Degree of difficulty

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Degree of difficulty (DD, sometimes called tariff or grade) is a concept used in several sports and other competitions to indicate the technical difficulty of a skill, performance, or course, often as a factor in scoring.[1] Sports which incorporate a degree of difficulty in scoring include bouldering, cross-country skiing, diving, equestrianism, figure skating, freestyle skiing, gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, surfing, synchronized swimming and trampoline. Degree of difficulty is typically intended to be an objective measure, in sports whose scoring may also rely on subjective judgments of performance.

By sport[edit]

Diving[edit]

The International Swimming Federation computes the degree of difficulty of dives according to a five-part formula, incorporating height, number of somersaults and twists, positioning, approach, and entry.[2] The total judges' score is multiplied by the dive's degree of difficulty to determine the total score.[3]

Figure skating[edit]

In figure skating, each jump element is assigned a base value, reflective of its difficulty. These base values take into account factors including the number of rotations and edges used. When skaters perform a jump element, it is identified by the technical panel. For each element identified, the judging panel assigns a grade of execution (GOE) score ranging from -5 to 5 based on its execution by the skater. The GOE score is then added to or subtracted from the jump element's base value to determine a total score for each element. The sum of scores for each element performed forms the technical score component of the skater's total score.[4][5][6]

Freestyle skiing[edit]

In the freestyle skiing discipline of aerials, the International Ski Federation pre-assigns a degree of difficulty score for each jump ranging from 2.050 to 5.000 for men and 2.050 to 5.300 for women.[7] Each total judge's score is multiplied by the jump's degree of difficulty to determine a competitor's final score. A greater number of flips and twists increases degree of difficulty scores for jumps.[8]

Gridiron football[edit]

In American football, kicking a field goal is worth three points regardless of the distance from which it is kicked; however, the distance plays into the likelihood that a field goal is successfully scored. For instance, from 30 yards out, there is roughly a 95% chance of success, compared to 65% from 50 yards.[9]

In fantasy football, the degree of difficulty for a field goal factors into scoring, by awarding more points for longer field goals: 3 points for 17-39 yards; 4 points for 40-49 yards; 5 points for 50-59 yards; and 6 points for 60 or more yards.[10]

Gymnastics[edit]

In artistic gymnastics, each skill is assigned a letter grade and difficulty value ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 by the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) based on the Code of Points. The eight highest-rated skills performed by women or the ten highest-rated skills moves performed by men are counted to give the difficulty score component of the final score. An exception to this is the vault event where each move has a pre-determined difficulty score.[11][12]

In rhythmic gymnastics, each skill is also assigned a letter grade and difficulty value. However, the difficulty score is based on every skill performed during the routine, rather than the eight or ten highest-rated skills like in artistic gymnastics.[11]

Degree of difficulty is also enhanced by connecting skills together in combination.[13]

Trampoline[edit]

The FIG gives difficulty points for number of somersaults, number of body twists and the body position in somersaults (piked or straight). The total sum of the individual elements forms the difficulty score component of competitor's final score:[14][15]

  • Each 1/4 rotation of a somersault = 0.1 DD
  • Completed 360° somersault (bonus) = 0.1 DD
  • Each 1/2 twist = 0.1 DD
  • Single somersaults without twist in pike/straight position = 0.1 DD
  • Somersaults over 720° in pike/straight position = 0.2 DD

Other sports[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Degree of difficulty". Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  2. ^ "FINA Degree of Difficulty / Formula and Components". USAdiver.com. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  3. ^ Goodman, Eric (10 March 2021). "Diving 101: Scoring". NBC Olympics. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  4. ^ "Understanding the International Judging System" (PDF). U.S. Figure Skating. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  5. ^ Newman, Richard (13 February 2022). "Winter Olympics 2022 - How are figure skating scores judged? Who chooses outfits?". Eurosport. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  6. ^ Maura Sullivan Hill; Tamara Fuentes (4 February 2022). "Everything to Know About How Olympic Figure Skating Gets Scored". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  7. ^ "Aerial Jump Code and Degree of Difficulty Chart" (PDF). International Ski Federation. 20 August 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  8. ^ Pattison, Andrew (14 February 2018). "Aerial Skiing - how is it judged?". Australian Olympic Committee. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  9. ^ "Kickers Are Forever". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  10. ^ "The Ultimate Fantasy Football Scoring & Points System Guide". Cheatsheet War Room. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  11. ^ a b "Rhythmic and artistic gymnastics explained". International Olympic Committee. 16 June 2021. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  12. ^ Gahndi, Aditi (19 July 2021). "Gymnastics scoring system explained — Here's all you need to know before Tokyo Olympics". The Bridge. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  13. ^ "Definition: Degree Of Difficulty". Gymnastics Zone. 12 December 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  14. ^ "FIG Code of Points 2013‐2016 ‐ Trampoline Gymnastics ‐ Part I (TRA)" (PDF). International Gymnastics Federation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  15. ^ "Trampoline 101: Scoring". NBC Olympics. 9 March 2021. Retrieved 11 July 2022.