Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties

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Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties
FormationOctober 1954; 64 years ago (1954-10)
Founded atPetersburg, Virginia
ExtinctionJuly 17, 1967; 51 years ago (1967-07-17)
HeadquartersRichmond, Virginia
Servicesadvocacy for strict segregation
Membership (1955)
12,000
President
Richard Crawford

The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties was a political group dedicated to strict segregation in Virginia schools. In June 1955 it published its Plan for Virginia.[1] The words of Richard Crawford, president of the Defenders, are recognizable today as dog-whistle politics.[2]

The Defenders advocated an amendment to the state constitution to allow the creation of state tuition vouchers and to withdraw state funding for integrated schools. A ballot measure on January 9, 1956, passed by a vote of 304,154 to 146,164.[3][4]

The organization was disbanded July 17, 1967.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A Plan for Virginia Presented to the People of the Commonwealth by the Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties". Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties. June 8, 1955. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  2. ^ Ann E. Burnette (2004). Clarke Rountree, Clarke (ed.). Brown V. Board of Education at Fifty: A Rhetorical Perspective. Lexington. p. 124. ISBN 0-7391-0854-9. Retrieved 30 August 2017. My organization is no more ready to accept a little bit of integration than we were four years ago, because as soon as we accept a little bit of integration, we come off the high plane of state's rights and recognize the authority of the Supreme Court.
  3. ^ a b Neff, David (Aug 23, 2013). "The Defenders of State Sovereignty and Individual Liberties". Encyclopedia of Virginia. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  4. ^ Holton, Linwood (Jan 1, 1992). "A FORMER GOVERNOR'S REFLECTIONS ON MASSIVE RESISTANCE IN VIRGINIA" (PDF). Washington and Lee Law Review. 59 (1): 18. Retrieved 30 August 2017.