Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture
|Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture|
|Etymology: Tai Nuea language (ᥖᥬᥲ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ), meaning "the lower reaches of the Nu River"|
|Nickname(s): hometown of peafowl|
Dehong in Yunnan
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Founded||24 July 1953|
|• Prefecture governor||Wei Gang (卫岗) (CPC)|
|• Secretary of CPC Prefecture Committee||Wang Junqiang (王俊强)|
|• Total||11,172.24 km2 (4,313.63 sq mi)|
|• Length||170 km (110 mi)|
|• Width||122 km (76 mi)|
|Elevation:106 (Mangshi)||920 m (3,020 ft)|
|Highest elevation:106 (Daniang Mount (大娘山), north of Yingjiang County)||3,404.6 m (11,169.9 ft)|
|Lowest elevation:106 (river valley of Jieyang (羯羊河), west of Yingjiang County)||210 m (690 ft)|
|Population (2010 census):6|
|• Estimate (2016):38||1,294,000|
|• Density||110/km2 (280/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||9|
|• Han Chinese||704,000 - 52.24%|
|• Dai||368,100 - 28.45%|
|• Jingpo||141,200 - 10.91%|
|• Lisu||33,400 - 2.58%|
|• Achang||32,100 - 2.48%|
|• Palaung (De'ang)||15,200 - 1.17%|
|• male||624,774 - 51.57%|
|• female||586,666 - 48.43%|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-YN-31|
|Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture|
|Burmese||တယ်ဟုန် တိုင် နှင့် ဂျိမ်းဖော ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ ခရိုင် ကြီးများ|
|Tai Nuea name|
|Tai Nuea||ᥟᥪᥒᥱ ᥙᥪᥴ ᥓᥝᥲ ᥙᥩᥒ ᥛᥥᥝᥰ ᥖᥭᥰ ᥓᥤᥒ ᥚᥨᥲ ᥖᥬᥲ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ|
|Jingpho||Sakhkung Sam Jinghpo Amyu Madu Uphkang Mungdo|
|Zaiwa||Sikung Sam Zaizo Byumyu Yumsing Upkang Mau|
The Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture is located in western Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, and is one of the eight autonomous prefectures of the province, bordering Baoshan to the east and Burma's Kachin State to the west.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Administration
- 5 Economy
- 6 Further reading
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Tai Nuea is the origin language of the word "Dehong", in Tai Le script (the script used to write the Tai Nüa language) is written as "ᥖᥬᥳ ᥑᥨᥒᥰ", transliterate to Latin as "Taue Xoong". Dehong means the lower reaches of the Nu River.:38
Dianyue, Ailao were the ancient countries recorded in Chinese literatures in Dehong area, and Guozhanbi (Kawsampi) was an ancient country established by Dai people and recorded in Dai legend. But these countries are all in controversy.
In the famous history book Records of the Grand Historian which written by Sima Qian in Han dynasty, a paragraph in volume 123 describe: when Zhang Qian visited Daxia in Central Asia, he found some merchandise was produced in Sichuan. And Daxia merchant said that was purchase from Yuandu (India). There was a trade route, Shu-Yuandu Road (蜀身毒道) between Yuandu and Sichuan. The road was passed a kingdom named "Dianyue" (滇越). The country in modern literatures is also called "Dianyue Chengxiang"(滇越乘象国).:37Chinese historian generally considered Tengyue is the center of Dianyue Chengxiang, and the territory include Dehong area. But some historian disagree this opinion, Lou Zichang (娄自昌, a historian of Wenshan College) believes Dianyue Chengxiang was not a country in western Yunnan, even not a country established by Dai people.
Ailao (哀牢) is an ancient tribal alliance country in west of Yunnan during Spring and Autumn to Eastern Han period, and modern historian generally considered the area of Ailao is include Dehong. In Chronicles of Huayang, the record of Ailao "3,000 li from west to east, and 4,600 li from south to north", approximately equal 1,300 km west to east and 1,994 km south to north in modern unit. It include the southwest of Yunnan and most of Myanmar, in modern research is called the generalized area of Ailao. In Han period, there were many of small tribal country in these area, Ailao is the most influential state, even the tribe of Ailao had a population of no more than 20,000. The tribes in these area were nominally belong to Ailao, but the king of Ailao could not have effective control for the tribes. Baoshan historian Xiao Zhengwei (肖正伟) believes the kingdom of "Dianyue" is a powerful tribe under Ailao.
And in 69 AD, the king of Ailao, Liu Mao (柳貌) lead the tribal alliance surrender to Han dynasty. Han set the county of Ailao in this area. In Southern dynasty Qi period changed the name to "Xicheng County" (西城县), the seat of county was in modern Yingjiang County territory.:1950 Finally in the end of Liang dynasty, the Xicheng County was abolished.:933
In 568 BC to 424 BC, during the Eastern Zhou dynasty in China, ancestors of Dai people had settled in Shweli River valley area and entered the tribal period. In 364 BC, a grand chief Gelaba (葛拉叭) unified the tribes in Shweli basin. He became the chief of the tribal alliance and set the capital at Hansa (喊萨, in modern Ruili). It was the embryonic form of the kingdom of "Guozhanbi"(果占璧), also called "Kawsampi" (憍赏弥). In 364 AD, a descendant of Gelaba named Zhaowuding (召武定) inherited the throne. He is the famous deity, sovereign, and culture hero of Dai people.:5 In 7 century, Dai area was in chaotic period, the descendants of Zhaowuding could not effectively control the area. At same time the kingdom of Nanzhao was rising up, and conquered Dehong area. Piluoge, the king of Nanzhao canonized another Dai tribe chief Hundeng (混等) to be the "King of Mong Mao" and managed the whole Dai area in 762.:28–29
In 1995, Dehong historian Yang Yongsheng (杨永生) published a research of ancient Dai civilization. He put forward a new opinion during the Dai legend research: "Kingdom of Daguang" (达光王国) is the first state of Dai people which established in 424 BC, and the country "Dianyue Chengxiang" is the kingdom of "Daguang". In 233, capital of Daguang moved to Pagan, finally perished in 586. But the history professor of Yunnan University He Ping (何平) doesn't approval it, he determined the Kingdom of Daguang is the legend kingdom of Tagaung in Burmese history, there was not a Kingdom of "Daguang" in ancient Dai civilization. The Dai legend of Daguang is the story of pre period of Pyu city-states. The story of Pyu city-states spread to Dehong Dai area, localized to a Dai legend and was recorded in Dai literatures.
In Yang Yongsheng's research, the kingdom of "Guozhanbi" was the second kingdom established by Dai people after Daguang. Dai languages literatures were his sources of research. He determined the kingdom of Guozhanbi was existed from 567 to 1488. According to the research of He Ping, "Guozhanbi" is the ancient state "Kawsampi". There are many of legends about Kawsampi in Thai-Shan folks culture, no limited in Dehong area. And the origin of the legend was a story in Buddhist texts. Therefore He Ping thought the Kingdom of "Guozhanbi" or "Kawsampi" is untrustworthy history.
Whether or not the early history of Dehong is controversial, it can be determined that Dehong was belong Nanzhao and Dali in medieval period Yunnan. In Nanzhao was separated under "Yongchang Jiedu" (永昌节度, south of Dehong) and "Lishui Jiedu" (丽水节度, north of Dehong).:10 In Dali was under the division of "Zhenxi Zhen" (镇西镇).:115
In 1253, Kublai conquer the Dali Kingdom, Dehong Dai people capitulated to Mongol Empire. Mongol set an administrative division named "Jinchi Anfu Si" (金齿安抚司) to manage west of Yunnan. In 1276, Yuan dynasty, the Anfu Si was upgraded to "Jinchi Xuanfu Si" (金齿宣抚司), and set an agency "6 Lu general manager Fu" (六路总管府) to managed Dehong area. The 6 Lu were: Luchuan Lu (麓川路, modern Ruili and Longchuan), Pingmian Lu (平缅路, modern southern Lianghe and northern Longchuan), Zhenxi Lu (镇西路, modern Yingjiang), Zhenkang Lu (镇康路, modern Zhenkang, out of Dehong), Mangshi Lu (茫施路, modern Mangshi) and Rouyuan Lu (柔远路, modern Lujiang, out of Dehong). In addition set a special division "Nan Dan" (南赕) and Nandian Fu (南甸府, modern Lianghe). The scope of "6 Lu general manager Fu" is close to modern Dehong territory.:11
In 1277, Narathihapate who was the king of Burmese Pagan Kingdom invaded modern Dehong area. The Battle of Ngasaunggyan was happened on the bank of Taping River in nowadays Yingjiang County. The Yuan army only had 700 soldiers but finally repelled Burmese military of 40,000 to 50,000 soldiers with 10,000 horses and 800 elephants.:104 It was the prelude of First Mongol invasion of Burma.:26–27
Local Dai chief was the leader of Luchuan Lu, they were the successors of "Guozhanbi". "Luchuan" is the name that Yuan called, and "Mong Mao" is the self-call by the regime, they were same thing. Si Kefa enthroned the chieftain of Luchuan Lu in 1340 and sent troops annexed the state of Hsenwi, Mongyang, Mongmit. After that he attacked Mangshi, Zhenxi, Pingmian and Nandian. So the Yuan dynasty initisate several times wars in 1342, 1345, 1346 and 1347 to counterattack Luchuan, but they all failed. Then Luchuan conquered surrounding states successively. In 1355, Si Kefa requested Yuan dynasty to canonize him. Yuan central government admitted his local regime and canonized Si Kefa to be the first Mong Mao Tusi. Central government set a division "Pingmian Xuanwei Si" (平缅宣慰司) at Mong Mao to let the regime legalization. Mong Mao tusi is the leader of Xuanwei Si.:9–10
In 1382, Ming dynasty military arrived at Mong Mao, tusi Si Lunfa surrendered. Ming granted him a title "Xuanwei Commissioner of Luchuan Pingmian" (麓川平缅宣慰使) and changed the division to "Luchuan Pingmian Xuanwei Si". In 1385, the contradiction occurred. The leader of Jingdong renegaded Mong Mao regime, Si Lunfa sent troops attacked Jingdong. But Mu Ying, the general of Yunnan was protecting Jingdong leader. So the wars between Mong Mao regime and Yunnan local government had occurred in 1387 and 1388. Finally Mong Mao failed. In order to maintain the relationship of Ming, Si Lunfa sent a mission to Kunming negotiate to make peace. Mong Mao consented compensation for losses, and they restored peace relations. After Si Lunfa died in 1399, a minister of Mong Mao launched a rebellion, the power of Mong Mao had already decline. Ming government felt afraid the powerful local regime could have threat to central government, so Ming separated away 14 tusi region from Luchuan territory.:11–13 In Si Xingfa period 1510s, the territory of Mong Mao decreased to a narrow area only include modern Ruili, Mangshi and Namhkam.
Si Renfa is the next king of Mong Mao after Si Xingfa which enthroned in 1413. He tried to revitalize the kingdom, so the conflict of Ming and Mong Mao happened again in 1439. When Mong Mao had attached Nandian, part of Hsenwi, Lujiang, Mongyang, Mengding and Wandian, Ming dynasty campaigned Mong Mao at Lujiang and Longba but all failed. These two battles are the beginning of Luchuan–Pingmian campaigns. In 1441, Ming sent troops to Mong Mao and win the campaign, Si Renfa fled to Mongyang. After several times wars between 1443-1449, the kingdom of Mong Mao lost the cradleland Dehong. Sis' imperial family lived at Mongyang until Toungoo dynasty attacked Mongyang in 1604, the kingdom of Mong Mao finally extinguished.:13–16
Ming and Qing dynasties
|Mong Mao||1604:80||Mongmao Anfu Si
|Longchuan||1444:44||Longchuan Xuanfu Si
|Nandian||1444:73||Nandian Xuanfu Si
|Ganya||1403:91||Ganya Zhangguan Si
Ganya Xuanfu Si
|Mangshih||1443:21||Mangshi Yuyi Zhangguan Si
Mangshi Anfu Si
|Zhanda||Chongzhen period:180||Zhanda Vice Xuanfu Si
|Zhefang||1584:21||Zhefang Vice Xuanfu Si
|Husa||1770:227||Husa Zhangguan Si
|Lasa||1653:240||Lasa Zhangguan Si
|Mengban||1899:21||Mengban Tu Qianzong
During Ming dynasty, two times Sino-Burmese wars were occurred in Dehong, include the campaigns in 1583 and 1593.:18–19 In 1594, Yunnan grand coordinator Chen Yongbin (陈用宾) built up 8 border defense military checkpoints to guard international border between Dehong and Burmese Toungoo dynasty, these checkpoints were the early border form between China and Myanmar. In 1658, the last emperor of Southern Ming dynasty Zhu Youlang passed Nandian and Ganya tusi to fled to Myanmar. He granted Ganya tusi a marquess title and mandated Ganya tusi helped him to flee. So Ganya tusi command his army to resistance Qing but completely annihilated. Thereafter in 1659, all the tusi in Dehong surrendered to Qing dynasty. The war between Qing and Konbaung dynasty during 1765 to 1769 had also extended to Dehong area.:19–21
In 1875, a British translator Augustus Raymond Margary and his 4 personal staffs were murdered in west of Yingjiang County, this was a important nongovernmental crisis in Sino-British relations which called "Margary Affair". This event led the Yantai Treaty be signed.:22 In 1894, a Britain-China border convention[Note 1] delimited section of China–Myanmar border that south of the "High Conical Peak" (尖高山),:192 and an agreement in convention that Qing dynasty should open two border ports between Burma and China: Manyun (蛮允) and Zhanxi (盏西),:578 they all in modern Yingjiang County.:23 In 1897, another agreement be signed,[Note 2] three parts area around Dehong had been incorporate into Burma although the convention in 1894 had determined they were part of China,:190 and 4 of the border checkpoints that established by Chen Yongbin in Ming dynasty had been incorporate into Burma.:23 In this agreement, British government leased "Namwan Assigned Tract", also called "Meng-Mao triangular area" that in southwest of Dehong with the rent of 1,000 Rupee a year.:194 Finally, China didn't receive back this region and used it to exchange another area in west of Cangyuan in 1960.
After Qing dynasty
After Wuchang Uprising occurred in October 1911, Ganya Tusi Dao Anren (刀安仁) launched an uprising at Tengyue on 27 Oct 1911, the predominant of Qing in west of Nu River had been collapse. During Republic of China period, Yunnan government tried to perish tusi system and replace tusi with state-appointed officials, but these tusi were opposed the changing. So central government set some special administrative divisions as a transition to formally establishing a county, the administrative title include: Suppress Committee (弹压委员) and Deputy-county (县佐) between 1911 to 1917, District and Deputy-county between 1917 to 1932, Administrative Bureau (设治局) after 1932. Finally all the tusi were still exist, until the land reform movement in 1955, People's Republic of China period. At this time, the tusi and administrative governments were still coexisted. The Administrative Bureaus after 1932 included Luxi, Ruili, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Lianshan and Lianghe, they were the predecessor of counties in later time.:24–25
In the World War II, Dehong was a important strategic location of China. Burma Road was built up in 1938, it was an important international channel after Japanese army blockade eastern coast of China, many of strategic materials was imported to China by this road. In 1939, Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company moved to Loiwing in southwest corner or Ruili, it was the biggest aircraft manufacturing plant of China at that time.
After World War II
The area was declared an autonomous region in 1953, and in May 1956 became an autonomous prefecture. In 1960 when interprovincial migration took place many farmers came to Yunnan to farm bananas. This was during the "Great Leap Forward" when a biologist working for Mao Zedong wrote an article about the weather in Yunnan being very suitable for bananas to be planted. A very long time ago before this many Chinese were in fact very scared of going there because of an illness that lurked about. It was later discovered that this was an identifiable tropical disease. The farmers helped to get rid of the disease. They made clearings, roads and space for fields and plantations.
Dehong stretches 122 km (76 mi) from east to west and 170 km (110 mi) from north to south, its area is 11,526 km2 (4,450 sq mi).
|Record high °C (°F)||27.0
|Average high °C (°F)||22.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.6
|Average low °C (°F)||6.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−0.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||13.7
|Average relative humidity (%)||78||72||66||67||75||84||87||86||84||83||82||81||79|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
|Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|Mangshi City||芒市||Máng Shì||389,891||2,987||131|
|Ruili City||瑞丽市||Ruìlì Shì||180,627||1,020||177|
|Lianghe County||梁河县||Liánghé Xiàn||154,175||1,159||133|
|Yingjiang County||盈江县||Yíngjiāng Xiàn||305,167||4,429||69|
|Longchuan County||陇川县||Lǒngchuān Xiàn||181,580||1,931||94|
Dehong is one of the 3 primary regions for coffee cultivation in Yunnan. The main planter and processor of coffee in Dehong is locally based Hogood Coffee, which operates a contracting scheme with local farmers. Hogood contracts farm land from smallholders on which it plants seedlings, and then re-contracts with farmers to purchase the coffee beans at harvest.
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