|• standard||Dganya Bet|
|Founded by||Immigrants from the Second Aliyah|
Degania Bet (Hebrew: דְּגַנְיָה ב') is a kvutza or kibbutz in northern Israel. Located to the south of the Sea of Galilee adjacent to Degania Alef, it falls under the jurisdiction of Emek HaYarden Regional Council. Degania Bet was established in 1920. In 2014 it had a population of 640.
This was possibly the place called Union, or Homonœa, by Josephus.
During the Ottoman era was here a Muslim village called Umm Junieh. A map from Napoleon's invasion of 1799 by Pierre Jacotin showed the place as ruined. Umm Junieh was just by the ancient bridge Jisr es Sidd, which was also denoted as ruined by Jacotin.
In 1875 Victor Guérin observed the village of Oumm Djouneh, sitting on a hill east of the river Jordan. In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described the place, (then named Umm Junieh), as a stone and adobe village, on the east side of the river Jordan, on the top of the eastern bank of the river. It contained about 250 Muslim inhabitants. All the plain around was arable soil; no trees. A mill was worked at the village.
Degania Bet was founded in 1920 by immigrants from the Second Aliyah, led by Levi Brevda (Levi Ben Amitai). It was the first planned kibbutz and was designed and built by the German Jewish architect Fritz Kornberg. One of its founders was Levi Eshkol. During the 1920 Palestine riots it was attacked and abandoned for several months.
War of Independence 1948
On May 20, 1948, during the Battles of the Kinarot Valley, in one of the first battles of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, the residents of Degania Alef and Bet, assisted by a small number of military personnel, repelled a Syrian attack and succeeded in halting the advance of the Syrian army into the Jordan Valley.
In addition to its 350 cow dairy herd, crop fields, almond orchards, banana, date and avocado plantations, Degania Bet industrialized in the 1960s with Degania Sprayers, now a green industry; in 1984 it opened the Degania Silicone factory. An additional source of income is its kibbutz cottage tourist accommodation, and it specializes in organized bicycle tours.
- Levi Eshkol (1895–1969), the third Prime Minister of Israel (1963–69); Degania Bet member
- Kadish Luz, Minister of Agriculture (1955–59) and Speaker of the Knesset (1959–69), acting President for one month in 1963; Degania Bet member
- Michael Kolganov, Soviet-born Israeli sprint canoeist, world champion, bronze medalist at 2000 Summer Olympics
- 2014 populations Israel Central Bureau of Statistics
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 371
- From personal name, according to Palmer, 1881, p. 136
- Karmon, 1960, p. 167.
- Guérin, 1880, p. 283
- Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 362
- Mapa's concise gazetteer of Israel (in Hebrew). Yuval El'azari (ed.). Tel-Aviv: Mapa Publishing. 2005. p. 125. ISBN 965-7184-34-7.
- Shtetl Links: Lyakhovichi Kehlia Links
- Shmuel Burmil, Ruth Enis (2011). The Changing Landscape of a Utopia: The Landscape and Gardens of the Kibbutz. Past and Present. Grüne Reihe - Quellen und Forschungen zur Gartenkunst (Band 29). pp. 154–158. ISBN 978-3-88462-284-1.
- Chyutin, Michael and Bracha (2007-04-24). Architecture and Utopia. Ashgate Pub Co. p. 90. ISBN 0-7546-4831-1.
- Mills, 1932, p. 82
- Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 12
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- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, Herbert H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945. Government of Palestine.
- Guérin, Victor (1880). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 3: Galilee, pt. 1. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Karmon, Y. (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine" (PDF). Israel Exploration Journal 10 (3,4): 155–173; 244–253.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas (PDF). Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.