Déjà vu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Deja vu)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Déjà vu (/ˌdʒɑː ˈv, - ˈvj/ (About this soundlisten)[1][2]; French: [deʒa vy]) is the feeling that one has lived through the present situation before.[3][4][5][6] The phrase translates literally as "already seen". Although some interpret déjà vu in a paranormal context,[7] mainstream scientific approaches reject the explanation of déjà vu as "precognition" or "prophecy". Rather, they explain it as the feeling that one has lived through the present situation before.[3][4][5][6] An anomaly of memory whereby, despite the strong sense of recollection, the time, place, and practical context of the "previous" experience are uncertain or believed to be impossible.[8][9][10] Two types of déjà vu are recognized: the pathological déjà vu usually associated with epilepsy or that which, when unusually prolonged or frequent, or associated with other symptoms such as hallucinations, may be an indicator of neurological or psychiatric illness,[11] and the non-pathological type characteristic of healthy people, about two-thirds of whom have had déjà vu experiences.[12][13][14][15][16] People who travel more or watch more movies are more likely to experience déjà vu than others.[17] Furthermore, people also tend to experience déjà vu more in fragile conditions or under high pressure, and research shows that the experience of déjà vu also decreases with age.[18]

Medical disorders[edit]

Déjà vu is most strongly associated with temporal lobe epilepsy.[19][20][21][medical citation needed] This experience is a neurological anomaly related to epileptic electrical discharge in the brain, creating a strong sensation that an event or experience currently being experienced has already been experienced in the past.

Early researchers[when?] tried to establish a link between déjà vu and mental disorders such as anxiety, dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia but failed to find correlations of any diagnostic value.[22] No special association has been found between déjà vu and schizophrenia.[23][24] A 2008 study found that déjà vu experiences are unlikely to be pathological dissociative experiences.[25][medical citation needed]

Some research has looked into genetics when considering déjà vu. Although there is not currently a gene associated with déjà vu, the LGII gene on chromosome 10 is being studied for a possible link. Certain forms of the gene are associated with a mild form of epilepsy and, though by no means a certainty, déjà vu, along with jamais vu, occurs often enough during seizures (such as simple partial seizures) that researchers have reason to suspect a link.[26]

Pharmacology[edit]

Certain drugs increase the chances of déjà vu occurring in the user, resulting in a strong sensation that an event or experience currently being experienced has already been experienced in the past. Some pharmaceutical drugs, when taken together, have also been implicated in the cause of déjà vu. Taiminen and Jääskeläinen (2001)[27] reported the case of an otherwise healthy male who started experiencing intense and recurrent sensations of déjà vu upon taking the drugs amantadine and phenylpropanolamine together to relieve flu symptoms. He found the experience so interesting that he completed the full course of his treatment and reported it to the psychologists to write up as a case study. Because of the dopaminergic action of the drugs and previous findings from electrode stimulation of the brain (e.g. Bancaud, Brunet-Bourgin, Chauvel, & Halgren, 1994),[28] Taiminen and Jääskeläinen speculate that déjà vu occurs as a result of hyperdopaminergic action in the mesial temporal areas of the brain.

Explanations[edit]

Split perception explanation[edit]

Déjà vu may happen if a person experienced the current sensory twice successively. The first input experience is brief, degraded, occluded, or distracted. Immediately followed by that, the second perception might be familiar because the person naturally related it to the first input. One possibility behind this mechanism is that the first input experience involves shallow processing, which means that only some superficial physical attributes are extracted from the stimulus.[29]

Memory-based explanation[edit]

Implicit memory

Research has associated déjà vu experiences with good memory functions.[30] Recognition memory enables people to realize the event or activity that they are experiencing has happened before. When people experience déjà vu, they may have their recognition memory triggered by certain situations which they have never encountered.[17]

The similarity between a déjà-vu-eliciting stimulus and an existing, or non-existing but different, memory trace may lead to the sensation that an event or experience currently being experienced has already been experienced in the past.[22][31] Thus, encountering something that evokes the implicit associations of an experience or sensation that cannot be remembered may lead to déjà vu. In an effort to reproduce the sensation experimentally, Banister and Zangwill (1941)[32][33] used hypnosis to give participants posthypnotic amnesia for material they had already seen. When this was later re-encountered, the restricted activation caused thereafter by the posthypnotic amnesia resulted in 3 of the 10 participants reporting what the authors termed "paramnesias".

Two approaches are used by researchers to study feelings of previous experience, with the process of recollection and familiarity. Recollection-based recognition refers to the realization of the current situation has occurred before. Familiarity-based recognition refers to the feeling of familiar with the current situation without identifying anything.[34]

In 2010, O’Connor, Moulin, and Conway developed another laboratory analogue of déjà vu based on two contrast groups of carefully selected participants, a group under posthypnotic amnesia condition (PHA) and a group under posthypnotic familiarity condition (PHT). The idea of PHA group was based on the work done by Banister and Zangwill (1941), and the PHT group was built on the research results of O’Connor, Moulin, and Conway (2007).[35] They applied the same puzzle game for both groups, “Railroad Rush Hour”, which is a game aims for sliding the red car through the exit by rearranging and shifting other blocking trucks and cars on the road. After completing the puzzle, each participant in PHA group received a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget the game in the hypnosis. On the other hand, each participant in the PHT group were not given the puzzle but received a posthypnotic familiarity suggestion that they would feel familiar with this game during the hypnosis. After the hypnosis, all participants were asked to play the puzzle (the second time for PHA group) and reported the feelings of playing.

In the PHA condition, if a participant reported no memory of completing the puzzle game during hypnosis, researchers scored the participant as passing the suggestion. In the PHF condition, if participants reported that the puzzle game felt familiar, researchers would score the participant as passing the suggestion. It turns out that, both in the PHA and PHF conditions, 5 participants passed the suggestion and 1 did not, which is 83.33% of the total sample.[36] More participants in PHF group felt strong sense of familiarity, for instance, commenting like “I think I have done this several years ago”. Furthermore, more participants in PHF group experienced a strong déjà vu, for example, describing like “I think I have done the exact puzzle before.” Only 3 out of 6 participants in PHA group felt a sense of déjà vu, and none of them experienced a strong sense of déjà vu. These figures are consistent with Banister and Zangwill’s findings. Some participants in PHA group related the familiarity when completing the puzzle with an exact event happened before, which is more likely to be a phenomenon of source amnesia. Other participants started to realize that they may have completed the puzzle game during hypnosis, which is more akin to the phenomenon of breaching. In contrast, participants in PHF group reported that they felt confused about the strong familiarity of this puzzle but feeling of play it just sliding across their mind. Overall, the experiences of participants in PHF group is more likely to be the déjà vu in life, while the experiences of participants in PHA group is unlike to be the real déjà vu.

A 2012 study in the journal Consciousness and Cognition, that used virtual reality technology to study reported déjà vu experiences, supported this idea. This virtual reality investigation suggested that similarity between a new scene's spatial layout and the layout of a previously experienced scene in memory (but which fails to be recalled) may contribute to the déjà vu experience.[37][37] When the previously experienced scene fails to come to mind in response to viewing the new scene, that previously experienced scene in memory can still exert an effect—that effect may be a feeling of familiarity with the new scene that is subjectively experienced as a feeling that an event or experience currently being experienced has already been experienced in the past, or of having been there before despite knowing otherwise.

Cryptomnesia: Reconstruction of a memory

Another possible explanation for the phenomenon of déjà vu is the occurrence of "cryptomnesia", which is where information learned is forgotten but nevertheless stored in the brain, and similar occurrences invoke the contained knowledge, leading to a feeling of familiarity because the event or experience being experienced has already been experienced in the past, known as "déjà vu". Some experts suggest that memory is a process of reconstruction, rather than a recall of fixed, established events. This reconstruction comes from stored components, involving elaborations, distortions, and omissions. Each successive recall of an event is merely a recall of the last reconstruction. The proposed sense of recognition (déjà vu) involves achieving a good "match" between the present experience and our stored data. This reconstruction, however, may now differ so much from the original event that we "know" we have never experienced it before, even though it seems similar.[38]

Dual neurological processing

In 1964, Robert Efron of Boston's Veterans Hospital proposed that déjà vu is caused by dual neurological processing caused by delayed signals. Efron found that the brain's sorting of incoming signals is done in the temporal lobe of the brain's left hemisphere. However, signals enter the temporal lobe twice before processing, once from each hemisphere of the brain, normally with a slight delay of milliseconds between them. Efron proposed that if the two signals were occasionally not synchronized properly, then they would be processed as two separate experiences, with the second seeming to be a re-living of the first.[39][40]

Dream-based explanation[edit]

Dreams can also be used to explain the experience of déjà vu, and they are related in three different aspects. Firstly, some déjà vu experiences duplicate the situation in dreams instead of waking conditions, according to the survey done by Brown (2004). 20% of the respondents reported their déjà vu experiences were from dreams and 40% of the respondents reported that from both reality and dreams. Secondly, people may experience déjà vu because some elements in their remembered dreams were shown. A research done by Zuger (1966) supported this idea by investigating the relationship between remembered dreams and déjà vu experiences, and suggested that there is a strong correlation. Thirdly, people may experience déjà vu during a dream state, which links déjà vu with dream frequency.

Related terms[edit]

Jamais vu[edit]

Jamais vu (from French, meaning "never seen") is any familiar situation which is not recognized by the observer.

Often described as the opposite of déjà vu, jamais vu involves a sense of eeriness and the observer's impression of seeing the situation for the first time, despite rationally knowing that he or she has been in the situation before. Jamais vu is more commonly explained as when a person momentarily does not recognize a word, person, or place that they already know. Jamais vu is sometimes associated with certain types of aphasia, amnesia, and epilepsy.

Theoretically, a jamais vu feeling in a sufferer of a delirious disorder or intoxication could result in a delirious explanation of it, such as in the Capgras delusion, in which the patient takes a known person for a false double or impostor.[41] If the impostor is himself, the clinical setting would be the same as the one described as depersonalisation, hence jamais vus of oneself or of the very "reality of reality", are termed depersonalisation (or surreality) feelings.

The feeling has been evoked through semantic satiation. Chris Moulin of the University of Leeds asked 95 volunteers to write the word "door" 30 times in 60 seconds. 68 percent of the subjects reported symptoms of jamais vu, with some beginning to doubt that "door" was a real word.[41]

The experience has also been named "vuja de" and "véjà du".[42][43]

Déjà vécu[edit]

Déjà vécu is a feeling of “already living through”; however, it has been considered as a pathological form of déjà vu recently. Déjà vécu has behavioural consequences, unlike from déjà vu. Patients of déjà vécu would withdraw from their current events or activities since they believed that they have participated them before because of the familiarity. Patients justify their feelings of familiarity with beliefs bordering on delusion.[44]

Presque vu[edit]

Presque vu (French pronunciation: ​[pʁɛsk vy], from French, meaning "almost seen") is the intense feeling of being on the very brink of a powerful epiphany, insight, or revelation, without actually achieving the revelation. The feeling is often therefore associated with a frustrating, tantalizing sense of incompleteness or near-completeness.[45]

Déjà rêvé[edit]

Déjà rêvé (from French, meaning "already dreamed") is the feeling of having already dreamed something that you are now experiencing.[46]

Déjà entendu[edit]

Déjà entendu (literally "already heard") is the experience of feeling sure about having already heard something, even though the exact details are uncertain or were perhaps imagined.[47][48]

Deja vous[edit]

Deja vous is a pun on the English pronunciation of déjà vu. The French pronunciation of the vowel U in vu, [y] About this soundaudio , does not exist in English. Therefore déjà vu is pronounced with a // in English. When pronounced this way, /ˌdʒɑː ˈv/ (About this soundlisten), it means "already you" in French, rather than "already seen" and is written "déjà vous".[49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  2. ^ "Deja Vu | Definition of Deja Vu by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2018-01-27.
  3. ^ a b Brown, A. S. (2003). "A Review of the Deja Vu Experience". Psychological Bulletin. 129 (3): 394–413. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.3.394. PMID 12784936.
  4. ^ a b O'Connor, A. R; Moulin, C. J. A. (2010). "Recognition without identification, erroneous familiarity, and déjà vu". Current Psychiatry Reports. 12 (3): 165–173. doi:10.1007/s11920-010-0119-5. hdl:10023/1639. PMID 20425276.
  5. ^ a b Schnider, Armin. (2008). The Confabulating Mind: How the Brain Creates Reality. Oxford University Press. pp. 167–168. ISBN 978-0-19-920675-9
  6. ^ a b Blom, Jan Dirk. (2010). A Dictionary of Hallucinations. Springer. pp. 132-134. ISBN 978-1-4419-1222-0
  7. ^ "Déjà vu? - Witchipedia". www.witchipedia.com. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  8. ^ "The Meaning of Déjà Vu", Eli Marcovitz, M.D. (1952). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, vol. 21, pages: 481–489
  9. ^ The déjà vu experience, Alan S. Brown, Psychology Press, (2008), ISBN 0-203-48544-0, Introduction, page 1
  10. ^ Déjà vu and feelings of prediction: They’re just feelings 01 Mar 2018, by Anne Manning
  11. ^ Wild, E (Jan 2005). "Deja vu in neurology". Journal of Neurology. 252 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1007/s00415-005-0677-3. PMID 15654548.
  12. ^ Brown, A. S. (2004). "The déjà vu illusion". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 13: 256–259. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00320.x.
  13. ^ Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Zeman, Adam (2003). "Déjà vu". Practical Neurology. 3: 106–109. doi:10.1046/j.1474-7766.2003.11136.x.
  14. ^ Illman NA, Butler CR, Souchay C, Moulin CJ (2012). "Déjà experiences in temporal lobe epilepsy". Epilepsy Research and Treatment. 2012: 539567. doi:10.1155/2012/539567. ISSN 2090-1356. PMC 3420423. PMID 22957231.
  15. ^ Vlasov PN, Chervyakov AV, Gnezditskii VV (2013). "Déjà vu phenomenon-related EEG pattern. Case report". Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports. 1: 136–141. doi:10.1016/j.ebcr.2013.08.001. ISSN 2213-3232. PMC 4150674. PMID 25667847.
  16. ^ Labate A, Cerasa A, Mumoli L, Ferlazzo E, Aguglia U, Quattrone A, Gambardella A (March 2015). "Neuro-anatomical differences among epileptic and non-epileptic déjà-vu". Cortex; A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior. 64: 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2014.09.020. ISSN 1973-8102. PMID 25461702.
  17. ^ a b Cleary, Anne M. (2008-10-01). "Recognition Memory, Familiarity, and Déjà vu Experiences". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 17 (5): 353–357. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00605.x. ISSN 0963-7214.
  18. ^ The psychology of learning and motivation. Vol. 53. Ross, Brian H. London: Academic. 2010. pp. 33–62. ISBN 9780123809063. OCLC 668193814.CS1 maint: others (link)
  19. ^ "What Is a Neurological Exam? - Brain and Nerve Tests - HealthCommunities.com". www.neurologychannel.com.
  20. ^ "What is déjà vu?". 13 June 2001.
  21. ^ Kovacs, N.; Auer, T.; Balas, I.; Karadi, K.; Zambo, K.; Schwarcz, A.; et al. (2009). "Neuroimaging and cognitive changes during déjà vu". Epilepsy & Behavior. 14 (1): 190–196. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.08.017. PMID 18804184.
  22. ^ a b Brown, Alan S. (2004). The Déjà Vu Experience. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-84169-075-9.
  23. ^ Adachi T, Adachi N, Takekawa Y, Akanuma N, Ito M, Matsubara R, Ikeda H, Kimura M, Arai H (2006). "Déjà vu experiences in patients with schizophrenia". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 47 (5): 389–393. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2005.12.003. ISSN 0010-440X. PMID 16905402.
  24. ^ Adachi N, Adachi T, Akanuma N, Matsubara R, Ito M, Takekawa Y, Ikeda H, Arai H (2007). "Déjà vu experiences in schizophrenia: relations with psychopathology and antipsychotic medication". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 48 (6): 592–596. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2007.05.014. ISSN 0010-440X. PMID 17954146.
  25. ^ Adachi, Naoto; Akanuma, Nozomi; Akanu, Nozomi; Adachi, Takuya; Takekawa, Yoshikazu; Adachi, Yasushi; Ito, Masumi; Ikeda, Hiroshi (May 2008). "Déjà vu experiences are rarely associated with pathological dissociation". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 196 (5): 417–419. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31816ff36d. ISSN 1539-736X. PMID 18477885.
  26. ^ Brynie, Faith (2009). Brain Sense: The Science of the Senses and How We Process the World Around Us. Amacom. p. 195.
  27. ^ Taiminen, T.; Jääskeläinen, S. (2001). "Intense and recurrent déjà vu experiences related to amantadine and phenylpropanolamine in a healthy male". Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 8 (5): 460–462. doi:10.1054/jocn.2000.0810. PMID 11535020.
  28. ^ Bancaud, J.; Brunet-Bourgin, F.; Chauvel, P.; Halgren, E. (1994). "Anatomical origin of déjà vu and vivid 'memories' in human temporal lobe epilepsy". Brain : A Journal of Neurology. 117 (1): 71–90. doi:10.1093/brain/117.1.71. PMID 8149215.
  29. ^ The psychology of learning and motivation. Vol. 53. Ross, Brian H. London: Academic. 2010. ISBN 9780123809063. OCLC 668193814.CS1 maint: others (link)
  30. ^ Adachi, N.; Adachi, T.; Kimura, M.; Akanuma, N.; Takekawa, Y.; Kato, M. (2003). "Demographic and psychological features of déjà vu experiences in a nonclinical Japanese population". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 191 (4): 242–247. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000061149.26296.dc. PMID 12695735.
  31. ^ Cleary AM (2008). "Recognition memory, familiarity and déjà vu experiences". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 17 (5): 353–357. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00605.x.
  32. ^ Banister H, Zangwill, O (1941). "Experimentally induced olfactory paramnesia". British Journal of Psychology. 32 (2): 155–175. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1941.tb01018.x.
  33. ^ Banister H, Zangwill, O (1941). "Experimentally induced visual paramnesias". British Journal of Psychology. 32: 30–51. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1941.tb01008.x.
  34. ^ Cleary, Anne M. (2008). "Recognition Memory, Familiarity, and Déjà vu Experiences". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 17 (5): 353–357. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00605.x. ISSN 0963-7214.
  35. ^ O’Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Chris J. A. (2013). "Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli". Frontiers in Psychology. 4: 881. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00881. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 3842028. PMID 24409159.
  36. ^ O'Connor, Akira R.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Cox, Rochelle E. (2008-09-02). "Déjà Vu in the Laboratory: A Behavioral and Experiential Comparison of Posthypnotic Amnesia and Posthypnotic Familiarity". International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 56 (4): 425–450. doi:10.1080/00207140802255450. hdl:10023/1647. ISSN 0020-7144. PMID 18726806.
  37. ^ a b Cleary; Brown, AS; Sawyer, BD; Nomi, JS; Ajoku, AC; Ryals, AJ; et al. (2012). "Familiarity from the configuration of objects in 3-dimensional space and its relation to déjà vu: A virtual reality investigation". Consciousness and Cognition. 21 (2): 969–975. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2011.12.010. PMID 22322010.
  38. ^ Youngson, R. "Deja Vu". The Royal Society of Medicine Health Encyclopedia. Dr R.M. Youngson. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  39. ^ Efron R (September 1963). "Temporal perception, aphasia and déjà vu". Brain: A Journal of Neurology. 86: 403–424. doi:10.1093/brain/86.3.403. ISSN 0006-8950. PMID 14063892.
  40. ^ "How Déjà Vu Works". 11 April 2006.
  41. ^ a b Ahuja, Anjana (2006-07-24). "Doctor, I've got this little lump on my arm . . . Relax, that tells me everything". Times Online. London. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
  42. ^ "The power of "Vuja De"". 2013-07-03. Retrieved 2016-04-11. something else that you’ve done a hundred times before—and you suddenly feel as if you’re experiencing something completely new. This is vuja de,
  43. ^ "Adam Grant TED Talk 2016 (HD): The surprising habits of original thinkers" (published 2016-04-03). February 2016. Retrieved 2016-04-11. Véjà du is when you look at something you've seen many times before and all of a sudden see it with fresh eyes position mm:ss 11:12
  44. ^ O'Connor, Akira R.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Cox, Rochelle E. (2008-09-02). "Déjà Vu in the Laboratory: A Behavioral and Experiential Comparison of Posthypnotic Amnesia and Posthypnotic Familiarity". International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 56 (4): 427. doi:10.1080/00207140802255450. hdl:10023/1647. ISSN 0020-7144. PMID 18726806.
  45. ^ Blom, Jan Dirk (2009). A Dictionary of Hallucinations. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 422.
  46. ^ M., Schredl; A., Goritz; A., Funkhouser (2017). "Frequency of Deja Reve: Effects of Age, Gender, Dream Recall, and Personality". www.ingentaconnect.com.
  47. ^ Grinnel, Renée (2008). "Déjà Entendu". PsychCentral. Retrieved 2011-04-10. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  48. ^ "nevdgp.org.au" (PDF). www.nevdgp.org.au.
  49. ^ "Deja Vous". Urban Dictionary. Retrieved 11 October 2019.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Déjà vu at Wikimedia Commons