Delta (rocket family)
|Delta II through Delta IV|
|Role||Expendable launch system|
with various applications
|Manufacturer||United Launch Alliance|
|First flight||13 May 1960|
Delta is an American versatile family of expendable launch systems that has provided space launch capability in the United States since 1960. More than 300 Delta rockets have been launched with a 95% success rate. Only the Delta IV Heavy rocket remains in use as of November 2020. Delta rockets are currently manufactured and launched by the United Launch Alliance.
The original Delta rockets used a modified version of the PGM-17 Thor, the first ballistic missile deployed by the United States Air Force (USAF), as their first stage. The Thor had been designed in the mid-1950s to reach Moscow from bases in Britain or similar allied nations, and the first wholly successful Thor launch had occurred in September 1957. Subsequent satellite and space probe flights soon followed, using a Thor first stage with several different upper stages. The fourth upper stage used on the Thor was the Thor "Delta", delta being the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. Eventually the entire Thor-Delta launch vehicle came to be called simply "Delta".
NASA intended Delta as "an interim general purpose vehicle" to be "used for communication, meteorological, and scientific satellites and lunar probes during 1960 and 1961". The plan was to replace Delta with other rocket designs when they came on-line. From this point onward, the launch vehicle family was split into civilian variants flown from Cape Canaveral which bore the Delta name and military variants flown from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) which used the more warlike Thor name. The Delta design emphasized reliability rather than performance by replacing components which had caused problems on earlier Thor flights; in particular the trouble-prone inertial guidance package made by AC Spark Plug was replaced by a radio ground guidance system, which was mounted to the second stage instead of the first. NASA made the original Delta contract to the Douglas Aircraft Company in April 1959 for 12 vehicles of this design:
- Stage 1: Modified Thor IRBM with a Block I MB-3 engine producing 683 kN (154,000 lbf) thrust (LOX/RP1 turbopump, gimbal mounted engine, two verniers for roll control).
- Stage 2: Modified Able. Pressure fed UDMH/nitric acid powered Aerojet AJ-10-118 engine producing 34 kN (7,600 lbf). This reliable engine cost US$4 million to build and is still flying in modified form today. Gas jet attitude control system.
- Stage 3: Altair. A spin-stabilized (via a turntable on top of the Able) at 100 rpm by two solid rocket motors before separation. One ABL X-248 solid rocket motor provided 12 kN (2,700 lbf) of thrust for 28 seconds. The stage weighed 230 kg (510 lb) and was largely constructed of wound fiberglass.
These vehicles would be able to place 290 kg (640 lb) into a 240 to 370 km (150 to 230 mi) LEO or 45 kg (99 lb) into GTO. Eleven of the twelve initial Delta flights were successful and until 1968, no failures occurred in the first two minutes of launch. The high degree of success achieved by Delta stood in contrast to the endless parade of failures that dogged West Coast Thor launches. The total project development and launch cost came to US$43 million, US$3 million over budget. An order for 14 more vehicles was made before 1962.
|1||13 May 1960||Echo 1||CCAFS, LC-17A||Failure||Launch at 21:16 GMT. Good first stage. Second-stage attitude control system failure. Vehicle destroyed.|
|2||12 August 1960||Echo 1A||Success||Payload placed into 1,035 mi (1,666 km), 47.0° inclination orbit.|
|3||23 November 1960||TIROS-2||Success||Television Infrared Observation Satellite|
|4||25 March 1961||Explorer-10||Success||78 lb (35 kg) payload placed into elliptical 138,000 mi (222,000 km) orbit.|
|5||12 July 1961||TIROS-3||Success|
|6||16 August 1961||Explorer 12||Success||Energetic Particle Explorer (EPE-A). Highly elliptical orbit.|
|7||8 February 1962||TIROS-4||Success|
|8||7 March 1962||OSO 1||Success||Orbiting Solar Observatory. 345 mi (555 km), 33.0° orbit.|
|9||26 April 1962||Ariel 1||Success||Ariel 1 was later seriously damaged by the Starfish Prime nuclear test.|
|10||19 June 1962||TIROS-5||Success|
|11||10 July 1962||Telstar 1||Success||Also later damaged by the Starfish Prime high altitude nuclear event.|
|12||18 September 1962||TIROS-6||Success|
The Delta A used the MB-3 Block II engine, with 170,000 lbf (760 kN) of thrust versus 152,000 lbf (680 kN) for the Block I.
13. 2 October 1962 - Explorer 14 (EPE-B)
14. 27 October 1962 - Explorer 15 (EPE-C)
The Delta B introduce the upgraded AJ10-118D upper stage, a three-foot propellant tank extension, higher energy oxidizer, and solid-state guidance system. With the Delta B the Delta program went from "interim" to "operational" status. Delta B could launch 200 lb (91 kg) to GTO.
15. 13 December 1962. Relay 1, second NASA communications satellite, the NASA communications satellite first active one.
16. 13 February 1963. Pad 17B. Syncom 1; Thiokol Corporation Star-13B solid rocket as apogee motor.
20. 26 July 1963. Syncom 2; geosynchronous orbit, but inclined 33.0° due to the limited performance of the Delta rocket.
For Delta C, the third stage Altair was replaced with Altair 2. The Altair 2 had been developed as the ABL X-258 for the Scout vehicle and was 3 in (76 mm) longer, 10% heavier, and with 65% more total thrust. OSO 4 is an example of a Delta C launch.
This launch vehicle was not built.
This launch vehicle was not built.
The Delta M first stage consisted of a Long Tank Thor with MB-3-3 engine augmented with three Castor 2 boosters. The Delta E was the second stage, with a Star 37D (Burner 2) third stage/apogee kick motor. There were 12 successful Delta M launches from 1968 until 1971.
The Delta N combined a Long Tank Thor (MB-3-3 engine) first stage augmented with three Castor 2 boosters and a Delta E second stage. There were six successful Delta N launches from 1968 until 1972.
The "Super Six" was a Delta M or Delta N with three additional Castor 2 boosters for a total of six, which was the maximum that could be accommodated. These were respectively designated Delta M6 or Delta N6. The first and only launch of the M6 configuration was Explorer 43 (IMP-H, Magnetospheric research) on 13 March 1971. Three launches of the N6 between 1970 and 1971 resulted in one failure.
- 450 kg (990 lb) to GTO
From 1969 through 1978 (inclusive), Thor-Delta was NASA's most used launcher, with 84 launch attempts. (Scout was the second-most used vehicle with 32 launches.) Satellites for other government agencies and foreign governments were also launched on a cost-reimbursable basis, totaling sixty-three satellites. Out of the 84 launch attempts there were seven failures or partial failures, a 91.6% success rate.
Delta numbering system
In 1972, McDonnell Douglas introduced a four-digit numbering system to replace the letter-naming system. The new system could better accommodate the various changes and improvements to Delta rockets and avoided the problem of a rapidly depleting alphabet. The digits specified (1) the tank and main engine type, (2) number of solid rocket boosters, (3) second stage (letters in the following table refer to the engine), and (4) third stage:
(Number of boosters)
|0||Long Tank Thor
Castor 2 SRBs
|No SRBs||Delta F*, with Aerojet AJ-10-118F engines.
*References uprated Aerojet AJ-10-118 engine
|No third stage||N/A|
|1||Extended Long Tank Thor
Castor 2 SRBs
|N/A||Delta P*, Douglas built with TRW TR-201 engines.
*Exception: AJ-10-118F engine for Anik-A1 launch.
|2||Extended Long Tank Thor
Castor 2 SRBs
|2 SRBs (or CBCs in the case of the Delta IV Heavy)||Delta K*, with AJ-10-118K engines.
*References uprated Aerojet AJ-10-118 engine
|3||Extended Long Tank Thor
Castor 4 SRBs
|3 SRBs||Delta III cryogenic upper stage, RL-10B-2 engine||Star 37D|
|4||Extended Long Tank Thor
Castor 4A SRBs
|4 SRBs||Delta IV 4m diameter cryogenic upper stage, RL-10B-2 engine||Star 37E|
|5||Extended Long Tank Thor
Castor 4A SRBs
|N/A||Delta IV 5 metre diameter cryogenic upper stage, RL-10B-2 engine||Star 48B / PAM-D|
|6||Extra-Extended Long Tank Thor
Castor 4A SRBs
|6 SRBs||N/A||Star 37FM|
|7||Extra-Extended Long Tank Thor
GEM 40 SRBs
|N/A||N/A||GEM 46 SRBs|
|8||Strengthened Extra-Extended Long Tank Thor
GEM 46 SRBs
|9||Delta IV Common Booster Core (CBC)
|9 SRBs||2 additional CBC parallel first stages|
(Number of boosters)
|0||N/A||No SRBs||N/A||No third stage||N/A|
|2||Extra-Extended Long Tank Thor
GEM 40 SRBs
|2 SRBs (or LRBs in the case of the Delta IV Heavy)||Delta K, with AJ-10-118K engines||GEM 46 SRBs|
|3||Strengthened Extra-Extended Long Tank Thor
GEM 46 SRBs
|4||Delta IV CBC
|4 SRBs||Delta IV 4 metre diameter cryogenic upper stage, RL-10B-2 engine||2 additional CBC parallel first stages|
|5||N/A||N/A||Delta IV 5 metre diameter cryogenic upper stage, RL-10B-2 engine||Star 48B / PAM-D||N/A|
The Delta 0100 series was the first stage of the initial numbered Delta was the Long Tank Thor, a version of the Thor missile with extended propellant tanks. Up to nine strap-on solid rocket boosters (SRBs) could be fitted. With three SRBs, the Delta was designated a 300 series, while the nine SRB variant was designated the 900 series. A new and improved Delta F second-stage using the higher thrust Aerojet AJ 10-118F engine was also introduced. The first 900 series launch was the fourth Delta 0100. On 23 July 1972, Thor-Delta 904 launched Landsat 1. A license-built version of the Long Tank Thor stage with the MB-3 engine was also used for the Japanese N-I launch vehicle.
The Delta 1000 series was nicknamed the Straight-Eight and combined an Extended Long Tank first stage with an 8 ft-diameter (2.4 m) payload fairing, up to nine Castor 2 SRBs, and the new McDonnell Douglas Delta P second stage using the TRW TR-201 engine. Payload capacity increased to 1,835 kg (4,045 lb) to LEO or 635 kg (1,400 lb) to GTO. The first successful 1000 series Thor-Delta launched Explorer 47 on 22 September 1972. The Extended Long Tank Thor stage was also used in the Japanese N-II and H-I launch vehicles.
The Delta 2000 introduced the new Rocketdyne RS-27 main engine on an Extended Long Tank first stage with the same constant 8-foot diameter. A Delta 2310 was the vehicle for the first three-satellite launch of NOAA-4, Intasat, and AMSAT-OSCAR 7 on 15 November 1974. Delta 2910 boosters were used to launch both Landsat 2 in 1975 and Landsat 3 in 1978. On 7 April 1978, a Delta 2914 launched "Yuri 1", the first Japanese BSE Broadcasting Satellite.
The Delta 3000 combined the same first stage as 1000-series and 2000-series with upgraded Castor 4 solid boosters and was the last Delta series to use the McDonnell Douglas Delta P second stage with TRW TR-201 engine. Delta 3000 introduced the PAM (Payload Assist Module) / Star 48B solid-fueled kick motor, which was later used as Delta II third stage. The Delta 3914 model was approved for launching United States government payloads in May 1976 and was launched 13 times between 1975-1987.
The Delta 4000-series and 5000-series were developed in the aftermath of the Challenger disaster and consisted of a combination of 3000-era and Delta II-era components. The first stage had the MB-3 main engine and Extended Long Tank of the 3000-series and mounted upgraded Castor 4A motors. The new Delta K second stage was also included. A total of three were launched in 1989 and 1990, carrying two operational payloads.
Delta II (6000-series and 7000-series)
The Delta 6000-series introduced the Extra Extended Long Tank first stage, which was 12 feet longer, and the Castor 4A boosters. Six SRBs ignited at takeoff and three ignited in the air.
The Delta 7000-series introduced the RS-27A main engine, which was modified for efficiency at high altitude at some cost to low-altitude performance, and the lighter and more powerful GEM-40 solid boosters from Hercules. The Delta II Med-Lite was a 7000-series with no third stage and fewer strap-ons (often three, sometimes four) that was usually used for small NASA missions. The Delta II Heavy was a Delta II 792X with the enlarged GEM-46 boosters from Delta III.
Delta III (8000-Series)
The Delta III 8000-series was a McDonnell Douglas / Boeing-developed program to keep pace with growing satellite masses:
- The two upper stages, with low-performance fuels, were replaced with a single cryogenic stage, improving performance and reducing recurring costs and pad labor. The engine was a single Pratt & Whitney RL10, from the Centaur upper stage. The hydrogen fuel tank, 4 metre in diameter in orange insulation, is exposed; the narrower oxygen tank and engine are covered until stage ignition. Fuel tank contracted to Mitsubishi, and produced using technologies from Japanese H-II launcher.
- To keep the stack short and resistant to crosswinds, the first-stage kerosene tank was widened and shortened, matching the upper-stage and fairing diameters.
- Nine enlarged GEM-46 solid boosters were attached. Three have thrust-vectoring nozzles.
Of the three Delta III flights, the first two were failures and the third carried only a dummy (inert) payload.
Delta IV (9000-series)
As part of the Air Force's Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program, McDonnell Douglas / Boeing proposed Delta IV. As the program implies, many components and technologies were borrowed from existing launchers. Both Boeing and Lockheed Martin were contracted to produce their EELV designs. Delta IVs are produced in a new facility in Decatur, Alabama.
- The first stage changed to liquid hydrogen fuel. Tank technologies derived from Delta III upper stage, but widened to 5 metre.
- The kerosene engine replaced with Rocketdyne RS-68, the first new, large liquid-fueled rocket engine designed in the United States since the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in the '70s. Designed for low cost; has lower chamber pressure and efficiency than the SSME, and a much simpler nozzle. Thrust chamber and upper nozzle is a channel-wall design, pioneered by Soviet engines. Lower nozzle is ablatively cooled.
- The second stage and fairing taken from the Delta III in smaller (Delta IV Medium) models; widened to 5 metre in Medium+ and Heavy models.
- Medium+ models have two or four GEM 60, 60-inch diameter solid boosters.
- The plumbing was revised and electrical circuits eliminate need for a launch tower.
Delta IV Heavy
The Delta IV Heavy (Delta 9250H) uses two additional CBCs as boosters. These are strap-on boosters which are separated earlier in the flight than the center CBC.
The initial demonstration flight on 21 December 2004 was a partial failure, due to the premature cutoff of CBCs. The DemoSat reached incorrect orbit and the 3 Corner Satellite satellites entered orbit at a height of only 105 km, which led to a rapid decay.
The cause of the problem was a premature first-stage LOX depletion sensor signal that resulted when LOX cavitation occurred in the LOX feedline. The LOX feedline/sensor design was modified and the problem did not recur on subsequent Delta IV Heavy missions.
- Features a stretched 5-metre composite payload fairing.
- An aluminum trisector (3 parts) fairing derived from the Titan IV fairing is also available. This was first used on the DSP-23 flight.
- First successful launch from SLC-37 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on 11 November 2007.
- First successful launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), SLC-6 on 20 January 2011.
- On 29 June 2012, the first Delta IV using the upgraded RS-68A engines launched from SLC-37 in the Heavy configuration, carrying the NROL-15 mission (National Reconnaissance Office). The new upgraded variant produced a total of 2.106 million pounds of thrust at liftoff.
- In December 2014, the Delta IV Heavy was used to launch an uncrewed test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle of the NASA, designated Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1).
- A Delta IV Heavy was used to launch the Parker Solar Probe mission on 12 August 2018. This Delta IV Heavy launch implemented the Star 48BV third stage (Delta 9255H), the first use of a third stage on a Delta IV.
- Comparison of orbital launchers families
- Comparison of orbital launch systems
- List of Thor and Delta launches
- HoloVID visualization tool
- Space debris
- Project Echo
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