Delium (also called Delion Greek: Δήλιον Dêlion, Latin: Delium) was a Greek city famous for its important temple dedicated to Apollo, similar to the one in Delos, thence its name. Founded by colonists of Tanagra, it was located approximately 2 km from Oropos and 8 km from Tanagra.
There were two important battles in Delium:
- In the first battle, called the Battle of Delium, the Athenians were defeated by the Boeotians in 424 BC. This was part of the Peloponnesian War. This battle went over a period of several days. Additionally, this battle resulted in the death of Hippocrates, among over a thousand others. The Boeotians grossly outnumbered the Athenians, resulting in the Boeotian victory. The war was won in 404, with a great financial help from the Persians.
- The Athenians began the battle 15,000 total and the Boeotians began with 18,500. As with any battle, casualties ensued, in addition to the death of Hippocrates, the Athenians lost many. The Athenians lost 1,200 and the Boeotians lost extremely less, only 500.
- In a second battle, the Romans were defeated by Antiochus III the Great in 192.
- De'lium in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Vol. I, Abaecenum-Hytanis, Sir William Smith, 1854, (Walton & Maberly, London)
- Brice, Lee L. "The Peloponnesians won the war in 404 with Persian ﬁnancial support. Among the terms of the surrender was the dissolution of the Delian League." Greek Warfare: From the Battle of Marathon to the Conquests of Alexander the Great (2012): 48.
- Hanson, Victor Davis. Ripples of Battle: How Wars Fought Long Ago Still Determine How We Fight, How We Live, and How We Think. Doubleday, 2003. ISBN 0-385-50400-4
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