Demchok, Ladakh

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Demchok is located in Ladakh
Location in Ladakh, India
Demchok is located in India
Demchok (India)
Coordinates: 32°42′14″N 79°26′48″E / 32.7038°N 79.4467°E / 32.7038; 79.4467Coordinates: 32°42′14″N 79°26′48″E / 32.7038°N 79.4467°E / 32.7038; 79.4467
Union TerritoryLadakh
 • SarpanchUgrain Chodon
 • Total33 ha (82 acres)
4,200 m (13,800 ft)
 • Total78
 • Density240/km2 (610/sq mi)
 • OfficialHindi, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Census code906

Demchok[a] (Tibetan: ཌེམ་ཆོག, Wylie: bde mchog, THL: dem chok),[6][7] previously called New Demchok,[8] and called Parigas (Chinese: 巴里加斯; pinyin: Bālǐ jiā sī) by the Chinese,[6][9][b] is a village and military encampment in the Indian-administered Demchok sector that is disputed between India and China. It is administered as part of the Nyoma tehsil in the Leh district of Ladakh by India,[1][10] and claimed by China as part of the Tibet Autonomous Region.[11]

The Line of Actual Control (LAC) passes along the southeast side of the village, along the Charding Nullah (also called Demchok River and Lhari stream) which joins the Indus River near the village. Across the stream, less than a kilometre away, is a Chinese-administered Demchok village.[9][12]


Demchok and vicinity

The village of Demchok was apparently named after Demchok Karpo, the rocky white peak behind the present Ladakhi village of Demchok.[13] However, prior to 1947, the main Demchok village was on the Tibetan side of the border.[14] The Ladakhi side of the settlement was still referred to as "Demchok".[15]

Chinese officials use the name "Demchok" only for the Tibetan side of the settlement and refer to the Ladakhi side as "Parigas" (also spelt "Barrigas").[9] This is apparently derived from a Tibetan name Palichasi (Tibetan: པ་ལི་ཅ་སི, Wylie: pa li ca si, THL: pa li cha si),[16] of a pastoral ground known to Ladakhis as Silungle, roughly halfway downstream to Lagankhel.[17][18][19]


The Demchok sector with China's claim line in the west and India's claim line in the east. The Line of Actual Control, shown in bold, runs along the Charding Nullah and the Indus River till its confluence with the stream from Chang La, then heads to the mountain watershed in the east.

Demchok is at an elevation of 4,210 metres (13,810 ft), on a stony plain at the foot of a pyramidal white peak called Demchok Lhari Karpo. A stream called Charding Nullah (or Lhari stream) flows down on the southeast side of Demchok joining the Indus River. The alluvial deposits from the stream form small plots for grazing and farming. Around the corner of the peak is a hot spring, whose water is believed to have medicinal qualities.[20]

The Line of Actual Control (LAC) with Tibet runs on the southeast side of the village along the Charding Nullah. Across the stream, 600 metres away, is the Tibetan Demchok village. After reaching the Indus River, the LAC follows its right bank, according Indian explorer Romesh Bhattacharji.[21] leaving the left bank of Indus under Indian control. The Chinese still retain a claim to the Indian part of the disputed Demchok sector and object to any constructions there.[22] Along the left bank on Indus River, numerous streams flow down from the ridge line in the west to the Indus, providing grazing grounds and campsites to the Changpa nomads.[c] The largest of these is the site of Lagankhel (La Ganskyil), which is historically regarded as a village with permanent settlement.[17][24] Some of these locations are now said to host posts of Indo-Tibetan Border Police as does the Demchok village itself.[25]

An old travel route from Ladakh to Tibet, leading to KailasManasarowar, runs along the left bank of the Indus River. The route has been shut since the emergence of Sino-Indian border disputes. There have been persistent demands from the local population for reopening the route.[26][27]


Demchok is a historic area of Ladakh, having been part of the kingdom from its inception in the 10th century. The description of the kingdom in the Ladakh Chronicles mentions Demchok Karpo, also called Demchok Lhari Karpo or Lhari Karpo,[28] as being part of the original kingdom.[29][30] This is a possible reference to the rocky white peak behind the present-day Demchok village.[31][32][13] [d] The Lhari peak is held sacred by Buddhists. Demchok (Sanskrit: Cakrasaṃvara) is the name of a Buddhist Tantric deity, who is believed to reside on the Mount Kailas, and whose imagery parallels that of Shiva in Hinduism.[35][36] The Lhari peak is also referred to as "Chota Kailas" (mini Kailas) and attracts pilgrimage from Hindus as well as Buddhists.[37][38] Tibetologist Nirmal C. Sinha states that Demchok is part of the Hemis complex.[39] Ruined houses belonging to the Hemis monastery were noticed by Sven Hedin in 1907,[31] and the monastery continues to own land in Demchok.[40]

The stream that flows beside the Lhari peak, referred to as the Lhari stream in historical documents ("Charding Nullah" or "Demchok River" in modern times), was set as the boundary between Ladakh and Tibet at the end of the Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War in the 17th century.[41][42]

Dogra rule[edit]

Demchok in a map of Henry Strachey, 1853
Map of the Demchok region by a British traveller in 1946[23]

In 1834, the Dogra general Zorawar Singh conquered Ladakh and made it a tributary of the Sikh Empire. Zorawar Singh is said to have built a fort on a hill next to the Tibetan side of Demchok.[e] He also launched an invasion of Tibet via three wings, one of which passed through Demchok. The invasion was eventually defeated and repulsed. The two sides agreed to retain the borders just as they were before.[44]

The Dogras came under the suzerainty of British Raj in 1846, as the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Henry Strachey visited the Demchok area in 1847, as part of a British boundary commission. He described Demchok as a "hamlet divided by a rivulet [the Lhari stream]", with settlements on both the sides of the stream. The stream was the prevailing border between Ladakh and Tibet.[45][46] The Tibetans did not allow Strachey to proceed beyond the stream.[47]

The hamlet on the Ladakhi side of the Lhari stream appears to have been minimal. Strachey's own map published in the JRGS showed only a village on the Tibetan side of the stream.[48] The map drawn by a Tibetan lama from the same time period also showed the same.[49]

Sven Hedin, travelling through the area in 1907, noticed only ruins of houses on the Ladakhi side, formerly belonging to the Hemis monastery.[31] According to the governor of Ladakh (wazir-e-wazarat), who visited the area in 1904–05, there were two 'zaminders' (landhoders) on the Ladakhi side, viz., the representatives of the Hemis monastery and the former Kardar (tax collector) of Rupshu.[14] The two appear to have lived in Demchok from around 1921, in a single building.[50]

According to the Indian government, the Ladakhi Demchok village was used for seasonal cultivation by nomadic farmers.[51]

Independent India[edit]

Indian border definition in 1954

The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir acceded to independent India on 26–27 October 1947.

In 1950, Tibet was annexed by China. The Indian government developed concerns of security and decided not to allow the entry of Tibetans into Ladakh. A border police post was established at Demchok (presumably on the Ladakhi side), with a police contingent headed by an inspector and equipped with wireless communication.[52][f] In Chinese perception, this amounted to the Indian Army "invading" Demchok.[53]

During the negotiations for the 1954 Trade Agreement, India asked for Ladakh's trade relations with Rudok and Rawang to be reinstated. China did not agree. However, it was happy to allow trade via "Demchok"[g] and Tashigang.[54] In fact, it offered to provide a "trade mart" in Demchok, which was not agreeable to India because India regarded Demchok as its own territory.[55] The final agreement carried the wording, "the customary route leading to Tashigong along the valley of the Indus River may continue to be traversed."[56]

In 1954, India defined its borders with respect to Tibet, which ran five miles southeast of Ladakhi Demchok.[57] This made the Tibetan Demchok village a part of Indian claimed territory. In October 1955, the Chinese established Border Working Group in the Tibetan Demchok village.[53]

During the 1962 Sino-Indian War, the Chinese forces reclaimed the areas southeast of the Lhari stream. The Line of Actual Control resulting from the war runs along the Lhari stream.[h]


According to the 2011 Census of India, Demchok had 31 households and a population of 78.[59] The majority of the inhabitants are Changpa nomadic pastoralist.[60] The effective literacy rate is 42.47%.[59]

There is persistent talk of the nomads losing their customary grazing lands to Chinese occupation and their livelihoods being lost. The population is seen to be reducing as a result.[60][40]

Demographics (2011 Census)[59]
Total Male Female
Population 78 43 35
Children aged below 6 years 5 4 1
Scheduled caste 1 1 0
Scheduled tribe 64 37 27
Literates 31 20 11
Workers (all) 51 27 24
Main workers (total) 49 26 23
Main workers: Cultivators 5 5 0
Main workers: Agricultural labourers 0 0 0
Main workers: Household industry workers 2 0 2
Main workers: Other 42 21 21
Marginal workers (total) 2 1 1
Marginal workers: Cultivators 0 0 0
Marginal workers: Agricultural labourers 0 0 0
Marginal workers: Household industry workers 0 0 0
Marginal workers: Others 2 1 1
Non-workers 27 16 11

Sino-Indian disputes[edit]

Map including Demchok (Army Map Service, 1954)

As of 2005, the route from Demchok to Lake Manasarovar in Tibet is closed and local trade with China is prohibited, although local residents admit that clandestine trade with China had been ongoing for decades.[26]

In April 2016, the Daily Excelsior reported that local discontent over Chinese army objections near the border resulted in demands for resettlement from Demchok.[61] Later in 2016, the Nubra constituency MLA Deldan Namgyal reported that the Chinese military suggested to the sarpanch of Demchok "to join China rather than [sit] with India" due to the infrastructural differences across the border.[61][62] Demchok residents protested after the Indian Army refused permission for the local residents to construct irrigation canals to avoid a reaction from Chinese army.[62]

In 2019, the sarpanch of Demchok said that residents of Demchok were moving to the town of Leh due to a lack of infrastructure and jobs.[60]



There has been a 150 km long traditional road between Demchok and Chushul running along the left bank of Indus. It connects Demchok to Koyul, Dungti, Chushul and beyond to Durbuk and Leh. The road was in poor condition in 2017 and attempts to improve the road in the past have met objections from China in 2009. After the repeated incursions by China since 2013, in March 2016 the Government of Jammu and Kashmir approved the upgrade of this road. Since the road passes through the Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary, the subsequent approval by India's National Board for Wildlife in March 2017 paved the way for the upgrade of this road.[26][63]

A new 86 km long road from Chisumle in the Koyul Lungpa valley to Demchok was constructed by the Border Roads Organisation in 2017, via the Umling La pass (32°41′47″N 79°17′03″E / 32.6964°N 79.2842°E / 32.6964; 79.2842) at a height of 19,300 ft (5,900 m). This road connects Demchok to Koyul, Hanle and other places in Ladakh. The Border Roads Organisation claims it is the "world's highest motorable road", a title earlier, incorrectly, accorded to Khardung La road at 17,600 ft.[64][65][66]

Mobile and internet connectivity[edit]

In June 2020, it was announced that Demchok is among 54 villages in the Ladakh region to receive mobile phone and internet connectivity via satellite under the Universal Service Obligation Funding. The service is to be operated by Jio.[67]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Variant spellings include Demchog,[3] Demjok,[4] and Dechhog.[5]
  2. ^ Modern Chinese sources use (Parigas, pinyin: bālǐjiāsī) to refer to a broader area and use (pinyin: diémùchuòkè) to refer to the village of Demchok. See Demchok sector.
  3. ^ The survey maps list, south to north in the Indus Valley, the campsites Umlungzing, Silungle, Sinakle, Nyakmikle , Sikarle, Khordo Sirpale, and Lagankhel. Lagankhel is actually the name of a larger river that joins the Indus, a few kilometres south of Koyul Lungpa river. The British Raj set the boundary of Ladakh along this river, in c. 1868. But there is no evidence of the boundary having been enforced.[23]
  4. ^ Scholars translate the Tibetan term lha-ri as "soul mountain". Many peaks in Tibet are named lhari including a "Demchok lhari" in the northern suburbs of Lhasa.[33][34] "Karpo", meaning "white", serves to distinguish the Ladakh's mountain peak from the others.
  5. ^ According to the Ladakh member of parliament Jamyang Tsering Namgyal, "Zorawar Fort in Demjok was destroyed by PLA in 2008 and setup PLA's Observing Point in 2012 during UPA regime and also created Chinese/new Demjok/Colony with 13 cemented houses."[43]
  6. ^ Similar posts were also established at Chushul and Shyok.
  7. ^ These references to "Demchok" are to be interpreted as an undivided Demchok village, which was being claimed by both India and China.
  8. ^ An Indian government letter dated 21 September 1965 stated that the "Indian civilian post" was "on the western [northwestern] side of the Nullah on the Indian side of the line of actual control". The Chinese Government response on 24 September referred to "the Demchok village on the Chinese side of the line of actual control" while it called the Ladakhi Demchok village, across "the Demchok River", as "Parigas".[58]


  1. ^ a b "Blockwise Village Amenity Directory" (PDF). Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  2. ^ Lack of infra forcing people to migrate from frontier, The Tribune, Chandigar, 17 July 2019.
  3. ^ Bray, John (Winter 1990), "The Lapchak Mission From Ladakh to Lhasa in British Indian Foreign Policy", The Tibet Journal, 15 (4): 77, JSTOR 43300375
  4. ^ Henry Osmaston; Nawang Tsering, eds. (1997), Recent Research on Ladakh 6: Proceedings of the Sixth International Colloquium on Ladakh, Leh 1993, International Association for Ladakh Studies / Motilal Banarsidass Publ., p. 299, ISBN 978-81-208-1432-5
  5. ^ Cunningham, Alexander (1854), Ladak: Physical, Statistical, Historical, London: Wm. H. Allen and Co, p. 328 – via
  6. ^ a b Tibet Autonomous Region (China): Ngari Prefecture, KNAB Place Name Databse, retrieved 27 July 2021.
  7. ^ Francke, Antiquities of Indian Tibet, Part 2 (1926), pp. 115–116.
  8. ^ Cheema, Crimson Chinar (2015), p. 190.
  9. ^ a b c During border discussions in the 1960s, the Chinese government called the Indian village "Parigas" and the Chinese village "Demchok":
  10. ^ "Villages | District Leh, Union Territory of Ladakh | India".
  11. ^ Lamb, Treaties, Maps and the Western Sector (1965), p. 39.
  12. ^ "Ladakhis deplore Krishna's remark on Demchok road". Deccan Herald. 24 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013.
  13. ^ a b Arpi, The Case of Demchok (2016), p. 12; Handa, Buddhist Western Himalaya (2001), p. 160; Bhattacharji, Ladakh (2012), Chapter 9: "Changthang: The High Plateau"
  14. ^ a b Report of the Officials, Indian Report, Part 3 (1962), pp. 3–4: "I visited Demchok on the boundary with Lhasa. ... A nullah falls into the Indus river from the south-west and it (Demchok) is situated at the junction of the river. Across is the boundary of Lhasa, where there are 8 to 9 huts of the Lhasa zamindars. On this side there are only two zamindars. The one is the agent of the Gopa [Gompa] and the other is the agent of the previous Kardar of Rokshu."
  15. ^ Report of the Officials, Indian Report, Part 3 (1962), pp. 3–4.
  16. ^ Tibet Autonomous Region (China): Ngari Prefecture, KNAB Place Name Databse, retrieved 27 July 2021. Coordinates 32°42′13″N 79°26′50″E / 32.70361°N 79.44722°E / 32.70361; 79.44722 (Palichasi/Silungle).
  17. ^ a b Tibet Autonomous Region (China): Ngari Prefecture, KNAB Place Name Databse, retrieved 27 July 2021. Coordinates 32°52′11″N 79°18′07″E / 32.86972°N 79.30194°E / 32.86972; 79.30194 (Lagankhel).
  18. ^ Map no. 3279,, retrieved 17 September 2021.
  19. ^ Silungle marked on OpenStreetMap, retrieved 17 September 2021.
  20. ^ Bhattacharji, Ladakh (2012), Chapter 9.
  21. ^ Bhattacharji, Ladakh (2012), Chapter 1: Julley: "The LAC, [from] about 6 km short of Demchog, follows the right bank of the Indus, which can be waded across here. Trucks from China regularly come defiantly close to this point."
  22. ^ Bhattacharji, Ladakh (2012), Chapter 1: Julley: "Yet, in November 2009, in brazen defiance of customs and international law, when people from [a satellite settlement in the] Demchog village, which is 8 km up the Charding Chu adjacent to the check post, decided to build a road under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, the Chinese successfully prevented them from doing so."
  23. ^ a b Schomberg, R. C. F. (1950), "Expeditionts: The Tso Morari to the Tibetan Frontier at Demchok", The Himalayan Journal, XVI (1): 100–105: "Demchok was not an exciting place at all. The frontier was ill-defined, although a stream, hard to cross at midday, was supposed to mark it. On what was unquestionably Kashmiri territory numerous [Tibetan?] flocks were grazing."
  24. ^ Lange, Decoding Mid-19th Century Maps (2017), p. 358.
  25. ^ CPWD to lay three roads on China border in Ladakh, The Hindu, 21 March 2021.
  26. ^ a b c Puri, Luv (2 August 2005). "Ladakhis await re-opening of historic Tibet route". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013.
  27. ^ "'Issue of opening Demchok road with China taken up'". 2 April 2005. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012.
  28. ^ Report of the Officials, Chinese Report, Part 2 (1962), pp. 10–11.
  29. ^ Howard & Howard, Historic Ruins in the Gya Valley (2014), p. 83.
  30. ^ Francke, Antiquities of Indian Tibet, Part 2 (1926), p. 94.
  31. ^ a b c Hedin, Southern Tibet (1922), p. 194: "A short distance N. W. of Demchok, the road passes a partly frozen brook [Lhari stream] coming from Demchok-pu, a tributary valley from the left. ... At the left side [Ladakhi side] of the mouth of this little valley, are the ruins of two or three houses, which were said to have belonged to Hemi-gompa. A pyramidal peak at the same.. side of the valley is called La-ri and said to be sacred. The valley, Demchok-pu, itself is regarded as the boundary between Tibet and Ladak."
  32. ^ Lhari peak and the Demchok villages, OpenStreetMap, retrieved 9 August 2020.
  33. ^ McKay, Kailas Histories (2015), p. 520.
  34. ^ Khardo Hermitage (Khardo Ritrö), Mandala web site, University of Virginia, retrieved 21 October 2019.
  35. ^ The Middle Way: Journal of the Buddhist Society, Volume 81, The Buddhist Society, 2006: "For Hindus, Kailas is home to the great pan-Indian deity Shiva and for Tibetan Buddhists, it is home to the bodhisattva Dem-chog, the Sanskrit deity Chakrasamvara."
  36. ^ McKay, Kailas Histories (2015), pp. 7, 304, 316.
  37. ^ First ever Chhota Kailash Yatra begins in Ladakh, State Times, 22 June 2017.
  38. ^ First batch of Chota Kailash Yatra leaves for Demchok, Daily Excelsior, 23 June 2017.
  39. ^ Sinha, Nirmal C. (1967), "Demchok (Notes and topics)" (PDF), Bulletin of Tibetology, 4: 23–24: "Demchock is a sacred place within the Hemis complex. The Hemis complex is very ancient (old Sects) and antedates considerably the Yellow Sect and the rise of the Dalai Lamas."
  40. ^ a b P.Stobdan, Ladakh concern overrides LAC dispute, The Tribune, 28 May 2020.
  41. ^ A number of historians and Tibetologists have noted this fact:
  42. ^ Lamb, Treaties, Maps and the Western Sector (1965, p. 38) expresses doubts: "There can be no doubt that the 1684 (or 1683) agreement between Ladakh and the authorities then controlling Tibet did in fact take place. Unfortunately, no original text of it has survived and its terms can only be deduced. In its surviving form there seems to be a reference to a boundary point at "the Lhari stream at Demchok", a stream which would appear to flow into the Indus at Demchok and divide that village into two halves."
  43. ^ "Chinese Occupied Indian Territory...": Ladakh BJP MP Rebuts Rahul Gandhi, NDTV, 10 June 2020.
  44. ^ Fisher, Rose & Huttenback, Himalayan Battleground (1963), p. 49–50.
  45. ^ Lamb, The China-India border (1964), p. 68.
  46. ^ Kaul, Hriday Nath (2003), India China Boundary in Kashmir, Gyan Publishing House, pp. 60–61, ISBN 978-81-212-0826-0: "Reaching it from Hanle, Strachey found Demchok a hamlet of half a dozen huts, not permanently inhabited, divided into two, one Ladakhi and the other Tibetan, by the rivulet Rha-ri [Lhari stream], which enters the left bank of the Indus."
  47. ^ Lamb, The China-India border (1964), pp. 68–69.
  48. ^ Strachey, Henry (1853), "Physical Geography of Western Tibet", The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 23: 1–69, doi:10.2307/1797948, JSTOR 1797948
  49. ^ Lange, Decoding Mid-19th Century Maps (2017), Fig.5, p. 357: "The depiction of Demchok consists of three black tents and a house. Green patches and the Demchok bridge, labelled as Demjok zampa (387), are also depicted.... A fork in the road is clearly visible next to the Demchok Bridge; one route turns [west] before the bridge (coming from the [southeast]), and a second crosses the bridge and continues [northwest]." (Directions adjusted as per map orientation.)
  50. ^ Report of the Officials, Indian Report, Part 3 (1962), pp. 3–4 (item j)
  51. ^ Report of the Officials, Indian Report, Part 3 (1962), p. 41.
  52. ^ Gardner, Kyle J. (2021), The Frontier Complex: Geopolitics and the Making of the India-China Border, 1846–1962, Cambridge University Press, p. 246, ISBN 978-1-108-84059-0
  53. ^ a b Zhōng yìn biānjìng diǎn jiǎo cūn: Shìwàitáoyuán de shuǐshēnhuǒrè 中印边境典角村:世外桃源的水深火热 [Dianjiao Village on the Sino-Indian Border: The Dire Waters of Xanadu],, 10 January 2018, archived from the original on 11 June 2021
  54. ^ Bhasin, Nehru, Tibet and China (2021), Chapter 7.
  55. ^ Arpi, Claude (December 2016) [abridged version published in Indian Defence Review, 19 May 2017], The Case of Demchok (PDF): 'Kaul objected, Demchok was in India, he told Chen who answered that India's border was further on the West of the Indus. On Kaul's insistence Chen said "There can be no doubt about actual physical possession which can be verified on spot but to avoid any dispute we may omit mention of Demchok". Though Kaul repeated Demchok was on India's side, the Chinese did not budge.'
  56. ^ Sandhu, Shankar, Dwivedi (2015), p. 12.
  57. ^ Report of the Officials, Indian Report, Part 1 (1962), p. 25: "A little south of Jara Pass [the border] turns south-westward, crosses the Indus about five mile south-east of Demchok, and following the watershed between the Hanle river and the tributaries of the Sutlej river... "
  58. ^ India. Ministry of External Affairs, ed. (1966), Notes, Memoranda and Letters Exchanged and Agreements Signed Between the Governments of India and China: January 1965 - February 1966, White Paper No. XII (PDF), Ministry of External Affairs – via
  59. ^ a b c "Leh district census". 2011 Census of India. Directorate of Census Operations. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  60. ^ a b c Sharma, Arteev (17 July 2019). "Lack of infra forcing people to migrate from frontier". The Tribune.
  61. ^ a b Arpi, Claude (20 June 2016). "A worrying scenario at Ladakh border". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  62. ^ a b Irfan, Hakeem (11 July 2018). "China pokes us for lack of progress: Congress Ladakh MLA". The Economic Times. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  63. ^ Chushul-Demchok road to rein in PLA, The Pioneer, 27 July 2020.
  64. ^ "Khardunga La No longer the World's Highest Road. Meet its Successor at 19300 Ft!". 3 November 2017. Archived from the original on 3 November 2017.
  65. ^ "BRO builds world's highest motorable road in Ladakh at 19,300 feet". 2 November 2017. Archived from the original on 2 November 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  66. ^ "Achievements of West Dte during the F/Y 2016-17" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  67. ^ "54 villages in Ladakh to get mobile connectivity". The Tribune. 26 June 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.


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