Defensive attribution hypothesis
The defensive attribution hypothesis (or bias, theory, or simply defensive attribution) is a social psychological term where an observer attributes the causes for a mishap to minimize their fear of being a victim or a cause in a similar situation. The attributions of blame are negatively correlated to similarities between the observer and the people involved in the mishap, i.e. more responsibility is attributed to the people involved who are dissimilar to the observer. Assigning responsibility allows the observer to believe that the mishap was controllable and thus preventable.
A defensive attribution may also be used to protect the person's self-esteem if, despite everything, the mishap does occur, because blame can be assigned to the "other" (person or situation). The use of defensive attributions is considered a cognitive bias because an individual will change their beliefs about a situation based upon their motivations or desires rather than the factual characteristics of the situation.: 112
Walster (1966) hypothesized that it can be frightening to believe that a misfortune could happen to anyone at random, and attributing responsibility to the person(s) involved helps to manage this emotional reaction.
Shaver (1970) recognized that the similarity of the witness to the person(s) involved in the misfortune – in terms of situation, age, gender, personality, etc. – changes the amount of responsibility one is ready to ascribe. Where Walster's work suggested increases in attributed responsibility, Shaver's concept of "defensive attribution" argued for minimization of assigned responsibility based on perceived similarities between the attributor and the person(s) involved. Shaver was able to demonstrate this response by describing events to test subjects; varying the situations and people described to either match or be significantly different from the subjects: as similarity with witnesses increased, attributions of responsibility decreased.
In 1981 Jerry Burger published a meta-analysis of 22 peer-reviewed studies on the defensive attribution hypothesis, in which he found strong evidence to support Shaver's hypothesized negative relationship between similarity and responsibility.
Defensive othering effect
In a study exploring parental beliefs on the risk of sexual abuse victimization, Eelmaa (2021) offered a concept of defensive othering effect to explain why parents felt the need to construct “otherness” between themselves or their children and perceived victims. It is an extension of defensive attribution theory. Eelmaa's concept of defensive othering effect represents a phenomenon where perceived similarities with the stigmatized group trigger a protective behavior of verbally distancing (othering) self (or someone else) from the other group. When parents or their children had similar characteristics with risk profiles (e.g., age), the similarities provoked the effect.
Researchers examining sexual assault have consistently found that male participants blamed rapists less than female participants did, and that male participants blamed the rape victims more than female participants did. These findings support Shaver's similarity-responsibility hypothesis: male participants, who are personally similar to (male) rapists, blame rapists less than female participants who are dissimilar to rapists. On the other hand, female participants, who are personally similar to (female) rape victims, blame the victims less than male participants.
- Walster, E. (1966). "Assignment of responsibility for an accident" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 3 (1): 73–79. doi:10.1037/h0022733. PMID 5902079. Archived from the original on 2010-06-04.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Shaver, K. G. (1970). "Defensive Attribution: Effects of severity and relevance on the responsibility assigned for an accident". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 14 (2): 101–113. doi:10.1037/h0028777.
- Burger, J.M. (1981). "Motivational biases in the attribution of responsibility for an accident: A meta-analysis of the defensive-attribution hypothesis" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 90 (3): 496–512. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.90.3.496. Archived from the original on 2016-06-05.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Eelmaa, Simone (2021-04-28). ""My Daughter is not like That": A Qualitative Study of Parental Perception on Child Sexual Abuse Risk". Discourse. doi:10.32603/2412-8562-2021-7-2-56-80. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
- Grubb, A.; Harrower, J. (2008). "Attribution of blame in cases of rape: An analysis of participant gender, type of rape and perceived similarity to the victim". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 13 (5): 396–405. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.06.006.
- Aronson, Elliot; Wilson, Timothy D.; Akert, Robin M.; Sommers, Samuel R. (2015). Social Psychology (9th ed.). Pearson Education. pp. 107–108. ISBN 9780133936544.
- Greenberg, Jeff (2007). "Defensive Attribution". In Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. SAGE Publications, Inc. doi:10.4135/9781412956253.n137. ISBN 9781412916707.
- Weiten, Wayne; Dunn, Dana S.; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost (2014). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. p. 208. ISBN 9781305172081.