University of Delhi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Delhi University)
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 28°21′N 77°06′E / 28.35°N 77.10°E / 28.35; 77.10

University of Delhi
दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय
Delhi University's official logo.png
University of Delhi Seal
Latin: Universitas Delhiensis
Motto "निष्ठा धृति: सत्यम्" (Sanskrit)
Motto in English
"Dedicated to Truth"
Established 1922
Type Public
Endowment Funded by the Government of India
Chancellor Mohammad Hamid Ansari
Vice-Chancellor Dinesh Singh
Students 1,32,435
Undergraduates 114494
Postgraduates 17941
Location New Delhi, India
Campus Urban
Colours      Delhi Purple
Nickname DU
Mascot Elephant
Affiliations UGC
Universitas 21
Logo of University of Delhi.png

The University of Delhi informally known as Delhi University or DU is a public central university located in New Delhi, India. It is known for its high standards in teaching and research, as well as the eminent scholars it attracts to its faculty.[1]

It was established in 1922 as a unitary, teaching and residential university by an Act of the then Central Legislative Assembly.[2] The President of India is the Visitor, the Vice President is the Chancellor and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India is the Pro-Chancellor of the University.


University rankings
General – international
QS (World)[3] 441-450
QS (Asian)[4] 81
General – India
India Today[5] 1

India Today - Nielsen Rankings :

  • The University of Delhi has been consistently placed at the NO.1 rank by the India Today survey for many years.[6]
  • India Today Rankings:Year 2014 = University of Delhi Rank - 1 [7]

Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) Rankings:

  • QS World University Rankings 2013/14:[8] 441-450
  • QS University Rankings - Asia 2014:[9] 81
  • QS University Rankings - BRICS Nations:[10] 39

The University of Delhi was ranked 441-450 in the QS World University Rankings of 2013,[3] 97 in the Youth Incorporated, Education Times and Global University Rankings 2014 and #80 in the QS Asian University Rankings of 2013.[4] In rankings of Indian universities, it was ranked first by the India Today India's Top 50 Universities of 2012.[5]



When the university was founded, only three colleges existed in Delhi at the time: St. Stephen’s College founded in 1881, Hindu College founded in 1899 and Ramjas College founded in 1917, which were subsequently affiliated to it. The university thus had modest beginnings with only three colleges, two faculties (Arts and Science) and about 750 students. In October 1933, the university offices and the library shifted to the Viceregal Lodge Estate, and till today this site houses the offices of the main functionaries of the university. The university has grown into one of the largest universities in India. At present, there are 16 faculties, 86 academic departments, 77 colleges and 5 other recognised institutes spread all over the city, with 132435 regular students (UG: 114494,PG:17941) and 261169 students (UG:258831,PG:2338) in non-formal education programme.

In October 1933, the university offices and the library shifted to the Viceregal Lodge estate, where Viceroy Lord Hardinge stayed (1912–1931)[11]

The silver jubilee year of the university in 1947 coincided with India's independence, and the national flag was hoisted in the main building for the first time by VKRV Rao, the convocation ceremony for the year, however could not be held due to partition disturbances, thus a special ceremony was held in 1948, which was attended by prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Lord Mountbatten, Lady Mountbatten, Abul Kalam Azad, Zakir Hussain and S.S. Bhatnagar. Twenty-five years later the golden jubilee celebrations of 1973 were attended by then prime minister, Indira Gandhi, Satyajit Ray, Amrita Pritam and M S Subbulakshmi.[12]

Present form[edit]

Five departments namely chemistry, geology, zoology, sociology and history have been awarded the status of the Centres of Advanced Studies. These Centres of Advanced Studies have carved a niche for themselves as centres of excellence in teaching and research in their respective areas. In addition, a good number of University departments are also receiving grants under the Special Assistance Programme of the UGC in recognition of their outstanding academic work. 10 departments (Germanic & Romance Studies, Hindi, Persian, Geography, Music, East Asian Studies, Anthropology, Mathematics, B.R.Ambedkar, M. I.L.) are getting grants under DRS, 2 Departments (Buddhist Studies, English) are getting grants under DSA, 3 departments (English, Buddhist Studies, Social Work) are getting grants under AISHSS and 3 departments (African Studies, East Asian Studies, Developing Countries Research Centre) are getting grants under Area Studies Programmes. Department of Adult, Continuing Education and Extension and Women’s Studies & Development Centre of the university are also getting special funding from UGC. The university today boasts of as many as 15 big libraries apart from libraries in colleges. The University Science Instrumentation Centre (USIC) which is now situated close to the Physics and Chemistry Departments houses a number of sophisticated and high-end research instruments. These instruments are used quite frequently by teachers and research scholars of postgraduate departments of the university as well as by many other institutions in Delhi and its neighbourhood. The university has recently laid fibre-optic network in the north and the south campuses connecting all colleges and departments.

When the University of Delhi expanded in many directions to keep pace with a rapidly growing city, South Campus was established in 1973 to facilitate access for the residents of South Delhi. It moved to its present location on Benito Juarez Road, near Dhaula Kuan, in 1984. The campus is now spread across 69 acres of green, hilly terrain and its buildings blend attractively with the natural surroundings. The various departments are located in the Faculty of Arts and the Faculty of Inter-disciplinary and Applied Sciences. S.P. Jain Centre for Management Studies is also located at the South Delhi Campus. Besides these, the campus has a good library, a Health Centre, a Bank, a Post Office, DTC Pass Section and administrative and examination blocks. South campus also provides some residential quarters for faculty members and the non-teaching staff. Outstation students are offered accommodation in three hostels.

Over the last seven decades the university has grown into one of the largest universities in India. At present, there are 14 faculties, 86 academic departments and 79 colleges spread all over the city, with 132,435 regular students and 261,169 students in non-formal education programmes[13] and the annual honorary degrees (Honoris causa) of the University have been conferred upon several distinguished people, including Amitabh Bachchan, Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit, Cardiologist Dr. Jayantibhai Patel, cartoonist R. K. Laxman and scientist CNR Rao (2006);[14] and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown (2008).[15]


Statutory bodies[edit]

The Court, the Executive Council, the Academic Council and the Finance Committee are the authorities of the University.[16]

Academic council[edit]

The Academic Council is the highest academic body of the University and is responsible for the maintenance of standards of instruction, education and examination within the University. It has the right to advise the Executive Council on all academic matters.

Executive council[edit]

The Executive Council is the highest executive body of the University.

Finance committee[edit]

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton speaks at the University of Delhi, India July 19, 2009.

The committee is responsible for recommending financial policies, goals, and budgets that support the mission, values, and strategic goals of the university.

University Court[edit]

The University court is the highest body of the University.

Organisational charts[edit]

  • Organisational structure[17]
  • Administrative setup[18]


There are about 84 colleges affiliated to the University of Delhi, spread out all over the state. The Sherubtse College in Kanglung, Bhutan is also an affiliate of the University. There are four main campuses of the University: the north campus, the south campus, west campus and the kalka ji campus.

North Campus[edit]

Faculty of Arts

The North Campus has 16 faculties and 84 departments.[19] It hosts the three original colleges which constituted the University of Delhi when it was founded: St. Stephen's College (founded 1881), Hindu College (founded 1899) and Ramjas College (founded 1917).[20] North campus proper now has nine colleges geographically centred on the Faculty of Arts and Science and the Faculty of Law. Competition for admission into all North campus colleges is extremely fierce. Some of the most popular colleges are SGTB Khalsa College, Shri Ram College of Commerce,[21] Indraprastha College for Women, Hindu College, Miranda House, Daulat Ram College, Hansraj College, St. Stephen's College, Kirori Mal College, and Ramjas College. The extended off campus has Janki Devi Memorial College in Old Rajendra Nagar, Keshav Mahavidyalaya and Sri Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce in Pitampura. Satyawati College in Ashok Vihar. The Cluster Innovation Centre is a research facility that is independent of any university faculty/department[22] which serves as a platform for the University and its partners to forge linkages between various stakeholders from industry and academia. It currently runs two undergraduate degree programs (a four-year Bachelor of Technology and a three-year Bachelor of Arts (Hons.) and one postgraduate program (Master of Science).

South Campus[edit]

The South Campus offering postgraduate programmes in 1973 in selected departments of the Faculties of Arts[23] and Social Sciences in a rented building. It was allotted land near Dhaula Kuan and offices and teaching activities shifted to this campus in 1983. In the south campus, colleges are more scattered.Delhi College of Arts and Commerce, Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College, College of Vocational Studies, Sri Aurobindo College, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College, Kamla Nehru College, Maitreyi College, Sri Venkateswara College, Ram Lal Anand College, Lady Shri Ram College, Lady Irwin College, Jesus and Mary College, Motilal Nehru College, P.G.D.A.V. College, Maharaja Agrasen College, Dyal Singh College, Ramanujan College, Gargi College, Acharya Narendra Dev College and Deshbandhu College are some of the colleges that make up the south campus of the Delhi University. This campus is known for excellence in life sciences with departments like Plant Molecular Biology, Genetics, Microbiology, and Biochemistry and professional studies with departments like Business Economics and Financial Studies. The Biotech centre in this campus is running industry-integrated research. The centre of Plant Molecular Biology is one of the seven centres in India funded by DBT.

West Campus

In west campus there are several colleges such as Rajdhani College, Shivaji College, SPM College, Deen Dayal Upadhaya College and many more colleges.

Kalkaji Campus

It includes colleges of Kalkaji area. Colleges such as Aurobindo college, Deshbandhu College and Ramanujan College fall into Kalkaji Campus.

Faculties and Departments[edit]

The University of Delhi offers courses in a wide variety of subjects and concentrations.The depth and breadth of the syllabus are very vast, extending well beyond course offerings to many other special programmes and research opportunities.The Honours programmes offered by the varsity for a wide spectrum of subjects are highly sought after by students from all over the country.[24]

Delhi University has 16 faculties:.[25]

Faculty of Arts: It has 14 departments including Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Hindi, English, Germanic and Romance Studies, Linguistics, Buddhist Studies,Philosophy, Library and Information Science, etc.

Faculty of Technology: The faculty has 1 constituent college as of January 2015 - Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology. It offers courses of Bachelor of Engineering and is regarded as one of premier engineering colleges in India. The faculty earlier included the Delhi College of Engineering, before it was converted into the Delhi Technological University.[26][27]

Faculty of Law: It offers LL.B and LL.M.

Faculty of Science: It has 10 departments, namely, anthropology, botany, chemistry, environmental studies, geology, home science, nursing, pharmacy, zoology, physics & astrophysics.

Faculty of Social Sciences

It has 9 departments, namely, Adult Continuing Education & Extension, African Studies, East Asian Studies, Social Work, Political Science, Geography, Sociology,

Economics (so-called 'Delhi School of Economics' [DSE] which publishes a refereed journal, Indian Economic Review since 1952); and

History (the refereed journal Indian Economic and Social History Review [28] has been closely associated with past and present members of this department and DSE).

Faculty of Education

Faculty of Applied Social Sciences and Humanities[29] It undertakes Admission procedure of B.A.(Hons.) Business Economics, B.B.A. (Financial Investment Analysis) (earlier known as Bachelor of Financial Investment Analysis) and Bachelor Of Management Studies (earlier known as Bachelor of Business Studies)

Faculty of Commerce and Business Studies

Faculty of Interdisciplinary and Applied Sciences

Faculty of Management Studies

Faculty of Mathematical Sciences

Faculty of Medical Sciences

Faculty of Music and Fine Arts

Faculty of Open Learning

Faculty of Ayurvedic & Unani Medicine

Faculty of Faculty of Homeopathic Medicine


Delhi University library system (DULS)[edit]

DULS has 34 libraries with web activity and a subscription to 29 electronic databases. In addition to this 20 more databases are also accessible through UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium. DULS also promotes Open Access e-resources. DULS is regularly conducting Information Literacy Programs (ILP) for the benefit of students, researchers and Faculty members .[30]

Selected libraries[edit]

  • University Library
  • Deptt.of Library Sciences[31]
  • Central Science Library[32]
  • DUCC Library[33]
  • Arts Library[34]
  • Law Faculty Library[35]
  • Ratan Tata Library[36]
  • South Campus Library[37]
  • FMS Library[38]
  • East Asian Studies Library[39]


Campus of open learning[edit]

  • School of Open Learning
  • Centre for Professional and Technical Training
  • DU-GENPACT Project
  • Courses Under Professional skills Project in Collaboration with CII
  • DU-MetLife Insurance Course[40]


When University of Delhi was established, only three colleges existed: St. Stephens College founded in 1881, Hindu College founded in 1899 and Ramjas College founded in 1917, which were affiliated to the university. Hindu, St. Stephen's, Kirori Mal, Hansraj, Miranda House, Shri Ram College of Commerce, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, Indraprastha College for Women, Ramjas College, Sri Venkateswara College and Jesus and Mary College are amongst the most sought after colleges of University of Delhi today.[41][42][43][44]

The university has 65 colleges that have liberal courses in humanities, social sciences and science courses. Twenty five of these colleges are affiliated with the South Campus while the others are to the North Campus. These colleges except two, Lady Irwin College and Institute of Home Economics, are undergraduate colleges. The number of colleges under the university goes up to 77, if the colleges that run professional courses are included.

Though the colleges are all constituent to the University of Delhi, depending on the funding and the management the colleges can be classified into three types: university-maintained colleges, trust colleges and Delhi government colleges. Of the Delhi government colleges, 12 are fully funded by the government of the NCT of Delhi and were founded in the late 1980s or early 1990s.


Four Year Undergraduate Program[edit]

The University of Delhi commenced the four year undergraduate program (FYUP) from the academic year 2013-14. These programs have been designed with multiple exit options and include research components.[45] These programs aim to provide greater flexibility and wider range of choices to the students.[46] However, FYUP has received stiff opposition from various bodies including University Grants Commission, which has asked the University to scrap the four-year course.[47]

On June 27, 2014, the Vice-Chancellor, in a statement announced the rollback[48] of FYUP citing a directive from University Grants Commission.

Undergraduate admissions[edit]

The academic session starts on 21 July while admissions for the regular courses are held in June–July. Admission in courses that are done through entrance examination follow a different schedule.

Admission to all the undergraduate courses (except the professional ones) is carried out by each college though the system and schedule is common and announced by the University each May. In the year 2011, the university decided to do away with the requirement of preregistration for admission,[49] but as of 2012 the pre-admission form is back.[50]

The university does not hold entrance exams (except for Bachelor of Management Studies, Bachelor of Business Economics, Bachelor of Finance and Investment Analysis) but scores of higher secondary school examination are taken into consideration.

The colleges decide the cut-off percentage (minimum marks required) for their courses and is released by the university on predeclared date as cut-off lists. Once the cut-off percentage is released, any student who has the requisite percent can approach the college and seek admission within a number of days. Separate cut-offs are announced for aspirants belonging to Other Backward Classes with some relaxation in cut-off percentage given to them as compared to candidates belonging to the General Category.[51] If seats are available, university announces second cut-off list and calls for admission. Up to five lists are announced. If seats are completely filled in certain courses, no further cut-off of that course is announced.

Admissions based on excellence in extracurricular activities and sports is carried out after conducting trials by the colleges. Students need to apply separately to each college for being considered for admission under these categories.

The university reserves seats for students who are physically handicapped or belong to the Scheduled castes or scheduled tribes as per government policy. Students who seek admission under these categories need to register centrally in the University of Delhi. The university allocates the course and college to these students based on their choice and availability

Student Life[edit]

Students of the university are involved in various national and state level social activism. One of such student run endeavors are DU Times [52] which is a student run newspaper and it functions as an information base for the updates regarding all the colleges that fall under the university, the newspaper was also involved in the campaign against the introduction of CBCS along with DUTA.[53] There are various MUN circuits associated with Delhi University and they hold the events throughout the year. Each college has its own annual cultural fest, some known fests are Crossroads of SRCC, Mecca of Hindu college and Confluence held in Hansraj College. Each college has their own societies promoting a variety of ECAs.


Delhi University Stadium is a Rugby 7s stadium, situated within the North Campus of Delhi University. Spread over 10,000 square metres (110,000 sq ft), the stadium has a seating capacity of 2,500 permanent and 7,500 temporary seats. The construction work began in 2008 and it was inaugurated in July 2010, ahead of the 2010 Commonwealth Games,[54] and also includes training area for Netball, Boxing, Women's Wrestling and Athletics.[55][56]

After the games the stadium was handed over to the university by Commonwealth Games Organising Committee, there after in 2011, the university initiated an extensive upgrade plan, to create a multi-purpose arena with both outdoor and indoor facilities,[57] after its completion the university students could access its facilities in late 2011.[58]

Notable alumni and faculty[edit]

The University of Delhi has produced many distinguished personalities, including at least seven Heads of state or government and two Nobel Laureates.

Notable alumni of Delhi University include major politicians of India, including Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India and former Chief Minister of Gujarat; Sheila Dikshit, former Chief Minister of Delhi; Madan Lal Khurana, former Chief Minister of Delhi and Governor of Rajasthan; Sucheta Kripalani, former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and India's first woman Chief Minister; Naveen Patnaik, current Chief Minister of Orissa; Naveen Jindal, Indian National Congress politician; Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission; Rahul Gandhi, Indian National Congress Member of Parliament; Salman Khurshid, Minister of State for Corporate and Minority Affairs; Kapil Sibal, Union Minister for Human Resource Development; Ambika Soni, former Minister of Information and Broadcasting; Arun Jaitley, the Minister of Finance; and Arun Shourie,[59] former Union Minister for Disinvestment. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, the fifth President of India, graduated from St. Stephen's College, when the college was under the University of the Punjab.

Foreign notable DU alumni include Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi; Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (a graduate of St. Stephen's College),[60] the sixth President of Pakistan; Girija Prasad Koirala, who served as the Prime Minister of Nepal on four occasions; and Aung San Suu Kyi, pro-democracy activist, leader of the National League for Democracy in Myanmar and 1991 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

In science and engineering, notable alumni of DU include physicists Archana Bhattacharyya,[61] Pran Nath, Jogesh Pati (MSc in 1957)[62] and Amitava Raychaudhuri; chemists Charusita Chakravarty and Anil Kumar Tyagi (PhD in Medical Biochemistry);[63] engineer Vinod Dham; and mathematician Eknath Prabhakar Ghate.

In humanities and social sciences, notable alumni include Gita Gopinath, professor of economics at Harvard University; Kaushik Basu, economist and Senior Vice President and Chief Economist of the World Bank; historians such as Arundhati Virmani, Ramnarayan Rawat, Upinder Singh and Usha Sanyal; and Veena Das, professor of anthropology at Johns Hopkins University.

The university also has produced a large number of major actors of Indian cinema and theatre including Amitabh Bachchan, Imran Zahid and Shah Rukh Khan.

The notable faculty members of DU include Amartya Sen, recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences; Manmohan Singh, former Prime Minister of India; Sukhamoy Chakravarty, economist and a key architect of the Five-Year plans of India;[64] Jagdish N. Bhagwati, economist at Columbia University;[65] and Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan, wife of the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan.[66] Dinesh Singh, the current Vice-Chancellor of DU, is also a professor of mathematics at the university.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ [1] Premier University of the country.Retrieved 2014-8-4
  2. ^ [2] Ministry of Human Resources and Development,Govt of India.Retrieved 2014-8-4
  3. ^ a b "QS World University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "QS Asian University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b "Masters of excellence". India Today. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  6. ^ [3] India Today Nielsen Survey.Retrieved 2014-8-4
  7. ^ [4] Indian University Rankings.Retrieved 2014-8-4.
  8. ^ [5] World Rankings by QS.Retrieved 2014-8-4
  9. ^ [6] QS Asian University Rankings 2014.Retrieved 2014-8-4
  10. ^ [7] BRICS University Rankings.Retrieved 2014-8-4
  11. ^ "Imperial Impressions". Hindustan Times. July 20, 2011. 
  12. ^ Sonal Manchanda (August 17, 1997). "Delhi University's date with history". Indian Express. 
  13. ^ "About DU". 
  14. ^ "Delhi University honours Big B". The Times of India. 4 November 2006. 
  15. ^ "Brown's sense of humour floors audience at DU". The Hindu. January 21, 2008. 
  16. ^ [8].DU Administration,Retrieved 2012-6-29
  17. ^ [9].The Organizational Structure,Retrieved 2012-6-29
  18. ^ [10].The Administrative Setup,Retrieved 2012-6-29
  19. ^ "Administrative Sections (North Campus)". 
  20. ^ "=About University of Delhi". 
  21. ^
  22. ^ "CIC (North Campus)". 
  23. ^ "Delhi University Student Radhika Tanwar Shot Dead in Broad Daylight". 
  24. ^ [11].Subject offered by DU.Retrieved 2012-6-29
  25. ^ "Faculties & Departments - University of Delhi". Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ "Indian Economic & Social History Review". Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  29. ^
  30. ^ "DULS". 
  31. ^ "DLIS Library: Tresure of knowledge". Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  32. ^ "Central Science Library". 
  33. ^ "Law Faculty Library". 
  34. ^ "Arts Library". 
  35. ^ "Law Faculty Library". 
  36. ^ "Ratan Tata Library". 
  37. ^ "South Campus Library". 
  38. ^ "FMS Library". 
  39. ^ "East Asian Studies Library". 
  40. ^ "Corrspondance". 
  41. ^ "10 top colleges in DU in Science, Commerce & Arts". 
  42. ^ "CITYWISE RANKING: BEST ARTS COLLEGES". India Today (India Today-Nielsen Survey 2014). 
  43. ^ "CITYWISE RANKING: BEST COMMERCE COLLEGES". India Today (India Today-Nielsen Survey 2014). 
  44. ^ "CITYWISE RANKING: BEST SCIENCE COLLEGES". India Today (India Today-Nielsen Survey 2014). 
  45. ^ "The two sides of a coin called ‘FYUP’ | Garima Sethi". Campus Diaries. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  46. ^ [12] Delhi University and its FYUP programme.Retrieved 2013-7-8.
  47. ^ "UGC, DU standoff continues while colleges defer admissions to FYUP". IANS. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  48. ^ "A statement from the Vice Chancellor" (PDF). Retrieved 27 June 2014. 
  49. ^ New Admissions Announcement
  50. ^ DU Undergraduate Admission Procedure 2012 (PDF), retrieved June 9, 2012 
  51. ^ ["Corrspondance".  "Admission for the OBC Candidates"] Check |url= scheme (help). 
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^ "Delhi University gets swanky new stadium". Hindustan Times. July 15, 2010. 
  55. ^ Cite error: The named reference cwg was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  56. ^ Delhi University Sports Council
  57. ^ "A guide to Delhi University facilities: All play". The Times of India. Jul 19, 2011. 
  58. ^ "Brand new". The Times of India. Jan 3, 2012. 
  59. ^
  60. ^ Ekbal, Nikhat (2009). Great Muslims of undivided India. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 104. ISBN 978-8178357560. 
  61. ^ "INSA - Archana Bhattacharyya". Retrieved March 15, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Biographical sketch: Jogesh Chandra Pati" (PDF). Stanford University. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  63. ^ "Curriculum vitae: Anil K. Tyagi" (PDF). Delhi University. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  64. ^ "History". Delhi School of Economics. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  65. ^ "Professor Jagdish N. Bhagwati". Columbia University. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  66. ^ "Begum Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan". Herald (Pakistan). 

External links[edit]