Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) was an American immigration policy that allowed some individuals who entered the country as minors, and had either entered or remained in the country illegally, to receive a renewable two-year period of deferred action from deportation and to be eligible for a work permit. As of 2017, approximately 800,000 individuals—referred to as Dreamers after the DREAM Act bill—were enrolled in the program created by DACA. The policy was established by the Obama administration in June 2012 and rescinded by the Trump administration in September 2017.
In November 2014 President Barack Obama announced his intention to expand DACA to cover additional illegal immigrants. But multiple states immediately sued to prevent the expansion, which was ultimately blocked by the courts. The United States Department of Homeland Security rescinded the expansion on June 16, 2017, while continuing to review the existence of the DACA program as a whole. The DACA policy was rescinded by the Trump administration on September 5, 2017, but full implementation of the rescission was delayed six months to give Congress time to decide how to deal with the population that was previously eligible under the policy.
Research shows that DACA increased the wages and labor force participation of DACA-eligible immigrants, and reduced the number of unauthorized immigrant households living in poverty. Studies have shown that DACA increased the mental health outcomes for DACA-eligible immigrants and their children. There are no known major adverse impacts from DACA on native-born workers' employment while most economists say that DACA benefits the U.S. economy. To be eligible for the program, recipients may not have felonies or serious misdemeanors on their records. There is no evidence that DACA-eligible individuals are more likely to commit crimes than any other person within the US.
- 1 Background
- 2 Establishment
- 3 Implementation
- 4 Impact
- 5 Legal challenges
- 6 State and city responses
- 7 Rescission
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The policy was created after acknowledgment that DREAMer students had been largely raised in the United States, and was seen as a way to remove immigration enforcement attention from "low priority" individuals with good behavior. The illegal immigrant student population was rapidly increasing; approximately 65,000 illegal immigrant students graduate from U.S. high schools on a yearly basis.
The DREAM Act bill, which would have provided a pathway to permanent residency for unauthorized immigrants brought to the United States upon meeting certain qualifications, was considered by Congress in 2007. It failed to overcome a bipartisan filibuster in the Senate. It was considered again in 2011. The bill passed the House, but did not get the 60 votes needed to overcome a Republican filibuster in the Senate. In 2013, legislation that would have comprehensively reformed the immigration system, including allowing Dreamers permission to stay in the country, work and attend school, passed the Senate but was not brought up for a vote in the House. The New York Times credits the failure of Congress to pass the DREAM Act bill as the driver behind Obama's decision to sign DACA.
President Barack Obama announced the policy with a speech in the Rose Garden of the White House on June 15, 2012. The date was chosen as the 30th anniversary of Plyler v. Doe, a Supreme Court decision barring public schools from charging illegal immigrant children tuition. The policy was officially established by a memorandum from the Secretary of Homeland Security titled "Exercising Prosecutorial Discretion with Respect to Individuals Who Came to the United States as Children". The policy allowed certain immigrants to escape deportation and obtain work permits for a period of two years, renewable upon good behavior. To apply, immigrants had to be younger than 31 on June 15, 2012, must have come to the U.S. when they were younger than 16, and must have lived in the U.S. since 2007. In August 2012, the Pew Research Center estimated that up to 1.7 million people might be eligible.
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) began accepting applications for the program on August 15, 2012. As of June 2016[update], USCIS had received 844,931 initial applications for DACA status, of which 741,546 (88%) were approved, 60,269 (7%) were denied, and 43,121 (5%) were pending. Over half of those accepted reside in California and Texas. According to an August 2017 survey, most current registrants (called "Dreamers" in a reference to the DREAM Act bill) are in their 20s, and about 80% arrived in the United States when they were 10 or younger.
In November 2014, Obama announced his intention to expand DACA to make more people eligible. However, in December 2014, Texas and 25 other states, all with Republican governors, sued in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas asking the court to enjoin implementation of both the DACA expansion and Deferred Action for Parents of Americans (a similar program). In February 2015, Judge Andrew S. Hanen issued a preliminary injunction blocking the expansion from going into effect while the case, Texas v. United States, proceeds. After progressing through the court system, an equally divided (4–4) Supreme Court left the injunction in place, without setting any precedent.
Nearly all Republicans in the House of Representatives (along with three Democrats) voted 224–201 to defund DACA in June 2013. Lead author of the amendment Rep. Steve King (R-Iowa) stated, "The point here is...the President does not have the authority to waive immigration law, nor does he have the authority to create it out of thin air, and he's done both with these Morton memos in this respect." However, in practice Congress does not have the ability to defund DACA since the program is almost entirely funded by its own application fees rather than congressional appropriations.
Although politicians are divided on immigration issues related to DACA, former presidential candidate Mitt Romney stated that he would honor the grants of deferred action approved under DACA until a more permanent legislation was put into place.
DACA was formally initiated by a policy memorandum sent from Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano to the heads of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). The memo formally directed them to exercise their enforcement discretion on behalf of individuals who met the requirements.
To apply for DACA, illegal immigrants must pay a $495 application fee, submit several forms, and produce documents showing they meet the requirements. They do not need legal representation.
To be eligible, illegal immigrants must have entered the United States before their 16th birthday and prior to June 2007, be currently in school, a high school graduate or be honorably discharged from the military, be under the age of 31 as of June 15, 2012, and not have been convicted of a felony, significant misdemeanor or three other misdemeanors, or otherwise pose a threat to national security. The program does not provide lawful status or a path to citizenship, nor does it provide eligibility for federal welfare or student aid.
In August 2012, the Migration Policy Institute estimated that as many as 1.76 million people could be eligible for DACA. Of those, 28% were under 15 and would have to wait until reaching that age to apply. In addition, roughly 20% did not meet any of the education criteria, but could become eligible by enrolling in a program before submitting their application. 74% of the eligible population was born in Mexico or Central America. Smaller proportions came from Caribbean and South America (11%), Asia (9%), and the rest of the world (6%).
To qualify for DACA, applicants must meet the following major requirements, although meeting them does not guarantee approval:
- Came to the United States before their 16th birthday
- Have lived continuously in the United States since June 15, 2007
- Were under age 31 on June 15, 2012 (i.e., born on June 16, 1981 or after)
- Were physically present in the United States on June 15, 2012, and at the time of making their request for consideration of deferred action with USCIS
- Had no lawful status on June 15, 2012
- Have completed high school or a GED, have been honorably discharged from the armed forces, or are enrolled in school
- Have not been convicted of a felony or serious misdemeanors, or three or more other misdemeanors, and do not otherwise pose a threat to national security or public safety
To show proof of qualification (verify these requirements), applicants must submit three forms; I-821D, Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals; I-765, Application for Employment Authorization; and I-765WS, Worksheet, as well as supporting documentation.
In addition to the $495 application fee, if a DACA qualifying illegal immigrant wants to travel abroad there is an additional fee and application requirement.
Form I-131 Application Type D*, with a fee of $575 needs to be submitted to USCIS.
(It should be noted Form I-131 must also be submitted by anyone that applies for a "Green Card" or other residency option regardless of how they arrived upon US soil).
To receive advance parole one must travel abroad for the sole purpose of an educational, employment, or humanitarian purposes. This must be indicated on the Form I-131 as described below:
- Educational purposes, such as studying abroad;
- Employment purposes, such as overseas positions, interviews, training, or meetings with clients; or
- Humanitarian purposes, such as travel for medical reasons, attend funeral services for a family member, or visit a sick relative.
Travel for leisure is not a valid purpose.
USCIS released the process for DACA renewals in June 2014 and directed applicants to file their documents during a 30-day window starting 150 days before the expiration of their previous DACA status. Renewing requires an additional $495 fee.
As of June 2016, there had been 606,264 renewal cases, with 526,288 approved, 4,703 denied and 75,205 renewals pending.
In November 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama announced changes to DACA which would expand it to include illegal immigrants who entered the country prior to 2010, eliminate the requirement that applicants be younger than 31 years old, and lengthen the renewable deferral period to two years. The Pew Research Center estimated that this would increase the number of eligible people by about 330,000.
However, in December 2014, Texas and 25 other states, all with Republican governors, sued in the District Court for the Southern District of Texas asking the court to enjoin implementation of both the DACA expansion and Deferred Action for Parents of Americans (a similar program). In February 2015, Judge Andrew S. Hanen issued a preliminary injunction blocking the expansion from going into effect while the case, Texas v. United States, proceeds. After progressing through the court system, the appeals court ruled 2–1 in favor of enjoining the DACA expansion. When the Obama administration appealed to the Supreme Court, Justice Antonin Scalia's untimely death left an 8 justice court, which then ruled equally divided (4–4) for and against the injunction. Procedural rules of the Court in the case of a tie would mean that no opinion would be written, no precedent would be set by the Supreme Court in the case, and that the appellate court's ruling would stand.
The court's temporary injunction does not affect the existing DACA. Individuals may continue to come forward and request an initial grant of DACA or renewal of DACA under the guidelines established in 2012.
According to FactCheck.org, "there is no evidence that DACA holders are more likely to commit crimes than U.S. citizens." Factcheck.Org noted that "numerous studies have found that immigrants do not commit crimes at a higher rate than non-immigrants."
Fact-checkers note that, on a large scale or in the long run, there is no reason to believe that DACA recipients have a major deleterious effect on American workers' employment chances; to the contrary, some economists say that DACA benefits the overall U.S. economy. Economists have warned that ending DACA could adversely affect the U.S. economy, and that "most economists see immigration generally as an economic boon." Almost all economists reject Jeff Sessions' claim that DACA "denied jobs to hundreds of thousands of Americans by allowing those same jobs to go to illegal aliens." Sessions' claim is rooted in what economists call the "lump of labor fallacy" (i.e., the idea that there is a limit to amount of work force available in any economy).
A 2016 study in the Journal of Public Economics found that DACA increased labor force participation and decreased the unemployment rate for DACA-eligible immigrants. DACA also increased the income of illegal immigrants in the bottom of the income distribution. The study estimates that DACA moved 50,000 to 75,000 unauthorized immigrants into employment. According to University of California, Davis economist Giovanni Peri, DACA consequently "increases consumption and overall demand for U.S. services, products, and jobs where the DACA recipients live and spend. Economists have shown that highly skilled workers increase local productivity and create opportunities for the other workers too". A 2016 study in Economics Letters found that DACA-eligible households were 38% less likely than non-eligible unauthorized immigrant households to live in poverty. Furthermore, DACA-eligible workers tend to have higher-skilled, higher-paying jobs than undocumented immigrants.
According to Giovanni Peri, ending DACA would bring a net loss in productivity, given that, as of 2017, the U.S. economy is close to full employment. Ike Brannon and Logan Albright of the CATO Institute wrote in a 2017 that ending DACA would have an adverse economic and fiscal impact, estimating that the cost of immediately eliminating DACA and deporting those who received deferred action would be $283 billion over a decade (representing an economic loss of $215 billion, a fiscal loss of $60 billion (from lower net tax revenue), and $7.5 billion in deportation costs). Brannon and Albright wrote that their projections were "a conservative estimate due to the fact that many DACA immigrants are young and still acquiring education credentials that will boost wages later."  The Immigrant Legal Resource Center estimated that deporting DACA-eligible individuals would reduce Social Security and Medicare tax revenue by $24.6 billion over a decade. Peri argues that that DACA recipients likely have a significant net positive fiscal impact given that DACA-eligible individuals have similar characteristics as second-generation immigrants, and that research shows that second-generation immigrants have a net positive fiscal impact of $173,000 to $259,000 per immigrant. Peri also notes that the U.S. public school system has already invested in educating these individuals, and they are at the point at which they can start contributing to the U.S. economy and public coffers; deporting them or increasing the likelihood that they be deported is economically counterproductive. A 2017 study by the Center for American Progress estimated that that the loss of all DACA-eligible workers would reduce U.S. GDP by $433 billion over the next 10 years.
According to Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas economist Pia Orrenius, due to their risk of deportation, it is likely that previously DACA-protected individuals will slip into the shadow economy or take low-profile jobs that pay less.
The 2016 study in the Journal of Public Economics found that DACA had no significant effects on the likelihood of attending school. The study only found "suggestive evidence that DACA pushed over 25,000 DACA-eligible individuals into obtaining their GED certificate in order to be eligible for DACA." Research by Roberto G. Gonzales, professor of education at Harvard University, shows that DACA led to increased educational attainment.
A 2017 study published in the journal Science found that DACA led to improved mental health outcomes for the children of DACA-eligible mothers. A 2017 Lancet Public Health study found that DACA-eligible individuals had better mental health outcomes as a result of their DACA-eligibility.
FiveThirtyEight, summarizing the findings of past research, wrote that "the threat of deportation alone would likely have a negative impact on families. Immigration-related stress and anxiety have been shown to have negative health effects... Generally, researchers believe the stress that stems from the fear of having a parent deported has far-reaching, negative effects on the health of children." In an editorial for the New England Journal of Medicine, Atheendar S. Venkataramani, professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and Alexander C. Tsai, professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, write "The evidence clearly indicates that rescinding DACA will have profound adverse population-level effects on mental health... DACA was never intended to be a public health program, but its population-level consequences for mental health have been significant and rival those of any large-scale health or social policies in recent history. Rescinding DACA therefore represents a threat to public mental health."
21 percent of DACA-protected immigrants work in education and health services. The American Medical Association has estimated that under DACA or similar legislation, 5,400 additional physicians would work in the United States in coming decades, alleviating a projected shortage of primary care physicians.
A 2016 study published in the journal International Migration found that DACA did not significantly impact the number of apprehensions of unaccompanied minors from Central America. A 2015 Government Accountability Office (GAO) report assessing the reasons behind the surge in unaccompanied minors from Central America did not mention DACA, and cited crime and lack of economic opportunity as the main reasons behind the surge.
The legality of DACA and its proposed expansions were challenged in court. But only the expansions were halted under a preliminary injunction. Legal experts are divided as to the constitutionality of DACA, but no court has yet to rule it unconstitutional..
One of challenges against DACA was filed in August 2012 by ten agents from the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). The plaintiffs claimed that following the new lenient deportation policies established by DACA required them to violate the law. Almost a year later, Judge Reed O'Connor from the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas dismissed the lawsuit, ruling that the court lacked jurisdiction to decide on what essentially was a dispute between federal employees and their employer, the U.S. government. Nonetheless, in his decision to dismiss the case, the judge reiterated his view that DACA was inherently unlawful. The plaintiffs then filed an appeal but the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upheld the dismissal on procedural grounds.
The first challenge against the DACA expansions was filed by Sheriff Joe Arpaio of Maricopa County, Arizona, in November 2014. In the lawsuit, Arpaio claimed that DACA and its expansions were "unconstitutional, arbitrary and capricious, and invalid under the Administrative Procedure Act as, in effect, regulations that have been promulgated without the requisite opportunity for public notice and comment." The U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia promptly dismissed the lawsuit ruling that Arpaio did not have standing. That decision was upheld unanimously by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit on August 14, 2015. Arpaio then asked the U.S. Supreme Court to review the case, but on January 19, 2016, the court denied that request.
The challenge that was granted a preliminary injunction was filed on December 2014 by Texas and 25 other states—all with Republican governors. The group of states sued to enjoin the implementation of the Deferred Action for Parents of Americans (DAPA)—another immigration policy—and the DACA expansions announced by the Obama administration. In the lawsuit, the states claimed that, by expanding DACA, the president failed to enforce the nation’s immigration laws in contravention to Article Two of the U.S. Constitution.[b] Moreover, the states claimed that the president unilaterally rewrote the law through his actions. As part of the judicial process, in February 2015, Judge Andrew S. Hanen issued a preliminary injunction blocking the expansion from going into effect while the case, Texas v. United States, proceeded. After progressing through the court system, an equally divided (4–4) Supreme Court left the injunction in place, without setting any precedent. The court's temporary injunction did not affect the existing DACA. At the time, individuals were allowed to continue to come forward and request an initial grant of DACA or renewal of DACA under the guidelines established in 2012.
Regardless of the outcome of the preliminary injunction, legal opinions on the lawfulness of DACA are divided. In United States v. Texas, for instance, the Obama administration argued that the policy was a lawful exercise of the enforcement discretion that Congress delegated to the executive branch in the Immigration and Nationality Act, which charges the executive with the administration and enforcement of the country’s immigration laws. Conversely, Jay Sekulow, Chief Counsel of the American Center for Law and Justice, opined that DACA was unlawful by asserting that it unconstitutionally usurped Congress' role over immigration by illegally allowing certain classes of illegal aliens to violate U.S. immigration law with impunity.
State and city responses
This section is missing information about the quantitative and qualitative differences between the states that support DACA and those that oppose it.(September 2017)
State-level government officials are also divided on the issue. Those that support DACA claim that the government does not have the resources to target all undocumented immigrants and that the policy thus helps federal agencies in exerting prosecutorial discretion—that is, in enforcing the law selectively by focusing limited resources on criminal immigrants rather than on non-criminal ones such as those eligible for DACA. Those that oppose the policy, however, claim that states would be forced to spend hundreds of millions of dollars on health care, education, law enforcement, and other public benefits associated with the immigrants receiving relief. For instance, DACA opponents claim that Texas could assume up to $500 million in administrative costs for issuing new driver’s licenses.
Arizona became the first state to oppose President Obama's order for DACA when Governor Jan Brewer issued an order blocking those with deferred status from receiving any state benefits. This caused controversy, as eligible and approved applicants would still be unable to obtain a driver's license. In May 2013, a federal district court held that this policy was likely unconstitutional. In 2014, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit issued a preliminary injunction against Brewer's ban, and in November 2014 held this ban was in violation of the law.
To assist those eligible under the program, the state of California has agreed to support those who receive a DACA grant by allowing access to a state driver's license, provided that such individuals participate in specific state guidelines (such as paying income taxes). The state of California also allows DACA holding individuals to qualify for Medi-Cal.
Mayor of Chicago Rahm Emanuel has stated that he wants to make Chicago the "most immigrant-friendly city in the country". In addition to offering in-state tuition for illegal immigrants, he has also made plans for a city ordinance that would prevent illegal immigrants with no criminal background from being turned over to immigration enforcement agencies.
In 2012, the then-director of the Iowa Department of Transportation, Paul Trombino III (now nominee for Administrator of the Federal Highway Administration), announced a policy to deny driver licenses to Iowa residents who were part of the DACA program. The policy was reversed several weeks later.
Maryland residents are eligible for in-state public tuition rates regardless of immigration status under certain conditions. A Maryland resident is eligible if they attended Maryland high schools for at least three of the previous twelve years and they graduated from a Maryland high school or received a Maryland GED within the previous ten years. They must have registered at a Maryland public college within four years of high school graduation or receiving a Maryland GED. They must have registered for Selective Service if male, and they must have filed Maryland income tax returns.
In October 2012, the Michigan Secretary of State, Ruth Johnson, announced that Michigan will not issue drivers licenses or state identification of any kind to beneficiaries of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. In making this decision, it was clear that the Secretary of State erroneously conflated the notion of "lawful presence," which is required under Michigan Law to issue a driver's license, and "lawful status," a different legal concept entirely. USCIS has made it clear that DACA beneficiaries do not possess legal status, but does not state that DACA beneficiaries are unlawfully present; in fact, it states that DACA beneficiaries will not accrue unlawful presence time here while they are in this deferred action status. The Secretary of State relied upon USCIS' own explanation, which discusses legal status, not lawful presence. In response to this policy, the ACLU filed a lawsuit against Johnson, alleging that the policy violated both Michigan law and the U.S. Constitution. On January 18, 2013, USCIS updated their "Frequently Asked Questions" page about DACA, clarifying, among other things, that DACA beneficiaries are, in fact, lawfully present in the United States. On February 1, 2013, Johnson reversed her policy and began issuing driver's licenses to DACA beneficiaries on February 19, 2013.
Governor Dave Heineman opposed DACA and in 2012 directed the Nebraska Department of Motor Vehicles to not issue driver's licenses to people who received deferred action under DACA. Heineman " argued that it violated state law to provide benefits to illegal immigrants." In 2015, however, the unicameral Nebraska Legislature voted to change state law to allow qualified DACA recipients to receive licenses. Governor Pete Ricketts vetoed the bill, but the legislature voted 34-10 to override the veto. Nebraska was the last of the 50 states to allow deferred-action recipients to obtain licenses.
North Carolina briefly suspended giving out driver's licenses to DACA grantees while waiting for the state attorney general’s opinion. The attorney general decided that even without formal immigration status the DACA grantees were to be granted legal presence. After that, the state once again continued to give out drivers licenses and allowed the DACA grantees to become legal members of North Carolina.
Although in-state tuition is still offered, Governor Rick Perry announced his opposition to DACA by distributing a letter to all state agencies, meant "to ensure that all Texas agencies understand that Secretary Napolitano's guidelines confer absolutely no legal status whatsoever to any illegal immigrant who qualifies for the federal 'deferred action' designation.”
In April 2014, Virginia Attorney General Mark Herring sent a letter to the director of the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV), the presidents of Virginia public colleges and universities, and the chancellor of the Virginia Community College System, in response to inquiries from public institutions of higher education on whether DACA students are eligible for in-state tuition. The attorney general advised these institutions that under Virginia law, DACA students who meet Virginia's domicile requirements are eligible for in-state tuition.
On February 14, 2017, a CNN report on the detention of 23-year-old Daniel Ramirez Medina in Northwest Detention Center, Tacoma, Washington following his arrest in his father's Des Moines, Washington home, observed that "The case raises questions about what it could mean" for the 750,000 Dreamers, who had "received permission to stay under DACA." On March 7, 22-year-old Daniela Vargas of Jackson, Mississippi, another DACA recipient was detained by ICE, further raising speculation about President Trump's commitment to Dreamers and questioning whether immigrants who speak out against the administration's policies should fear retaliation. Vargas was released from LaSalle Detention Center on March 10, 2017, and Ramirez Medina's release followed on March 29.
On June 16, 2017, the United States Department of Homeland Security announced that it intended to repeal the executive order by the Barack Obama administration that expanded the DACA program, though the DACA program's overall existence would continue to be reviewed.
On September 5, 2017, Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that the program is being repealed. Sessions said that the DACA-eligible individuals were lawbreakers who adversely impacted the wages and employment of native-born Americans. Sessions also attributed DACA as a leading cause behind the surge in unaccompanied minors coming to the United States from Central America. Trump said that "virtually all" "top legal experts" believed that DACA was unconstitutional. Fact-checkers have said that only a few economists believe that DACA adversely affects native-born workers, that there is scant evidence that DACA caused the surge in unaccompanied minors, and that it is false that all "top legal experts" believe DACA to be unconstitutional.
Sessions added that implementation will be suspended for six months; DACA status and Employment Authorization Documents ("EAD") that expire during the next six months will continue to be renewed. DACA recipients with a work permit set to expire on or before March 5, 2018 will have the opportunity to apply for a two-year renewal if their application is received by USCIS by October 5, 2017. In a followup statement, Trump said "It is now time for Congress to act!" The approximately 800,000 immigrants who qualified enrolled in DACA will become eligible for deportation by the end of those six months. A White House memo said that DACA recipients should "use the time remaining on their work authorizations to prepare for and arrange their departure from the United States."
According to the New York Times, "Democrats and some Republicans, business executives, college presidents and immigration activists condemned the repeal as a coldhearted and shortsighted effort that was unfair to the young immigrants and could harm the economy." President Obama condemned the repeal as "cruel" and wrote:
They were brought to this country by their parents, sometimes even as infants. They may not know a country besides ours. They may not even know a language besides English. They often have no idea they're undocumented until they apply for a job, or college, or a driver's license... Whatever concerns or complaints Americans may have about immigration in general, we shouldn't threaten the future of this group of young people who are here through no fault of their own, who pose no threat, who are not taking away anything from the rest of us... Kicking them out won't lower the unemployment rate, or lighten anyone's taxes, or raise anybody's wages.
The reaction was mixed among Republicans. Several senior Republicans praised Trump's action, such as House Speaker Paul Ryan, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and Senator Ron Johnson, chairman of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee.
Organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, Anti-Defamation League, and U.S. Chamber of Commerce condemned the repeal. A number of religious organizations condemned the repeal, with the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops describing it as "reprehensible". The Catholic University of Notre Dame also urged the president to not resciend DACA and announced it would stand by those affected.The United Methodist Church said it was "not only unconscionable, but contrary to moral work and witness," and the Evangelical Lutheran Church called on its members to "pray today for those that will suffer undue repercussions due to the end of this program." Asked about Trump's decision to rescind DACA, Pope Francis said that if Trump is truly "pro-life", he "he will understand that the family is the cradle of life and that it must be defended as a unit." Ralph Reed, chairman of the Faith and Freedom Coalition, endorsed Trump's repeal.
The September 2017 announcement sparked protests in many cities including Washington, D.C., Chicago, and Los Angeles. At a September 5 protest in New York outside of Trump Tower, more than 30 protesters were arrested. On September 19, more protesters were arrested outside Trump Tower, including Democratic congressmen Raúl Grijalva of Arizona, Luis Gutiérrez of Illinois, and Adriano Espaillat of New York.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)
The rescission was challenged in court by different entities. On September 6, 2017, for instance, fifteen states and the District of Columbia filed a lawsuit, titled New York v. Trump, in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York seeking to stop the repeal. A few days later, the California attorney general, Xavier Becerra, filed a separate lawsuit, which was joined by the states of Maine, Minnesota, and Maryland. Becerra stated that that, as a quarter of the people in the DACA program live in California, he thinks that "everyone recognizes the scope and breadth of the Trump decision to terminate DACA hits hardest here."
- Immigration to the United States
- 2014 American immigration crisis
- Deferred Action for Parents of Americans
- Immigration reform
- Duke, Elaine (September 5, 2017). "Memorandum on Rescission Of Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals (DACA)". United States Department of Homeland Security.
- Kopan, Tal (September 5, 2017). "Trump ends DACA, but gives Congress window to save it". CNN.
- Pope, Nolan G. (2016). "The effects of DACAmentation: The impact of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on illegal immigrants". Journal of Public Economics. 143: 98–114. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2016.08.014.
- Patler, Caitlin; Cabrera, Jorge (June 2015). From Undocumented to DACAmented: Impacts of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Program Three Years Following its Announcement (PDF) (Report). Institute for Research and Labor Employment, University of California, Los Angeles.
- Gonzales, Roberto; Terriquez, Veronica; Ruszczyk, Stephen (October 1, 2014). "Becoming DACAmented: Assessing the Short-Term Benefits of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)". American Behavioral Scientist. 58 (14): 1852–1872. doi:10.1177/0002764214550288.
- Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca (2016). "Can authorization reduce poverty among undocumented immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program". Economics Letters. 147: 1–4. doi:10.1016/j.econlet.2016.08.001.
- Hainmueller, Jens; Lawrence, Duncan; Martén, Linna; Black, Bernard; Figueroa, Lucila; Hotard, Michael; Jiménez, Tomás R.; Mendoza, Fernando; Rodriguez, Maria I. (August 31, 2017). "Protecting unauthorized immigrant mothers improves their children's mental health". Science. 357 (6355): 1041–1044. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 28860206. doi:10.1126/science.aan5893.
- Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Shah, Sachin J; O'Brien, Rourke; Kawachi, Ichiro; Tsai, Alexander C (2017). "Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study". The Lancet Public Health. 2 (4): e175–e181. doi:10.1016/s2468-2667(17)30047-6.
- Marianne Bitler, Katherine Conger, Amanda Guyer, Erin R. Hamilton, Jo Mhairi Hale, Paul Hastings, Marianne Page, Giovanni Peri, Ariel Marek Pihl, Ann Huff Stevens & Ross Thompson (April 22, 2016). "Poverty Research and Policy in the US : Building a Path to Mobility" (PDF). Center for Poverty Research, University of California, Davis.
- "Fact Check: Are DACA Recipients Stealing Jobs Away From Other Americans?". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
- "Trump's Harsh Message to Immigrants Could Drag on Economy". Associated Press. 2017-09-06. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
- "AP Fact Check: What the Trump administration said about DACA". Associated Press. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
"Analysis | The Trump administration’s claim that DACA ‘helped spur’ the 2014 surge of minors crossing the border". Washington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Cite error: The named reference
:13was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Nowrasteh, Alex (July 12, 2017). "Illegal immigrant crime wave? Evidence is hard to find". Fox News. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
- Stottlemyre, Scott (2015). "Strict Scrutiny for Illegal Childhood Arrivals". The Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice – via EBSCOhost.
- Tuma, Mary (September 5, 2017). "Trump Ends DACA Program". Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- Angela Adams & Kerry S. Boyne (2015). "Access to Higher Education for Undocumented and "Dacamented" Students: The Current State of Affairs". Indiana International & Comparative Law Review. 25.
- Alcindor, Yamiche; Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (September 5, 2017). "After 16 Futile Years, Congress Will Try Again to Legalize ‘Dreamers’". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "Your Questions About DACA, Answered". NBC Chicago. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "Remarks by the President on Immigration". whitehouse.gov. June 15, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Napolitano, Janet (June 15, 2012). "Exercising Prosecutorial Discretion with Respect to Individuals Who Came to the United States as Children" (PDF). Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- Jeffrey S. Passel and Mark Hugo Lopez (August 14, 2012). "Up to 1.7 million illegal immigrant youth may benefit from new deportation rules". Pew Research Center. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- "Number of I-821D, Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals by Fiscal Year, Quarter, Intake, Biometrics and Case Status: 2012–2016 (June 30)" (PDF). Uscis.gov. United States Citizenship and Immigration Services. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- Witherspoon, Andrew (September 5, 2017). "Dreamers, by the numbers". Axios. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "Executive Action Flier" (PDF). United States Customs and Immigration Service. November 20, 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- Jens Manuel Krogstad and Jeffrey S. Passel (November 20, 2014). "Those from Mexico will benefit most from Obama’s executive action". Pew Research Center. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- Zargham, Mohammad (November 9, 2015). "Obama's immigration action blocked again; Supreme Court only option left". Reuters. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- David Montgomery and Julia Preston (December 3, 2014). "17 states suing on immigration". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2015.
- "Texas et. al. v. United States et. al.: Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief" (PDF). Office of the Attorney General of Texas. December 3, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015. Retrieved February 27, 2015.
- "After Judge's Ruling Obama Delays Immigration Actions", The New York Times, February 18, 2015
- Kalhan, Anil (2015). "Deferred Action, Supervised Enforcement Discretion, and the Rule of Law Basis for Executive Action on Immigration". UCLA Law Review Discourse. 63: 58.
- Liptak, Adam; Shear, Michael D. (June 24, 2016). "Split Court Stifles Obama on Immigration: A 9-Word Ruling Erases a Shield for Millions". The New York Times. p. A1, Column 1. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- Preston, Julia; Cushman, Jr., John H. (June 15, 2012). "Obama to permit young migrants to remain in U.S.". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- [dead link]
- Kasperowicz, Pete (June 6, 2013). "House votes to defund Obama's 'administrative amnesty' for immigrants". Thehill.com. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
- Lind, Dara (July 31, 2014). "How Ted Cruz helped kill the GOP’s border bill". Vox. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- Sherry, Allison (October 1, 2012). "Mitt Romney would honor Obama administration's illegal immigrant work permits". The Denver Post. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- "Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Process (Through Fiscal Year 2017, 2nd Qtr)" (PDF). United States Citizenship and Immigration Services. March 31, 2017.
- Napolitano, Janet (June 15, 2012). "Exercising prosecutorial discretion with respect to individuals who came to the United States as children" (PDF). United States Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- "Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)". U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Jeanne Batalova and Michelle Mittelstadt (August 2012). "Relief from Deportation: Demographic Profile of the DREAMers Potentially Eligible under the Deferred Action Policy". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- "Application for Travel Document". USCIS. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- Nicole Prchal Svajlenka and Audrey Singer (July 8, 2014). "DACA renewals ramp up". Brookings Institution. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- "What's the economic impact of ending DACA?". @politifact. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
- "DACA's end would hurt economy, hiring". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
- Tracy Jan (September 6, 2017). "Analysis: White House claims 'dreamers' take jobs away from blacks and Hispanics. Here’s the truth.". Washington Post.
- "The Economic Cost of Repealing DACA | Econofact". Econofact. 2017-09-11. Retrieved 2017-09-13.
- Gould, Skye; Garfield, Leanna (September 6, 2017). "How much money a DACA repeal could cost every state". Business Insider.
- "What is Daca and who are the Dreamers?". The Telegraph. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Ike Brannon and Logan Albright (January 18, 2017). "The Economic and Fiscal Impact of Repealing DACA". Cato Institute.
- Schoen, John W. (September 5, 2017). "DACA deportations could cost US economy more than $400 billion". Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Silva Mathema (January 9, 2017). Center for American Progress https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/news/2017/01/09/296125/ending-daca-will-cost-states-billions-of-dollars/. Missing or empty
- "DACA’s beneficiaries landed good jobs, enrolled in college, and contributed to society". Vox. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
- Barry-Jester, Anna Maria (2017-09-06). "The End Of DACA Will Ripple Through Families And Communities". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 2017-09-08.
- Venkataramani, Atheendar S.; Tsai, Alexander C. (2017-09-13). "Dreams Deferred — The Public Health Consequences of Rescinding DACA". New England Journal of Medicine. 0: null. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 28902574. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1711416.
- Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima (August 1, 2016). "DACA and the Surge in Unaccompanied Minors at the US-Mexico Border". International Migration. 54 (4): 102–117. ISSN 1468-2435. doi:10.1111/imig.12250.
- "Have courts ruled on DACA's constitutionality?". @politifact. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
- Dade, Corey (August 23, 2012). "Immigration Employees File Suit Against Obama's New Immigration Policy". NPR.
- Llorente, Elizabeth (August 1, 2013). "Judge Dismisses ICE Agents' Lawsuit Challenging Obama's Deferred Action". Fox News.
- Adler, Jonathan (August 16, 2015). "Sheriff Arpaio lacks standing to challenge Obama immigration initiatives". The Washington Post.
- "Understanding the Legal Challenges to Executive Action". American Immigration Council. June 28, 2016.
- Zargham, Mohammad (November 9, 2015). "Obama's immigration action blocked again; Supreme Court only option left". Reuters. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- David Montgomery and Julia Preston (3 December 2014). "17 states suing on immigration". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "Texas et. al. v. United States et. al.: Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief" (PDF). Office of the Attorney General of Texas. 3 December 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- Masters, Jonathan (June 23, 2015). "The U.S. Supreme Court and Obama’s Immigration Actions". Council on Foreign Relations.
- "Texas v. United States, No. 1:14-cv-254 (District Court for the Southern District of Texas)" (PDF).
- Tan, Michael (August 7, 2017). "Are States Coordinating With the Trump Administration to Take Down DACA? We Aim to Find Out.". American Civil Liberties Union.
- Sekulow, Jay (September 6, 2017). "End of an Error: Dealing With DACA From the Proper Perspective". American Center for Law and Justice.
- Jordan, Miriam (August 27, 2017). "‘Dreamer’ Plan That Aided 800,000 Immigrants Is Threatened". The New York Times.
- Morrissey, Edward (September 7, 2017). "Obama's original sin on DACA". The Week.
- Schwartz, David (August 15, 2012). "Jan Brewer Signs Executive Order Denying State Benefits to Children of illegal immigrants". Huffington Post. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Shoichet, Catherine E. "Driver's license rules fuel new immigration debate". CNN. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Eng, James. "Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer's ban on driver's licenses for illegal immigrants likely to wind up in court". NBC News. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- "Decision – at long last – paves the way for young immigrants to apply for driver’s licenses". ACLU of Arizona. November 24, 2014.
- "California lawmakers seek relief for illegal immigrants to work in state". Los Angeles Times. August 23, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- "California will give driver's licenses to illegal immigrants". Los Angeles Times. October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Brindis, Claire (2014). "Realizing the Dream for Californians Eligible for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA): Demographics and Health Coverage." (PDF). UCLA Center for Health Policy Research – via EBSCOhost.
- Preston, Julia (July 10, 2012). "Obama Policy on Immigrants Is Challenged by Chicago". New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- "Director of the Federal Highway Administration: Who Is Paul Trombino?". AllGov. Oct 8, 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
- Petroski, William (December 27, 2012). "Iowa stance on immigrant driver's licenses criticized". USA Today. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
- Wenger, Yvonne. "Mayor: Baltimore is a 'welcoming city' for immigrants and refugees". The Baltimore Sun. November 17, 2016.
- Anderson, Nick; Lazo, Luz. "Md. voters approve ‘Dream Act’ law". The Washington Post. November 7, 2012.
"Maryland Dream Act: New Fall Student". Montgomery College. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
"Maryland Dream Act: New Fall 2017: I meet the requirements". Montgomery College. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- Oosting, Jonathan (October 18, 2012). "Federal program allows some illegal immigrants to work, but they won't be able to drive in Michigan". mlive.com.
- "Issue-Brief-SOS-DACA-licenses.pdf – Google Drive". Docs.google.com. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "USCIS – Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Process". United States Citizenship and Immigration Services. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "One Michigan v. Ruth Johnson". American Civil Liberties Union. February 1, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "USCIS – Frequently Asked Questions". Uscis.gov. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- Jonathan Oosting. "Michigan Secretary of State to issue driver's licenses to immigrants approved for federal deportation deferral program". MLive.com. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- Joe Duggan, Nebraska begins issuing driver's licenses to children of illegal immigrants, Omaha World-Herald (May 30, 2015).
- "Are Individuals Granted Deferred Action under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Policy Eligible for State Driver’s Licenses?". Immigration Law Center. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- Aguilar, Julian (August 20, 2012). "Perry: "Deferred Action" Doesn't Change State Policies". Texas Tribune. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Letter from Mark R. Herring, Attorney General, Commonwealth of Virginia, to the Director of the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, the Chancellor of the Virginia Community College System, and the presidents of Virginia public colleges and universities (April 29, 2014).
- Laura Vozzella & Pamela Constable, Virginia attorney general declares 'dreamers' eligible for in-state tuition, Washington Post (April 29, 2014).
- Brian Bennett, Michael A. MemoliContact Reporters (February 16, 2017). "The White House has found ways to end protection for 'Dreamers' while shielding Trump from blowback". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Ariane de Vogue, Madison Park, Artemis Moshtaghian and Mary Kay Mallonee (February 15, 2017), Immigrant protected under Obama's 'Dreamer' program is detained, CNN, retrieved February 15, 2017,
The conflicting stories come amid immigrant rights attorneys' fears that President Donald Trump's administration will target the Dreamers, who were temporarily allowed to live and work in the United States after passing background checks. About 750,000 people have received permission to stay under DACA.
- Daniel Levine and Kristina Cooke (February 14, 2017), Exclusive: U.S. arrests Mexican immigrant in Seattle covered by Obama program, San Francisco, Reuters, retrieved February 14, 2017
- Schmidt, Samantha. "ICE nabs young ‘dreamer’ applicant after she speaks out at a news conference". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Sanchez, Ray (March 10, 2017). "DREAMer Daniela Vargas freed, immigration group says". CNN. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "'Dreamer' threatened with deportation in Seattle is released after weeks of detention". LA Times. March 29, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Gerstein, Josh (June 15, 2017). "Trump won't alter status of current Dreamers". Politico. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
Hesson, Ted (June 16, 2017). "DACA still ‘under review,’ Trump administration says". Politico. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Shear, Michael D.; Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (September 5, 2017). "Trump Moves to End DACA and Calls on Congress to Act". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Adam Edelman (September 5, 2017). "Trump Ends DACA Program, No New Applications Accepted". NBC News. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Kopan, Tai; Acosta, Jim (September 6, 2017). "Admin memo: DACA recipients should prepare for 'departure from the United States'". CNN.
- Kimball, Spencer (September 5, 2017). "Read Barack Obama's response to Trump's decision to end DACA". Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Daniella Diaz and Lauren Fox. "Democrats, some in GOP slam the end of DACA". CNN. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "US reacts to Trump's move to scrap the DACA programme". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "Lawmakers, organizations speak out after Trump's decision to end DACA". ABC News. September 5, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Report, South Bend Tribune. "Notre Dame, other schools back DACA program". South Bend Tribune.
- "‘Reprehensible,’ ‘unconscionable’: Christian leaders react to Trump’s decision to overturn DACA". Washington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Zauzmer, Julie (2017-09-11). "Pope Francis: If Trump is ‘pro-life,’ he should extend DACA". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
- Keneally, Meghan (September 6, 2017). "DACA announcement sparks protests nationwide, dozens arrested at Trump Tower". ABC News. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "Three Democratic congressmen arrested at Trump tower Daca protests". The Guardian. September 19, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- Kopan, Tal. "Blue states sue Trump over DACA". CNN. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- McGreevy, Patrick (September 11, 2017). "California politics updates: California to sue Trump administration for DACA decision". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals.|
- The Economist. Out of the shadows: A first step to make young illegal immigrants welcome
- U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Process
- U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. USCIS: Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
- The White House. Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Who Can Be Considered?
- Department of Homeland Security. U.S. Department of Homeland Security: Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
- U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. DHS Outlines Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Process