Demidovsky District

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Demidovsky District
Демидовский район (Russian)
Location Demidovsky District Smolensk Oblast.svg
Location of Demidovsky District in Smolensk Oblast
Coordinates: 55°16′N 31°31′E / 55.267°N 31.517°E / 55.267; 31.517Coordinates: 55°16′N 31°31′E / 55.267°N 31.517°E / 55.267; 31.517
Озерочистик2.JPG
Lake Chistik, a protected area of Russia in Demidovsky District
Coat of arms of Demidov rayon (2005).gif
Flag of Demidovsky rayon (Smolensk oblast).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Smolensk Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of June 2014)
Administrative center town of Demidov[1]
Administrative divisions:[1]
Urban settlements (towns) 1
Urban settlements (urban-type settlements) 1
Rural settlements 15
Inhabited localities:[1]
Cities/towns 1
Urban-type settlements[2] 1
Rural localities 231
Municipal structure (as of June 2015)
Municipally incorporated as Demidovsky Municipal District[3]
Municipal divisions:[3]
Urban settlements 2
Rural settlements 4
Statistics
Area (administrative district) (June 2014) 2,514.02 km2 (970.67 sq mi)[1]
Population (2010 Census) 14,039 inhabitants[4]
• Urban 64.2%
• Rural 35.8%
Density 5.58/km2 (14.5/sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[6]
Official website
Demidovsky District on WikiCommons

Demidovsky District (Russian: Деми́довский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[3] district (raion), one of the twenty-five in Smolensk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Zharkovsky District of Tver Oblast in the north, Velizhsky District in the northwest, Rudnyansky District in the southwest, Smolensky District in the south, and with Dukhovshchinsky District in the east. The area of the district is 2,514.02 square kilometers (970.67 sq mi).[1] Its administrative center is the town of Demidov.[1] Population: 14,039 (2010 Census);[4] 18,167 (2002 Census);[7] 24,237 (1989 Census).[8] The population of Demidov accounts for 52.2% of the district's total population.[4]

Geography[edit]

Lake Sapsho, Smolenskoye Poozerye National Park

The area of the district belongs to the drainage basin of the Western Dvina. Major rivers flowing through the district include the Kasplya, a major left tributary of the Western Dvina, the Cherebesna, a left tributary of the Kasplya, the Vyatsha, a right tributary of the Cherebesna, and the Yelsha, a left tributary of the Mezha. There are many lakes, most significant of which are Lake Sapsho, Lake Dgo, and Lake Baklanovskoye. 58.4% of the district's territory is covered by forests. A portion of Smolenskoye Poozerye National Park is located in the district; the park is shared between Demidovsky and Dukhovshchinsky Districts.[9]

History[edit]

The area was settled in the prehistory, and, as the Western Dvina always has been an important waterway, there are multiple archaeological sites in the district. The fortress of Porechye is first mentioned in 1499, and since 1514 it belonged to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, at the border with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1580, after the Livonian War, the area was transferred to Poland, where it was included into Vitebsk Voivodeship. In 1667, according to the Truce of Andrusovo, it was transferred back to Russia. Subsequently Porechye developed as an important trading post since it was located at the intersection of roads connecting Saint Petersburg with Kiev and Moscow with Riga.[10] The Kasplya was navigable until mid-19th century, and Porechye sent ships to Riga. Later, it lost its trade important, since the Kasplya became more shallow, and the railway between Moscow and Riga went via Velikiye Luki, far from Porechye.[11]

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Smolensk Governorate and remained there until 1929, with the exception of the brief periods between 1713 and 1726, when it belonged to Riga Governorate, and between 1775 and 1796, when Smolensk Governorate was transformed into Smolensk Viceroyalty. In 1776, Porechye was granted a town status, and Porechsky Uyezd with the center in Porechye was established. On 19 November 1918, Porechye was renamed Demidov, to commemorate the bolshevik Yakov Demidov, who was the chairman of the Uyezd Communist Party Committee and was killed during the Russian Civil War.[10] Porechsky Uyezd was renamed Demidovsky Uyezd.[12] In 1927, Demidovsky Uyezd was abolished.[13][14] Part of the area was transferred to Yartsevsky Uyezd of Smolensk Governorate.[15]

On 12 July 1929, governorates and uyezds were abolished, and Demidovsky District with the administrative center in Demidov was established. The district belonged to Smolensk Okrug of Western Oblast. On August 1, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were subordinated directly to the oblast.[14] On 27 September 1937 Western Oblast was abolished and split between Oryol and Smolensk Oblasts. Demidovsky District was transferred to Smolensk Oblast. Between 1941 and September 1943, during WWII, the district was occupied by German troops.[10] On 1 February 1963, during the abortive Khrushchyov administrative reform, Velizhsky District was merged into Demidovsky District, but on 12 January 1965 it was re-established.[14]

On 12 July 1929, Kasplyansky District with the administrative center in the selo of Kasplya was established as well in the areas which previously belonged to Demidovsky, Dukhovshchinsky, and Smolensky Uyezds. The district belonged to Smolensk Okrug of Western Oblast. On 1 February 1932, the district was abolished and split between Demidovsky, Dukhovshchinsky, Rudnyansky, and Smolensky Districts. In 1938, it was re-established; it belonged to Smolensk Oblast. In 1961, Kasplyansky District was abolished and merged into Smolensky District.[14]

Another district established on 12 July 1929 was Ponizovsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Ponizovye. It was created in the areas which previously belonged to Demidovsky Uyezd. The district belonged to Smolensk Okrug of Western Oblast. In 1930, the district was abolished and split between Demidovsky and Rudnyansky Districts. In 1935, it was re-established, and in 1937, it was transferred to Smolensk Oblast. In 1961, Ponizovsky District was abolished and split between Demidovsky and Rudnyansky Districts.[14]

One more district established on 12 July 1929 was Prechistensky with the administrative center in the selo of Prechistoye. It was created in the areas which previously belonged to Belsky, Demidovsky, and Dukhovshchinsky Uyezds. The district belonged to Smolensk Okrug of Western Oblast. In 1934, the district was abolished and split between Belsky, Demidovsky, Dukhovshchinsky, and Ilyinsky Districts. In 1935, it was re-established, and in 1937, it was transferred to Smolensk Oblast. In 1961, Prechistensky District was abolished and merged into Dukhovshchinsky District.[14]

On 12 July 1929 Slobodskoy District with the administrative center in the selo of Sloboda was also established. It was created in the areas which previously belonged to Demidovsky Uyezd. The district belonged to Smolensk Okrug of Western Oblast. In 1930, the district was abolished and split between Demidovsky, Ilyinsky, Prechistensky, and Velizhsky Districts. In 1938, it was re-established. In 1960, Slobodskoy District was abolished and merged into Demidovsky District.[14]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

The economy of the district is based on agriculture and timber industry; production of building materials is also developed.[16]

Agriculture[edit]

The main agricultural specialization of the district are cattle breeding with meat and milk production.[17]

Transportation[edit]

Paved roads connect Demidov with Smolensk, with Nevel via Velizh, and with Rudnya. There are also local roads with bus traffic originating from Demidov.

There are no railways in the district. The closest railway station is in Rudnya, on the railway connecting Smolensk with Vitebsk.

Culture and recreation[edit]

Nikolay Przhevalsky Estate, Przhevalskoye.

The district contains nine cultural heritage monuments of federal significance, and additionally 157 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance (11 of them in Demidov). The federally protected monuments are the estate by the geographer and explorer of Central Asia Nikolay Przhevalsky in the urban-type settlement of Przhevalskoye, as well as a number of archaeological sites.[18] The Przhevalsky Estate is converted to a memorial museum.[19]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Resolution #261
  2. ^ The count of urban-type settlements may include the work settlements, the resort settlements, the suburban (dacha) settlements, as well as urban-type settlements proper.
  3. ^ a b c Law #131-z
  4. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value is only approximate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  8. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  9. ^ "Smolenskoye Poozerye National Park" (in Russian). Smolenskoye Poozerye National Park. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  10. ^ a b c "Историческая справка" (in Russian). Demidovsky District Administration. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  11. ^ Егоренков, Л. И. "Современная экономико-географическая дифференциация Смоленского региона" (in Russian) (1). Moscow: Вестник МГОУ: 9–21.
  12. ^ "Энциклопедия Смоленской области" (in Russian). Смоленский промышленно-экономический колледж. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  13. ^ "Смоленская губерния" (in Russian). Картолог - старинные карты России. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Борис Парфенов; Ольга Хоренженкова. "К истории формирования Смоленской области" (in Russian). Смоленск. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  15. ^ "Пржевальское городское поселение" (in Russian). Przhevalskoye Urban Settlement. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  16. ^ "Промышленность" (in Russian). Demidovsky District Administration. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  17. ^ "Инвестиционный паспорт" (in Russian). Demidovsky District Administration. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  18. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  19. ^ "Мемориальный Дом-музей Н.М. Пржевальского ОГБУК "Смоленский государственный музей-заповедник"" (in Russian). Музеи России. Archived from the original on August 13, 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.

Sources[edit]

  • Администрация Смоленской области. Постановление №261 от 30 апреля 2008 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области», в ред. Постановления №464 от 27 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области». Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс". (Administration of Smolensk Oblast. Resolution #261 of April 30, 2008 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #464 of June 27, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast. ).
  • Смоленская областная Дума. Закон №131-з от 28 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования "Демидовский район" Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом», в ред. Закона №74-з от 28 мая 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования "Демидовский район" Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Смоленской областной Думы и Администрации Смоленской области", №14, часть II, стр. 6, 30 декабря 2004 г. (Smolensk Oblast Duma. Law #131-z of December 28, 2004 On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of "Demidovsky District" of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations the Territories of Which It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status, as amended by the Law #74-z of May 28, 2015 On Amending the Oblast Law "On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of "Demidovsky District" of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations the Territories of Which It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status". Effective as of the official publication date.).