List of operations conducted by Delta Force

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This is an incomplete list of operations conducted by Delta Force.

Operation Eagle Claw[edit]

Main article: Operation Eagle Claw
Abandoned, crashed and burned out aircraft at Desert One

Delta's very first tasking began the night after they successfully completed their operational assessment on 4 November 1979 when Iranian students stormed the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. Delta was immediately tasked to rescue the hostages and began training on storming the embassy with a compound mock-up built by military combat engineers at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, while putting together a complex multi-stage rescue operation involving a rigid schedule and demanding helicopter night-flying skills using first-generation night vision goggles. The rescue force was to be inserted by air force special operations C-130s at night to a remote location in the desert outside Tehran called Desert One, and meet up with a group of marine RH-53 Sea Stallion helicopters, flown in from the U.S.S. Nimitz aircraft carrier staged nearby in the Indian Ocean. The helicopters would then be refueled on the ground at Desert One by refueling specialists using specially-designed fuel bladders inside the C-130s. The refueled helicopters and the rescue force (composed of Delta and Rangers) would then fly to a hidden staging location outside Tehran and hide until the next evening. On the evening of the rescue, Delta would drive to the embassy compound using pre-staged trucks, assault the compound and rescue the hostages, and take them across the street to a soccer stadium where the helicopters would have landed to extract them and take them to a nearby airfield which the Rangers would have assaulted and captured. C-141s would then extract the entire rescue force with hostages and the helicopters would be destroyed and left behind.

The helicopters caused the cancellation of the mission at Desert One, when enough helicopters were lost from attrition due to sandstorms, pilot fatigue, and failed hydraulics that the on-site commanders acknowledged helicopter numbers were below the required minimum for that stage to go forward and recommended to President Carter that the mission be canceled, which he did. As the entire rescue force was leaving Desert One, one of the helicopters crashed into a U.S. Air Force special operations C-130 and in the ensuing explosion and panic the helicopters were abandoned en masse leaving unauthorized mission plans which fell into Iranian hands, ruining any chance of a possible second covert rescue attempt following a brief regrouping period.[1]

Central American operations[edit]

Delta has seen action extensively in Central America, fighting the Salvadoran revolutionary group Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front and assisting the Central Intelligence Agency-funded Contras in Nicaragua.[1]

Invasion of Grenada[edit]

A second Delta mission launched in the early daylight hours of the first day of Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada was to assault Richmond Hill Prison and rescue the political prisoners being held there. Built on the remains of an old eighteenth-century fort, the prison cannot be approached by foot from three sides except through dense jungle growing on the steep mountainside; the fourth side is approachable by a narrow neck of road with high trees running along it. The prison offers no place for a helicopter assault force to land. Richmond Hill forms one side of a steep valley. Across and above the valley, on a higher peak, is another old fort, Fort Frederic, which housed a Grenadian garrison. From Fort Frederic, the garrison easily commanded the slopes and floor of the ravine below with small arms and machine gun fire. It was into this valley and under the guns of the Grenadian garrison that the helicopters of Delta Force flew at 6:30 that morning.[citation needed]

The helicopters of Task Force 160 flew into the valley and turned their noses toward the prison. Unable to land, the Delta raiders began to rappel down ropes dragging from the doors of the helicopters. Suddenly, as men swung wildly from the rappelling ropes, the helicopters were caught in a cross-fire from the front, as forces from the prison opened fire; and more devastatingly, from behind, as enemy forces in Fort Frederic rained heavy small arms and machine gun fire down from above. According to eyewitness accounts by Grenadian civilians, a number of helicopters that could, flew out of the valley. In at least one instance, a helicopter pilot turned back without orders and refused to fly into the assault. Charges of cowardice were filed against the Nightstalker pilot by members of Delta who wanted to be inserted, but were later dropped.[citation needed]

Aeropostal Flight 252[edit]

On 29 July 1984 Aeropostal Flight 252 from Caracas to the island of Curaçao was hijacked. Two days later, the DC-9 was stormed by Venezuelan commandos, who killed the hijackers.[2] Delta Force provided support during the ordeal.[3]

Operation Round Bottle[edit]

Delta planned an operation for three teams to go into Beirut, Lebanon to rescue Westerners held by Hezbollah, but the action was terminated when negotiations appeared to promise to deliver the hostages in exchange for arms. The operation was ultimately aborted in the aftermath of the Los Angeles Times story that revealed the Iran–Contra affair.[4]

Operation Heavy Shadow[edit]

In his book Killing Pablo, Mark Bowden suggests that a Delta Force sniper may have killed Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar. There is no hard evidence of this though and credit is generally attributed to Colombian security forces, particularly the Search Bloc.

Panama[edit]

Before Operation Just Cause by US forces took place, there were key operations that were tasked to Special Operations Forces. Operation Acid Gambit was an operation tasked to Delta to rescue and recover Kurt Muse held captive in Carcel Modelo, a prison in Panama City. Another important operation that was assigned to Delta was Operation Nifty Package, the apprehension of General Manuel Antonio Noriega.

Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm[edit]

Delta force operatives behind Iraqi lines during the Gulf War 'scud hunting'.

Delta was deployed during Desert Storm to the region and tasked with a number of responsibilities. These include supporting regular army units that were providing close protection detail for General Norman Schwarzkopf in Saudi Arabia. Army relations officers tried to play down Schwarzkopf's growing number of bodyguards.[citation needed] Delta was tasked with hunting for SCUD missiles alongside the British Special Air Service and other coalition special forces. On the last day of the ground war, Delta sniper teams located 26 SCUD missiles in western Iraq, each aimed at Israel. Armed with high-powered .50-caliber sniper rifles from as far as 3,000 yards, Delta squadrons punctured the missiles' fuel tanks and killed their crews. Had the SCUDs been launched, Saddam Hussein's last-gasp attempt at luring Israel into the conflict might have been successful. With Israel in the fight, the delicate Arab coalition opposing Hussein could have been unraveled. General Schwarzkopf who was the commander of the coalition against Saddam Hussein thanked the Delta Force with a letter sent to them which had this sentence. "You guys kept Israel out of the war!" exclaimed a grateful general Schwarzkopf.......

Operation Gothic Serpent[edit]

On 3 October 1993, members of Delta Force were sent in with U.S. Army Rangers in the conflict in Mogadishu, Somalia codenamed Operation Gothic Serpent.

They were tasked with securing several of Mohammed Farah Aidid's top lieutenants, as well as a few other targets of high value. The mission was compromised after two MH-60L Blackhawk helicopters were shot down by RPGs. This resulted in an ongoing battle and led to the deaths of five Delta operators (a sixth was killed by mortar fire some days later), six Rangers, five army aviation crew, and two 10th Mountain Division soldiers. Estimates of Somali deaths range from 133 by an Aidid sector commander[5] to an estimate of 1500 to 2000 by the US Ambassador to Somalia.[6] Two Delta operators Master Sergeant Gary Gordon and Sergeant First Class Randy Shughart were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for the actions they took and the sacrifice they made to help protect the life of Durant and the crew of Super Six Four (callsign of one of the crashed Black Hawks). They were the first soldiers to posthumously receive the Medal of Honor since the Vietnam War. In 1999, writer Mark Bowden published the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, which chronicles the events that surrounded 3 October 1993 Battle of Mogadishu.[7] The book, in a short brief, relates Delta Force's involvement in the operations that occurred before the events leading to the battle.[7] The book was turned into a film by director Ridley Scott in 2001.

Operation Uphold Democracy[edit]

Further information: Operation Uphold Democracy

Delta Force took part in Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, their known role was to serve as bodyguards for visiting UN officials and diplomats, working together with the Polish counter-terrorist unit GROM.[8]

Counter-terrorist training[edit]

In January 1997, a small Delta advance team and six members of the British SAS were sent to Lima, Peru immediately following the takeover of the Japanese Ambassador's residence.[9]

Seattle WTO[edit]

Members of Delta Force were involved in preparing security for the 1999 Seattle WTO Conference, specifically against a chemical weapon attack.[10]

Operation Enduring Freedom[edit]

Delta force operators disguised as Afghan civilians.

Delta Force was involved in the offensive against the Taliban in Afghanistan in 2001.[11] Delta Force has formed the core of the special strike unit which has been hunting High Value Target (HVT) individuals like Osama Bin Laden and other key al-Qaeda and Taliban leadership since October 2001, the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom. One such operation was an airborne assault supported by the 75th Ranger Regiment on Mullah Mohammed Omar's headquarters at a Kandahar airstrip. Although Delta Force's mission was a failure in capturing Mohammed Omar, the Rangers had captured a vital strategic airstrip.[12] Other battles Delta was involved in during the early stages of the war are the Battle of Tora Bora and Operation Anaconda . The strike force has been variously designated Task Force Sword, Task Force 11, Task Force 20, Task Force 121, Task Force 145 and Task Force 6-26. Delta Force have increased operations in eastern Afghanistan in 2009. "The Navy's SEAL Team 6, sometimes called Naval Special Warfare Development Group, or DEVGRU; the Army's 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta, or Delta Force; the 75th Ranger Regiment; the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment; the Air Force's 24th Special Tactics Squadron; plus elements from other even more secret units and intelligence organizations" has killed or captured more than 2,000 enemy insurgents in Afghanistan against the Haqqani network, which is a strong faction of the Taliban.[13]

on May 31, 2014, Army prisoner of war Bowe Bergdahl was handed over to Delta Force operators in a prisoner exchange in eastern Afghanistan.[14] Bergdahl had been captured by the Taliban on June 30, 2009.

Operation Iraqi Freedom[edit]

This photo was taken in Mosul during Uday and Qusay's last stand. Delta Force Operators can be seen in front of 1st BDE 101st A/B DIV soldiers wearing MICH helmets.

One of several operations in which Delta Force operators are thought to have played important roles was the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[15] They allegedly entered Baghdad in advance and undercover. Their tasks included guiding air strikes, and building networks of informants while eavesdropping on and sabotaging Iraqi communication lines.[citation needed]

After the invasion, along with the British SAS, Delta Force were stationed at MSS (Mission Support Station) Fernandez in Baghdad, and would eventually become part of Task Force Center/Green; the station was named after Master Sergeant George Fernandez, a Delta Force operator that was killed on April 2, 2003, fighting Ansar al-Islam in northern Iraq.[16]

On June 16, 2003, operators from G Squadron, SAS and B squadron, Delta Force, captured Lieutenant-General Abid Hamid Mahmud al-Tikriti, he was Saddam Hussein personal secretary who was ranked fourth most important HVT (High Valued Target) in Tikrit. He was captured in a joint helicopter and ground assault without resistance or casualties and was considered a highly successful operation.[17]

On June 18, 2003, as part of Task Force 20, Delta Force operators and US Army Rangers flew from Mosul to chase a vehicle convoy of Iraqis who were heading for the Syrian border; JSOC suspected that Saddam Hussein was part of the convoy. The helicopters Ran out of time before the convoy fled over the border, however Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld cleared them to continue in pursuit into Syria. Ultimately, Hussein was not in the convoy, but several of his cousins were.[18]

On October 31, 2003, Delta Force assisted A Squadron, SAS, in Operation Abalone: US intelligence had traced a Sudanese jihadist — who was believed to be facilitating the arrival of Islamist terrorists into Iraq — to 3 compounds/dwellings on the outskirts of Ramadi. Delta Force operators successfully assaulted one of the target buildings and took up over watch positions, whilst the SAS assaulted the dwellings. After securing the first of their target buildings, the SAS assault stalled when assaulting their final target building and took casualties, a platoon of Bradley IFVs "pummeled" the house with gunfire and Delta Force assaulted the building, helping bring the operation to a successful conclusion. The operation is believed to have killed the Sudanese jihadist, along with a dozen other insurgents, they also captured 4 foreign insurgents, therefore finding some of the first actual proof of an internationalist jihadist movement in Iraq.[19]

Delta was present in the siege in Mosul where Uday and Qusay Hussein were killed, and were involved in the hunt and eventual capture of Saddam Hussein. It was a task force consisting of a Delta Force troop and a Ranger platoon that captured Saddam Hussein.

By early 2004, a Joint Operations Center was set up in Balad Air Base where JSOCs war in Iraq would be run by the commander of Delta Force; it was operational by July.[20] Delta Force were instrumental in April 2004 during Operation Phantom Fury when they were attached to USMC companies,[21] usually as snipers.[citation needed]

On June 8, 2004, Delta Force's A Squadron along with Army's 160th SOAR (Night Stalkers) carried out a raid to save foreign workers at a compound near Ramadi codenamed Objective Medford. The kidnappers were caught off guard and surrendered immediately. The mission was a complete success.[22]

In 2005, Delta force along with SEAL Team 6 and other regular Army and Marine forces conducted Operation Snake Eyes: an operation aimed at taking down local militant networks, especially against AQI (Al-Qaeda in Iraq), eliminating the groups from top to bottom, with particular focus on the "middle men". The operation took place all across Iraq, In May 2005, Delta Force Operators deployed into Task Force Blue's zone in the Euphrates valley and soon became engaged in a series of close-range battles with Sunni militants, the militants were large in numbers and fought with sophistication and intensity. On May 31, SFC Steven Langmack was killed during a mission near the Syrian border, he was the first Delta fatality since 2003. On June 17, Delta force operators stormed a house in Al-Qaim, near where SFC Langmack was killed, with support of nearby US Marine battalions, attacking a number of "bottom of the chain" Al-Qaeda insurgents. The insurgents had a bunker inside the building-setting a trap for the assaulters, as a result, Two Delta MSGs Michael McNulty and Robert Horrigan were killed. Due to the mounting number of killed and wounded in the squadron (Delta squadrons only numbered around 30 to 40 operators), General Stanley A. McChrystal asked the then- Director Special Forces for assistance, however he refused due to the treatment of detainees and the conditions of JSOC detention facility at Balad and other operational issues such as rules of engagement. So a second Delta Force squadron flown in and Delta pressed on with its operations, On August 25, 3 Delta Force operators and 1 US Army Ranger were killed in the Upper Euphrates when their vehicle was blown up;[23] At least 3 Operators from SEAL Team 6 who were deployed to Afghanistan at the time were seconded to Delta after they requested additional assaulters.[24]

On September 7, 2005, Delta Force operators rescued Roy Hallums, an American contractor who was kidnapped on November 1, 2004, and an Iraqi captive.[25] During the Basra prison incident Colonel James Grist, the then-commander of Delta Force, offered British commanders the services of one of the Delta squadrons, but the situation was eventually resolved by the British forces.[26] Delta Force squadrons tours of duty in Iraq lasted 90 days.[27]

In early 2006, Delta Force took part in Operation Dahir: in cooperation with regular and other special operations units, the aim was to takedown AQI leadership. On 14 May 2006, B squadron Delta Force-including an SAS liaison officer, conducted a mission near Yusufiyah against al-Qaeda fighters in several, buildings/dwellings. As the Operators disembarked their helicopters they come under fire from a nearby house, the situation rapidly escalated into a battle quickly as more al-Qaeda fighters joined the firefight, the operators came under intense small arms fire and mortars. 3 al-Qaeda fighters - 1 a suicide bomber - attempted to mount an attack via a truck but were killed under a hail of fire. Door gunners from the helicopters that inserted the operators engaged the insurgents whilst AH-6 little birds made strafing runs against the insurgents, one AH-6 was shot down, killing the 2 crew. Despite the ferocity of the battle, the operators reached their targets and captured 4 insurgents and gave medical treatment for 3 injured women; during the lull, a CASEVAC helicopter was brought in to remove the locals but it too came under fire, so the Americans called in airstrikes on several targets around the landing zone. In the course of the mission, 3 other helicopters were forced to land due to damage from ground fire, total casualties amounted to 2 killed and 5 Americans wounded whilst more than 25 terrorists were killed and 4 captured; B squadrons commander was relieved of his command.[28]

In April 2006, in raids conducted by B squadron SAS and B squadron Delta Force on Al-Qaeda in Iraq targets in areas dubbed: "Baghdad Belts," intelligence was gathered that led to coalition forces carrying out Operation Larchwood 4: the operation which helped lead to death of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.[29] Delta was also on the ground north of Baquba on 7 June 2006 surveilling a compound where Al-Zarqawi had been staying. After a long manhunt, Delta had Zarqawi in their sights and had called in an airstrike.[30]

During the Battle of Ramadi Delta Force operators from Task Force Green and DEVGRU operators from Task Force Blue mounted takedown operations against al-Qaeda targets based on high-level intelligence.[31]

In November 2006, George W. Bush sanctioned a new directive to allow US forces in Iraq to capture Iranian nationals if they engaged in targeting coalition forces, the missions were known by the acronym CII (Counter Iranian Influence); Delta Force would become part of Task Force 16 whose main aim was to carryout CII missions, but later they refocused their efforts on al-Qaeda and the CII missions were given to Task Force 17. Ever since at least 2004, there had been growing human intelligence about the training of Iraqi insurgents in Iran as well as financial backing and even the supplying of weaponry to Shia insurgents, as well as members of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution and other Iranian special forces. On January 11, 2007, following human intelligence received by the CIA at its Kurdish station; Delta Force operatives raided the Iranian Liaison Office (effectively Iran's embassy in the region) in Irbil, they were inserted Black Hawk and little bird helicopters on the roof whilst a simultaneous ground assault took place. They failed to find two senior Iranian agents they were looking for, but they arrested 5 staff members who were tested positive for handling explosives, the Delta team quickly moved to Irbil airport in case the 2 targets were trying to escape by plane, but after a standoff between American and Kurdish forces, the Delta force team withdrew. Analysis of papers and phones from the Irbil raid and an earlier CII raid revealed that the Iranians were assisting a much wider range of insurgent groups, including connections with Ansar al-Sunna.[32]

In 2008, Delta Force operators took part in the Abu Kamal raid.[33]

Delta Force suffered an overall 20 percent casualty rate,[34] by 2009, more than 50% Delta Force operators had been awarded Purple Hearts.[35]

2012 Benghazi Attack[edit]

During the 2012 Benghazi attack Two JSOC operators (two Delta Force operators) along with five CIA personnel accompanied Glen Doherty to aid the besieged Benghazi Embassy compound, after commandeering a small jet in Tripoli by paying the pilots $30,000 and forcing them to fly the team to Benghazi. After fierce fighting, the rescue team including the two Delta operators assisted in evacuating the surviving diplomatic staff to the main Embassy in Tripoli. For their courage and bravery, one of the Delta Operators, Master Sergeant David R. Halbruner, was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, while the other, a Marine attached to Delta, was awarded the Navy Cross.[36]

Capture of Abu Anas al-Liby[edit]

Abu Anas al-Liby was arrested in Tripoli, Libya on 5 October 2013 by Delta with the assistance of FBI agents, operators from the CIA's Special Activities Division, and most likely, Intelligence Support Activity SIGINT teams[citation needed]. He was arrested and removed from Libya.[37]

Capture of Ahmed Abu Khattala[edit]

On the weekend of June 14 to June 15, 2014, Ahmed Abu Khattala was captured by Delta Force, along with, most likely nearby, a small contingent of elite Intelligence Support Activity operators, who tracked Ahmed Abu Khattala, by SIGINT and HUMINT capability on a consistent basis, in a covert mission in Libya with the assistance of FBI agents who made the arrest.[38]

Operation Inherent Resolve[edit]

Delta Force operatives have been taking part in Operation Inherent Resolve, part of the U.S.-led Military intervention against ISIL, they have carried out operations to target, capture or kill top ISIS operatives in Iraq, reportedly beginning in late February 2016, after several weeks of covert preparation such as setting up safe houses, establishing informant networks and coordinating operations with Iraqi and Peshmerga units. The Delta Force operators are part of an Expeditionary Targeting Force numbering around 200 personnel, their main objectives are to gather enough intelligence from raids on terrorist-occupied compounds and hideouts, then from intelligence gathered at those sites they will give the ETF more intelligence about ISIS networks and quickly attack additional and related targets, in whats known as "targeted" missions. This strategy was tested during the May 2015 raid on Deir Ezzor, the ETF has so far collected enough intelligence about ISIS operations in Iraq in up to half a dozen locations that raids and field operations are ready to take place in Iraq.[39] Delta also carried out an operation in February 2016 to capture an ISIS chemical weapons expert. The operation was a success as vital intelligence was gathered following interrogation of the individual.

On 4 July 2014, two dozen Delta Force operators, along with SIGINT and assault elements from the Intelligence Support Activity, were inserted via 160th SOAR into northern Syria, in an attempt to find captured journalist James Foley and other American hostages.[40][41] According to witnesses, after destroying anti-aircraft weapons the ISA shooters, SIGINT/HUMINT team members, and Delta operators assaulted an ISIL base. The base was destroyed and all ISIL fighters killed at the cost of one American wounded during the insertion. There were no hostages present. The above account and other details of the raid have emerged from witnesses who spoke with a member of a Syrian opposition activist group, who identified himself as Abu Ibrahim al Raqaoui. Raqaoui told the information to Reuters in an interview via Skype from inside Syria. His group also posted witness accounts of the raid on Facebook soon after it took place. The posts, which were viewed by Reuters, have since been taken down. James Foley would later be executed on video and the operation revealed by the Pentagon.[42]

On the night of May 15, 2015, U.S. special operations forces launched a raid on Deir Ezzor in eastern Syria. The objective of the raid was to capture the head of financial operations of ISIL, Abu Sayyaf. He was geolocated using SIGINT (Signals Intelligence), as well as HUMINT (Human Intelligence) via assets from another JSOC Task Force conducting nearby low-visibility operations, while also utilizing the intelligence from covert assets inside local militias allied to ISIL. Sayyaf was killed after his on-site security personnel engaged in a firefight with U.S assault elements converging on the location from the landing zone, while the V-22 Ospreys and other aircraft stood by. In total, 13 were killed in action including Sayyaf.[43] The raid captured Sayyaf's wife, Umm Sayyaf, along with records of ISIS operations.[44]

A joint predawn raid conducted on October 22, 2015 by a team of Kurdish Counter-terrorism Unit peshmerga forces and U.S. special operations forces on an Islamic State run prison near Hawija in Iraq's Kirkuk Province freed approximately 70 hostages, including more than 20 members of the Iraqi security forces.[45] One U.S. Delta Force soldier, MSG Joshua Wheeler, was fatally wounded – the first American combat death since the start of the US-led intervention against IS.[46] Four Iraqi units were wounded.[47]

Shortly after the start of 2016, stories of operations in Homs and elsewhere (mainly spread about by RT/Russian Television news) that Activity (TF Orange, a signals and human intel gathering unit for JSOC only), Delta, NSW elements, among others (i.e. French GIGN and 1st RPIMA), Canadian JTF-2 and Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR), Aussie SOF, Norway's top tier SOF units, and especially British SOF as well as the Jordanian GID and their tactical branches began to push harder into Iraqi/Syrian Kurdistan with their Kurd allies (or if in Syria, the Syrian Democratic Forces/SDF). This amalgamation of the NATO's best special operations (along with all the related intel services) has made the fight against ISIL that much more lethal, not to mention Turkish SOF also engaging these Anti-Coalition (ACM) militias as well as Islamic State units.

Operation Black Swan[edit]

Main article: Operation Black Swan

U.S. officials announced that members of Delta Force were involved in the January 8, 2016 mission that resulted in the capture of Sinaloa Cartel leader "El Chapo" Guzmán, after a firefight in Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Haney, Eric L. (2002). Inside Delta Force. New York: Delacorte Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-385-33603-1. 
  2. ^ Castro, Janice; Thomas A. Sancton; Bernard Diederich (13 August 1984). "Terrorism: Failed Security". TIME. 
  3. ^ Offley, Edward (2002). "Chapter 13 – Going to War I: Realtime". Pen & Sword: A Journalist's Guide to Covering the Military. Marion Street Press, Inc. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-9665176-4-4. 
  4. ^ Smith, Michael (6 March 2007). Killer Elite. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-36272-2. 
  5. ^ "Interviews — Captain Haad | Ambush in Mogadishu | FRONTLINE". PBS. 3 October 1993. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  6. ^ "Interviews — Ambassador Robert Oakley | Ambush in Mogadishu | FRONTLINE". PBS. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  7. ^ a b Bowden, Mark (1999). Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. Berkeley: Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-738-0. 
  8. ^ Cawthorne, Nigel, The Mammoth Book of Inside the Elite Forces, Robinson, 2008 ISBN 1845298217 ISBN 978-1845298210,p.97
  9. ^ John Pike (16 January 2003). "Special Forces Operational Detachment – Delta". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  10. ^ Rick Anderson (22 December 1999). "News: Delta's down with it". Seattle Weekly. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "September 2003 Engineer Update". hq.usace.army.mil. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. 
  12. ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard; Borger, Julian; Harding, Luke (27 November 2001). "Revealed: how bungled US raid came close to disaster". The Guardian. London. 
  13. ^ "JSOC task force battles Haqqani militants". Retrieved 30 October 2010. 
  14. ^ Jun 3, 2014. "Touch and go on Bergdahl release until very end". Sandusky Register. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  15. ^ "W:\pmtr\ventura\#article\noonan.vp" (PDF). Carlisle-www.army.mil. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 27, 2008. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  16. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012, ISBN 978-1250006967, p.16,p.71
  17. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012, ISBN 978-1250006967, p.17
  18. ^ "Six little-known stories about secretive Joint Special Operations Command, as told in a new book". the Washington post. 1 September 2015. 
  19. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012 ISBN 978-1250006967, p.20–21, p.26–31, p.88
  20. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012 ISBN 978-1250006967, p.53
  21. ^ Dorell, Oren; Zoroya, Gregg (9 November 2006). "Battle for Fallujah". USA Today. 
  22. ^ "Hostage Rescue — Iraq". Deltaforce.americanspecialops.com. 8 June 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  23. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012 ISBN 978-1250006967, p.82-86, p.93, p.99-100
  24. ^ Owen, Mark No Easy Day: The Autobiography of a Navy Seal: The Firsthand Account of the Mission That Killed Osama Bin Laden, DUTTON Books, 2012 ISBN 978-0525953722, p.46
  25. ^ JASON STRAZIUSO The Associated Press (2012-02-03). "Hostage rescues: When hope runs out, U.S. elite troops go in - The Portland Press Herald / Maine Sunday Telegram". Pressherald.com. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  26. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012 ISBN 978-1250006967, p.99-100
  27. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012 ISBN 978-1250006967, p.115
  28. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin, 2012 ISBN 978-1250006967, p.199-120, p.154-156
  29. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin , 2012 ISBN 1250006961 ISBN 978-1250006967,p.138,
  30. ^ MacLeod, Scott; Powell, Bill (11 June 2006). "Zarqawi's Last Dinner Party". Time. 
  31. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin , 2012 ISBN 1250006961 ISBN 978-1250006967,p.180
  32. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin , 2012 ISBN 1250006961 ISBN 978-1250006967,p.205-213
  33. ^ "Killing Abu Ghadiya". foreign policy. 21 August 2015. 
  34. ^ Rayment, Sean, "SAS Kill Hundreds Of Terrorists In 'Secret War' Against Al-Qaeda In Iraq", Sunday Telegraph, 31 August 2008.
  35. ^ "'Top Secret America': A look at the military's Joint Special Operations Command". Washington post. 2 September 2011. 
  36. ^ Scarborough, Rowan (25 January 2014). "Delta Force commando awarded second-highest military honor for Benghazi rescue". Washington Times. The Washington Times, LLC. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
    "GO 2013–73" (PDF). Official Department of the Army Publications and Forms. United States Army. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
    Scarborough, Rowan (16 November 2013). "Delta Force Marine awarded Navy Cross for fight at CIA annex in Benghazi". Washington Times. The Washington Times, LLC. Retrieved 25 January 2014. The Times can now report that one of the Delta Force members was an Army soldier and the other a Marine Raider.
    The soldier was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, and the Marine received the Navy Cross for heroism.
     
  37. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/06/world/africa/Al-Qaeda-Suspect-Wanted-in-US-Said-to-Be-Taken-in-Libya.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&smid=tw-nytimes&_r=0
  38. ^ "U.S. captures Benghazi suspect in secret raid". Washington Post. June 17, 2014. 
  39. ^ "Army's Delta Force begins to target ISIS in Iraq". CNN. 29 February 2016. 
  40. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/21/world/middleeast/us-commandos-tried-to-rescue-foley-and-other-hostages.html?_r=0
  41. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-weighs-response-to-apparent-execution-of-american-by-islamic-state/2014/08/20/e33558a8-287d-11e4-8593-da634b334390_story.html
  42. ^ http://www.defense.gov/Transcripts/Transcript.aspx?TranscriptID=5491
  43. ^ Roosevelt, Hunter. "DEFENSE OFFICIALS: Delta Force Engaged in Hand-to-Hand Combat During Syrian Raid". Controversial Times. 
  44. ^ "Abu Sayyaf, key ISIS figure in Syria, killed in raid". CNN. 2015-05-17. Archived from the original on 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2015-05-17. The officials identified Sayyaf's captured wife as Umm Sayyaf, an Iraqi. She is now being held in Iraq. 
  45. ^ Gal Perl Finkel, Back to the ground?, Israel Hayom, November 8, 2015.
  46. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/34607471
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  48. ^ Jack Murphy (2016-01-11). "JSOC's Secretive Delta Force Operators on the Ground for El Chapo Capture". SOFREP News. Retrieved 2016-03-18.