Kingdom of Deira
|Common languages||Old English, Common Brittonic|
|Historical era||Early Medieval|
• Shared crown with Bernicia
• merged with Bernicia
The kingdom was probably created in the third quarter of the fifth century when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley. It extended from the mouths of the Humber and the River Tees to the western edge of the Vale of York. It merged with the kingdom of Bernicia to form the kingdom of Northumbria.
The kingdom was previously inhabited by Britons and was probably created in the third quarter of the fifth century when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley. Deira's territory extended from the Humber to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York. It later merged with the kingdom of Bernicia, its northern neighbour, to form the kingdom of Northumbria.
The name of the kingdom is of Brythonic origin from the Proto-Celtic *daru, meaning "oak", (derw in modern Welsh) in which case it would mean "the people of the Derwent", a derivation also found in the Latin name for Malton, Derventio. It is cognate with the modern Irish doire (pronounced [ˈd̪ˠɛɾˠə]); The origin of the name for County Londonderry and city of Derry stems from this word.
According to Simeon of Durham (writing early in the 12th century), it extended from the Humber to the Tyne, but the land was waste north of the Tees. After the Brythonic kingdom centred on Eboracum, which may have been called Ebrauc, was taken by King Edwin, the city of Eboracum became its capital, and Eoforwic ("boar-place") was taken by the Angles.
Archaeology suggests that the Deiran royal house was in place by the middle of the fifth century, but the first certainly recorded king is Ælla in the late sixth century. After his death, Deira was subject to king Æthelfrith of Bernicia, who united the two kingdoms into Northumbria. Æthelfrith ruled until the accession of Ælla's son Edwin, in 616 or 617, who also ruled both kingdoms until 633.
Kings of Deira
|559/560 to 589||Ælla
|ÆLLA YFFING DEIRA CYNING
ÆLLA REX DEIRA
|589/599 to 604||Æthelric
|ÆÞELRIC IDING BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING
ÆÞELRIC REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
|593/604? to 616||Æthelfrith||ÆÞELFERÞ ÆÞELRICING DEIRA CYNING
ÆÞELFERÞ REX DEIRA
|Killed in battle|
|616 to 12/14 October 632||Edwin||EDVVIN ÆLLING BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING
EDVVIN REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
|Killed in battle by Cadwallon of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia|
|late 633 to summer 634||Osric||OSRIC ÆLFRICING DEIRA CYNING
OSRIC REX DEIRA
|633 to 5 August 642||Oswald||OSVVALD BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING
OSVVALD REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
|Killed by Penda, King of Mercia; Saint Oswald|
|642 to 644||Oswiu||OSVVIO ÆÞELFRIÞING BERNICIA 7 DEIRA CYNING
OSVVIO REX BERNICIA ET DEIRA
|644 to 651||Oswine||OSVVINE OSRICING DEIRA CYNING
OSVVINE REX DEIRA
|summer 651 to late 654 or 655||Æthelwold||ÆÞELVVALD OSVVALDING DEIRA CYNING
ÆÞELVVALD REX DEIRA
|654 to 15 August 670||Oswiu||OSVVIO ÆÞELFERÞING NORÞANHYMBRA CYNING
OSVVIO REX NORÞANHYMBRA
|656 to 664||Alchfrith||ALCHFRIÞ DEIRA CYNING
ALCHFRIÞ REX DEIRA
|670 to 679||Aelfwine||ÆLFVVINE DEIRA CYNING
ÆLFVVINE REX DEIRA
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