Dei Gratia Regina

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Obverse of a 2010 Canadian 25-cent piece, featuring the abbreviated form of the phrase.

Dei Gratia Regina (often abbreviated to D. G. Regina and seen as D·G·REGINA) is a Latin title meaning By the Grace of God, Queen.

This phrase still appears on the obverse of many coins, for example Canadian coins.[1] A similar phrase, D.G.R.S., meaning Dei Gratia Regina Sveciæ ("By the Grace of God, Queen of Sweden"), appeared on some Swedish coins. D. G. REG. F. D. (Dei gratia regina fidei defensor) appears on some British coins.

History[edit]

Australia[edit]

Australian coins included the phrase "Dei Gratia Rex" or "Dei Gratia Regina" in some form, including abbreviations, until 1964. With the introduction of decimal coinage in 1966, the phrase was dropped. .[2]

Canada[edit]

Under Queen Victoria Canadian coins read "Dei Gratia Regina" [3] Canadian coins minted from 1902 until 1910 under King Edward VII read "Dei Gratia Rex Imperator" which is Latin for "By the Grace of God, King and Emperor". The "Dei Gratia" portion was removed temporarily from Canadian coinage in 1911 and led to such a public uproar over the "godless" coins that it was returned to Canadian coinage in the subsequent year. From 1912 to 1936, under George V, it read "Dei Gra Rex Et Ind Imp" which stands for Dei Gratia Rex et Indiae Imperator which means "By the Grace of God, King and Emperor of India". From 1937 to 1947 under the reign of George VI, it was abbreviated "D. G. Rex Et Ind Imp". From 1948 to 1952, still under George VI, after the independence of India, they read "Dei Gratia Rex". From 1953 until 1964, under Queen Elizabeth it was shortened to read "Dei Gratia Regina" and from 1965 onwards, it was abbreviated on all coins to the current phrase of "D. G. Regina".[1] Some commemorative coins issued under Queen Elizabeth have not included the phrase "Dei Gratia Regina" or an abbreviation. These include coins for the 1976 Montreal Olympics, 25 cent coins for the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, (but not the dollar coin issued for the same games), the 2001 10 cent coin commemorating volunteers, the 1982 dollar coin commemorating the patriation of the constitution, the 1984 Jacques Cartier commemorative dollar coin, the two dollar coin issued in 2008 commemorating the 400th anniversary of Quebec, and the 2012 two dollar coin commemorating the War of 1812.[4] Decimal coins of Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia issued before they joined Canada also included some variation of the phrase "Dei Gratia Regina or Dei Gratia Rex.

Jersey[edit]

The Bailiwick of Jersey included the phrase "Dei Gratia Rex (or Regina) Fid. Def." in some form on its coins until 1952. It was dropped after Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne in 1952.[5]

Spain[edit]

Many Spanish coins prior to 1937 included the Spanish phrase "Gracia de Dios". Those coins issued after 1937 under Franco that had his image included the phrase "Caudillo de Espana por la G. de Dios". With the resumption of democracy under a constitutional monarchy after 1975 the phrase was dropped from Spanish coins.[6]

Sweden[edit]

Some coins minted during the reign of Queen Christina of Sweden bear an inscription of CHRISTINA D.G.R.S. on the obverse, and at least one 17th-century Swedish silver medal depicts Karl XI, bearing the inscription CAROLVS XI DEI GRATIA SVEC GOTH VANDAL REX (Karl XI, with God's grace, King of the Svears, Goths and Vandals), the reverse depicting Ulrika Eleonora with the inscription VLRICA ELEONORA DEI GRATIA REGINA SVECIAE (Ulrika Eleonora, with God's grace, Queen of Sweden).[7] Although some Swedish coins continue to bear the bust of the monarch, the phrase is no longer on the coins.[8]

United Kingdom[edit]

United Kingdom coins have for some time included the phrase "Dei Gratia Regina (or Rex) Fid Def" or some form of it. Current Elizabeth II coins have the phrase "D. G. Reg. F. D." [9] However, at least some UK coins minted in 2016 show the words "Dei Gra Reg" With the exception of Canada, other ex colonies or dependencies of the United Kingdom have either stopped including it or never did.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Faces of the monarch". www.mint.ca. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  2. ^ "World Coin Gallery Australian Coins". World Coin Gallery. Retrieved 2016-04-29. 
  3. ^ "World Coin Gallery". World Coin Gallery. Retrieved 2016-04-29. 
  4. ^ "World Coin Gallery Canadian Coins". World Coin Gallery. Retrieved 2016-04-29. 
  5. ^ "World Coin Gallery Jersey Coins". World Coin Gallery. Retrieved 2016-04-29. 
  6. ^ "World Coin Gallery Spanish Coins". World Coin Gallery. Retrieved 2016-04-29. 
  7. ^ "AN1040028001". British Museum. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  8. ^ "World Coin Gallery Sweden Coins". World Coin Gallery. Retrieved 2016-04-29. 
  9. ^ "World Coin Gallery British Coins". World Coin Gallery. Retrieved 2016-04-29.