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|Cultural origins||early 20th century Mississippi|
The Delta blues is one of the earliest styles of blues music. It originated in the Mississippi Delta, a region of the United States that stretches from Memphis, Tennessee in the north to Vicksburg, Mississippi in the south, Helena, Arkansas in the west to the Yazoo River on the east. The Mississippi Delta area is famous both for its fertile soil and its poverty. Guitar and harmonica are the dominant instruments used, with slide guitar (usually on the steel guitar) being a hallmark of the style. The vocal styles range from introspective and soulful to passionate and fiery. Delta blues is also regarded as a regional variation of country blues.
Although Delta blues certainly existed in some form or another at the turn of the 20th century, it was first recorded in the late 1920s, when record companies realized the potential African American market in Race records. The ‘major’ labels produced the earliest recordings and consisted mostly of one person singing and playing an instrument; however, the use of a band was more common during live performances. Current belief is that Freddie Spruell is the first Delta blues artist recorded, as he waxed "Milk Cow Blues" in Chicago in June 1926. Record company talent scouts made some of these early recordings on 'field trips' to the South; however, the labels invited some Delta blues performers to travel to northern cities to record. According to Dixon & Godrich , Tommy Johnson and Ishman Bracey were recorded by Victor on that company's second field trip to Memphis, in 1928. Robert Wilkins was first recorded by Victor in Memphis in 1928, and Big Joe Williams and Garfield Akers also in Memphis (1929) by Brunswick/Vocalion.
Son House first recorded in Grafton, Wisconsin (1930) for Paramount. Charley Patton also recorded for Paramount in Grafton, in June 1929 and again, at the same location in May 1930. In January and February 1934, Patton visited New York City for further recording sessions. Robert Johnson traveled to San Antonio (1936) and Dallas (1937) for his ARC, and only, sessions.
Subsequently, the early Delta blues (as well as other genres) were extensively recorded by John Lomax and his son Alan Lomax, who crisscrossed the Southern US recording music played and sung by ordinary people helping establish the canon of genres we know today as American folk music. Their recordings number in the thousands, and now reside in the Smithsonian Institution. According to Dixon & Godrich (1981) and Leadbitter and Slaven (1968), Alan Lomax and the Library of Congress researchers did not record any Delta bluesmen or women prior to 1941, when he recorded Son House and Willie Brown near Lake Cormorant, Mississippi, and Muddy Waters at Stovall, Mississippi. However, this claim is disputed as John and Alan Lomax did record Bukka White in 1939, Lead Belly in 1933 and most likely others.
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Scholars in general disagree as to whether there is a substantial, musicological difference between blues that originated in this region and in other parts of the country. The defining characteristic of Delta blues is instrumentation and an emphasis on rhythm and "bottleneck" slide; the basic harmonic structure is not substantially different from that of blues performed elsewhere. "Delta blues" is also a style as much as a geographical appellation: Skip James and Elmore James, who were not born in the Delta, were considered Delta blues musicians. Performers traveled throughout the Mississippi Delta, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and Tennessee. Eventually, Delta blues spread out across the country, giving rise to a host of regional variations, including Chicago and Detroit blues.
The Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman Farm was an important influence on several blues musicians who were imprisoned there, and was referenced in songs such as Bukka White's 'Parchman Farm Blues' and the folk song 'Midnight Special'. Delta Bluesmen also typically sang songs in the first person about sexuality, the traveling lifestyle and the tribulations resulting from leading this lifestyle.
In big city blues, women singers dominated the recordings of the 1920s, such as Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith and Mamie Smith. However, in Delta Blues and other rural or folk style blues women rarely recorded the blues. In Delta Blues often female performers had some romantic connection to more notable male delta blues performers; such as Geeshie Wiley attached to Papa Charlie McCoy. McCoy's brother Kansas Joe McCoy was attached to the arguably more notable Memphis Minnie and the seminal Charlie Patton sometimes played and recorded with his wife Bertha Lee. It was not until late in the 1960s that women began to be heard in recorded performances at the level they had previously enjoyed. It was then that Janis Joplin arrived as both the first female performer to achieve both accolades from her peers as a blues performer and a "crossover" commercial success who reached diverse audiences with a powerful and emotive vocal delivery. Other women who followed later (among many) and were influenced by Delta blues, and who learned from some of the most notable of the original artists alive include Bonnie Raitt, Rory Block, and Susan Tedeschi.
Many Delta Blues artists moved to Detroit and Chicago such as Big Joe Williams creating a pop influenced city blues style, however, this was displaced by the new Chicago blues sound in the early 1950s pioneered by Delta Bluesmen, Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf and Little Walter, harking back to a more delta influenced, yet electrified sound. This Delta style blues folk music also inspired the creation of British Skiffle music, from which eventually came the persons and bands of the British Invasion, while simultaneously influencing British Blues which led to the birth of early hard rock and heavy metal. Dave Gahan of Depeche Mode has stated that the group's album, Delta Machine, was inspired by the delta blues style.
List of artists
- Delta Blues Museum, in Clarksdale, Mississippi
- Delta Cultural Center, in Helena, Arkansas
- King of the Delta Blues Singers, an album by Robert Johnson
- Music of Mississippi
- Cobb, Charles E., Jr., "Traveling the Blues Highway", National Geographic Magazine, April 1999, v.195, n.4
- Dixon, RMW & Godrich, J (1981) Blues and Gospel Records: 1902–1943, Storyville, London.
- Hamilton, Marybeth: In Search of the Blues.
- Leadbitter, M & Slaven, N (1968) Blues Records 1943–1966, Oak Publications, London.
- William R. Ferris; - Give My Poor Heart Ease: Voices of the Mississippi Blues - The University of North Carolina Press; (2009) ISBN 0-8078-3325-8 ISBN 978-0807833254 (with CD and DVD)
- William R. Ferris; Glenn Hinson The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture: Volume 14: Folklife The University of North Carolina Press (2009) ISBN 0-8078-3346-0 ISBN 978-0-8078-3346-9 (Cover :phfoto of James Son Thomas)
- William Ferris; Blues From The Delta Da Capo Press; Revised edition (1988) ISBN 0-306-80327-5 ISBN 978-0306803277
- Ted Gioia; Delta Blues: The Life and Times of the Mississippi Masters Who Revolutionized American Music - W. W. Norton & Company (2009) ISBN 0-393-33750-2 ISBN 978-0393337501
- Sheldon Harris; Blues Who's Who Da Capo Press 1979
- Robert Nicholson; Mississippi Blues Today ! Da Capo Press (1999) ISBN 0-306-80883-8 ISBN 978-0-306-80883-8
- Robert Palmer (writer); Deep Blues: A Musical and Cultural History of the Mississippi Delta - Penguin Reprint edition (1982) ISBN 0-14-006223-8; ISBN 978-0-14-006223-6
- Frederic Ramsey Jr.; Been Here And Gone - 1st edition (1960) Rutgers University Press - London Cassell (UK) and New Brunswick, NJ
- idem - 2nd printing (1969) Rutgers University Press New Brunswick, NJ
- idem - (2000) University Of Georgia Press
- Charles Reagan Wilson - William Ferris - Ann J. Abadie; Encyclopedia of Southern Culture (1656 pagine) The University of North Carolina Press; 2nd Edition (1989) - ISBN 0-8078-1823-2 - ISBN 978-0-8078-1823-7
- Trail of the Hellhound – Delta Blues in the lower Mississippi Valley
- The Mississippi Delta Blues Society of Indianola
- "The Blues", documentary by Martin Scorsese, aired on PBS.