Defence industry of Pakistan
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The defence industry of Pakistan, under the Ministry of Defence Production, was created in September 1951 to promote and coordinate the patchwork of military production facilities that have developed since independence. The ministry also includes seven other specialized organizations devoted to research and development, production, and administration.  Pakistan Navy is supported mainly by a facility at the Karachi Shipyard, which has limited production capacity. In 1987 development of a submarine repair and rebuild facility at Port Qasim was begun. By early 2000, in a joint project with China led to the development of the JF-17 Thunder fighter and the Al-Khalid Tank. Pakistan also has taken major steps to becoming self-sufficient in aircraft overhaul, modernization and tank and helicopter sales and a transfer of technology with France led to the construction of the Agosta B-90 Submarine in the late 1990s and early 2000s and is currently[when?] participating in many joint production projects such as Al Khalid 2, advance trainer aircraft, combat aircraft, navy ships and submarines.
Several of the defence establishments listed below while primarily involved in research and development also produces and supplies defence equipment and military systems.
- Defence Science and Technology Organization
- Heavy Industries Taxila
- Institute of Optronics
- Integrated Dynamics
- Kahuta Research Laboratories
- Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works
- Metallurgical Laboratory (Wah)
- National Engineering and Scientific Commission (NESCOM)
- Pakistan Aeronautical Complex
- Pakistan Ordnance Factories
- Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)
Research and Development Establishments
The defence establishments listed below are solely involved in research and development in various fields and are not involved in production or supplying of military systems or defence equipment. Products developed by these institutions are manufactured in other establishments.
- Pakistan moves swiftly to self-reliance in defence needs
- Saudi Crown Prince witnesses exhibition of Pak Defence Production -- Shows interest in many, raises queries Archived August 27, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
-  Heavy Industries Taxila
-  Integrated Dynamics
-  Karachi Shipyard
-  Pakistan Aeronautical Complex
-  Pakistan Ordanace Factories
-  SUPARCO