^ Banker, Ashok (2002). Bollywood. Penguin Group. p. 78. ISBN 9780143028352.
  36. ^ a b Morris, Meaghan; Li, Siu Leung; Chan, Stephen Ching-kiu (2005). Hong Kong Connections: Transnational Imagination in Action Cinema. Hong Kong University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-932643-19-0.
  37. ^ "1001 Series". Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
  38. ^ "Pacific Exchange Rate Service" (PDF). UBC Sauder School of Business. University of British Columbia. p. 3. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  39. ^ Kaur, Raminder; Sinha, Ajay J. (2005). Bollyworld: Popular Indian Cinema Through A Transnational Lens. SAGE Publications. p. 189. ISBN 9788132103448.
  40. ^ Mittal, Ashok (1995). Cinema Industry in India: Pricing and Taxation. Indus Publishing. pp. 71 & 77. ISBN 9788173870231.
  41. ^ "Releases 2017". Box Office India. 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  42. ^ "BoxOffice India.com". BoxOffice India.com. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  43. ^ "1001 Series". Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
  44. ^ "'Mere Paas Maa Hai': The iconic Deewar dialogue that makes Shashi Kapoor immortal". Deccan Chronicle. 4 December 2017.
  45. ^ a b Lal, Vinay (2012). Deewar. Harper Collins. p. 5. ISBN 9789350292464.
  46. ^ Amitabh Bachchan; Parveen Babi in Deewar (23 January 2005). "As in life, so in death: lonely and lovelorn". Telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  47. ^ Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema's Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books. p. 245. ISBN 9789352140084.
  48. ^ a b "Heroic Bloodshed: How Hong Kong's style was swiped by Hollywood". British Film Institute. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  49. ^ Banker, Ashok (2002). Bollywood. Penguin Group. p. 83. ISBN 9780143028352.
  50. ^ "'Slumdog Millionaire' has an Indian co-director". The Hindu. 11 January 2009. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
  51. ^ Runna Ashish Bhutda; Ashwini Deshmukh; Kunal M Shah; Vickey Lalwani; Parag Maniar; Subhash K Jha (13 January 2009). "The Slumdog Millionaire File". Mumbai Mirror. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
  52. ^ a b "Filmfare Awards (1976)". IMDb. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  53. ^ "Lakshmi, Times Exclusive Photo, 1975 Filmfare Awards: Actress ..." www.timescontent.com. Retrieved 18 November 2020.

External links[edit]