Democracy Index

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The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map for 2017.[1]

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.

The index was first produced in 2006, with updates for 2008, 2010 and the following years since then. The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorises countries as one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes.

Method[edit]

As described in the report,[2] the democracy index is a weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted alternative answers. Most answers are "experts' assessments"; the report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts. Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are distributed in the five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. Each answer is translated to a mark, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer alternative questions, 0.5. With the exceptions mentioned below, the sums are added within each category, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g., if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?" is not considered, but automatically marked zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the Democracy Index for a given country. Finally, the Democracy Index, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis has been put on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standard has not been weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators[who?] have done).[3][4]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer reviewed academic journals.[5]

Classification definitions[edit]

Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and basic political freedoms are not only respected, but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and media that is diverse and independent. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[6]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honored but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement). These nations have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Hybrid regimes are nations where consequential irregularities exist in elections regularly preventing them from being fair and free. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opponents, non independent judiciaries, and have widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anemic rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism has vanished or is extremely limited. These nations are often absolute monarchies or dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meager significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair and free, the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and they are characterised by the presence of omnipresent censorship and suppression of governmental criticism.[6]

Democracy Index by country (2017)[edit]

Listing by country is available on The Economist website.[7]

Democracy Index 2017
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Category
1  Norway 9.87 10.00 9.64 10.00 10.00 9.71 Full democracy
2  Iceland 9.58 10.00 9.29 8.89 10.00 9.71 Full democracy
3  Sweden 9.39 9.58 9.64 8.33 10.00 9.41 Full democracy
4  New Zealand 9.26 10.00 9.29 8.89 8.13 10.00 Full democracy
5  Denmark 9.22 10.00 9.29 8.33 9.38 9.12 Full democracy
=6  Ireland 9.15 9.58 7.86 8.33 10.00 10.00 Full democracy
=6  Canada 9.15 9.58 9.64 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy
8  Australia 9.09 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy
=9  Finland 9.03 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
=9   Switzerland 9.03 9.58 9.29 7.78 9.38 9.12 Full democracy
11  Netherlands 8.89 9.58 9.29 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy
12  Luxembourg 8.81 10.00 8.93 6.67 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
13  Germany 8.61 9.58 8.21 8.33 7.50 9.41 Full democracy
14  United Kingdom 8.53 9.58 7.50 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy
15  Austria 8.42 9.58 8.21 8.33 6.88 9.12 Full democracy
16  Mauritius 8.22 9.17 8.21 5.56 8.75 9.41 Full democracy
17  Malta 8.15 9.17 8.21 6.11 8.75 8.53 Full democracy
18  Uruguay 8.12 10.00 8.93 4.44 7.50 9.71 Full democracy
19  Spain 8.08 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.82 Full democracy
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Category
20  South Korea 8.00 9.17 7.86 7.22 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy
=21  United States 7.98 9.17 7.14 7.22 8.13 8.24 Flawed democracy
=21  Italy 7.98 9.58 6.43 7.22 8.13 8.53 Flawed democracy
=23  Japan 7.88 8.75 8.21 6.11 7.50 8.82 Flawed democracy
=23  Cape Verde 7.88 9.17 7.86 6.67 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
=23  Costa Rica 7.88 9.58 7.14 6.67 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
=26  Chile 7.84 9.58 8.57 4.44 7.50 9.12 Flawed democracy
=26  Portugal 7.84 9.58 7.50 6.11 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
28  Botswana 7.81 9.17 7.14 6.11 7.50 9.12 Flawed democracy
29  France 7.80 9.58 7.50 7.78 5.63 8.53 Flawed democracy
=30  Estonia 7.79 9.58 7.86 6.11 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
=30  Israel 7.79 9.17 7.50 8.89 7.50 5.88 Flawed democracy
32  Belgium 7.78 9.58 8.93 5.00 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
33 Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan) 7.73 9.58 8.21 6.11 5.63 9.12 Flawed democracy
34  Czech Republic 7.62 9.58 6.43 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
35  Cyprus 7.59 9.17 6.43 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
36  Slovenia 7.50 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy
37  Lithuania 7.41 9.58 5.71 6.11 6.25 9.41 Flawed democracy
=38  Greece 7.29 9.58 5.36 6.11 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
=38  Jamaica 7.29 9.17 7.14 4.44 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
40  Latvia 7.25 9.58 5.71 5.56 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
41  South Africa 7.24 7.42 7.50 8.33 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
42  India 7.23 9.17 6.97 7.22 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy
43  Timor-Leste 7.19 9.08 6.97 5.56 6.88 7.65 Flawed democracy
44  Slovakia 7.16 9.58 6.97 5.56 5.63 8.24 Flawed democracy
45  Panama 7.08 9.58 6.97 6.11 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
46  Trinidad and Tobago 7.04 9.58 7.14 5.56 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
47  Bulgaria 7.03 9.17 6.43 7.22 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy
48  Argentina 6.96 9.17 5.00 6.11 6.88 7.65 Flawed democracy
49  Brazil 6.86 9.58 5.36 6.11 3.75 8.24 Flawed democracy
50  Suriname 6.76 9.17 6.43 5.56 5.00 7.65 Flawed democracy
51  Philippines 6.71 9.17 5.71 7.22 4.38 7.06 Flawed democracy
52  Ghana 6.69 8.33 5.71 6.67 6.25 6.47 Flawed democracy
=53  Poland 6.67 9.17 6.07 6.11 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy
=53  Colombia 6.67 9.17 6.79 4.44 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy
55  Dominican Republic 6.66 9.17 5.36 6.11 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy
=56  Lesotho 6.64 9.17 5.00 6.67 5.63 6.76 Flawed democracy
=56  Hungary 6.64 8.75 6.07 4.44 6.88 7.06 Flawed democracy
58  Croatia 6.63 9.17 5.36 5.56 5.00 6.76 Flawed democracy
59  Malaysia 6.54 6.92 7.14 6.11 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy
60  Mongolia 6.50 9.17 5.71 5.56 5.00 6.76 Flawed democracy
61  Peru 6.49 9.17 5.36 5.56 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy
62  Sri Lanka 6.48 7.83 7.14 5.00 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy
63  Guyana 6.46 8.75 5.71 6.11 4.38 7.35 Flawed democracy
64  Romania 6.44 9.17 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy
65  El Salvador 6.43 9.17 5.36 4.44 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy
=66  Serbia 6.41 8.25 5.36 6.67 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy
=66  Mexico 6.41 7.83 6.43 7.22 4.38 6.18 Flawed democracy
68  Indonesia 6.39 6.92 7.14 6.67 5.63 5.59 Flawed democracy
=69  Tunisia 6.32 6.00 5.71 7.78 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy
=69  Singapore 6.32 4.33 7.86 6.11 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy
=71  Hong Kong 6.31 3.92 6.07 5.56 7.50 8.53 Flawed democracy
=71  Namibia 6.31 5.67 5.36 6.67 5.63 8.24 Flawed democracy
=71  Paraguay 6.31 8.75 6.07 5.00 4.38 7.35 Flawed democracy
74  Senegal 6.15 7.50 6.07 4.44 6.25 6.47 Flawed democracy
75  Papua New Guinea 6.03 6.92 6.07 3.89 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy
76  Ecuador 6.02 8.75 4.64 5.56 4.38 6.76 Flawed democracy
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Category
77  Albania 5.98 7.00 4.71 5.56 5.00 7.65 Hybrid regime
78  Moldova 5.94 7.50 4.64 6.11 4.38 7.06 Hybrid regime
79  Georgia 5.93 8.67 4.29 6.11 5.00 5.59 Hybrid regime
80  Guatemala 5.86 7.92 5.71 3.89 5.00 6.76 Hybrid regime
81  Fiji 5.85 6.58 5.36 6.11 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
82  Honduras 5.72 8.25 5.36 4.44 4.38 6.18 Hybrid regime
=83  Ukraine 5.69 6.17 3.21 6.67 6.25 6.18 Hybrid regime
=83  Montenegro 5.69 6.08 5.36 5.56 4.38 7.06 Hybrid regime
85  Zambia 5.68 6.17 5.00 3.89 6.88 6.47 Hybrid regime
86  Mali 5.64 7.42 3.93 4.44 6.25 6.18 Hybrid regime
87  Benin 5.61 6.50 5.36 5.00 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
88  Macedonia 5.57 6.50 5.00 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime
=89  Bolivia 5.49 7.00 4.64 5.00 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime
=89  Malawi 5.49 6.58 4.29 4.44 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime
91  Tanzania 5.47 7.00 5.00 5.00 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
92  Bangladesh 5.43 7.42 5.07 5.00 4.38 5.29 Hybrid regime
93  Liberia 5.23 7.42 2.57 5.56 5.00 5.59 Hybrid regime
94    Nepal 5.18 4.33 5.36 5.00 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
=95  Kenya 5.11 3.50 5.36 6.67 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime
=95  Kyrgyzstan 5.11 6.58 2.93 6.67 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime
=95  Madagascar 5.11 6.08 3.57 5.56 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
98  Uganda 5.09 5.25 3.57 3.89 6.88 5.88 Hybrid regime
99  Bhutan 5.08 8.33 6.07 2.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime
100  Turkey 4.88 5.33 6.07 5.00 5.63 2.35 Hybrid regime
=101  Morocco 4.87 5.25 4.64 4.44 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime
=101  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.87 6.50 2.93 5.00 3.75 6.18 Hybrid regime
103  Burkina Faso 4.75 4.42 4.29 4.44 5.63 5.00 Hybrid regime
104  Lebanon 4.72 3.50 2.57 7.22 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
=105  Sierra Leone 4.66 6.58 1.86 3.33 6.25 5.29 Hybrid regime
=105  Nicaragua 4.66 3.42 3.29 3.89 5.63 7.06 Hybrid regime
107  Thailand 4.63 3.00 4.29 5.00 5.00 5.88 Hybrid regime
108  Palestine 4.46 3.83 2.50 7.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime
109  Nigeria 4.44 6.08 4.64 3.33 3.75 4.41 Hybrid regime
110  Pakistan 4.26 6.50 5.36 2.22 2.50 4.71 Hybrid regime
111  Armenia 4.11 5.25 2.86 5.00 1.88 5.59 Hybrid regime
112  Iraq 4.09 4.33 0.07 7.22 5.00 3.82 Hybrid regime
113  Gambia 4.06 4.48 3.93 3.33 5.63 2.94 Hybrid regime
114  Haiti 4.03 5.17 2.21 2.22 4.38 6.18 Hybrid regime
115  Mozambique 4.02 4.42 2.14 5.00 5.00 3.53 Hybrid regime
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Category
116  Ivory Coast 3.93 4.42 2.14 3.33 5.63 4.12 Authoritarian
=117  Jordan 3.87 3.58 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.24 Authoritarian
=117  Venezuela 3.87 2.17 2.86 6.11 4.38 3.82 Authoritarian
119  Kuwait 3.85 3.17 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian
120  Myanmar 3.83 3.67 3.93 3.89 5.63 2.06 Authoritarian
121  Mauritania 3.82 3.00 3.57 5.00 3.13 4.41 Authoritarian
122  Niger 3.76 5.25 1.14 3.33 4.38 4.71 Authoritarian
123  Comoros 3.71 4.33 2.21 4.44 3.75 3.82 Authoritarian
124  Cambodia 3.63 1.33 5.71 2.22 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian
125  Angola 3.62 1.75 2.86 5.56 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian
=126  Gabon 3.61 2.58 2.21 4.44 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian
=126  Cameroon 3.61 4.00 2.86 3.89 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
128  Algeria 3.56 2.58 2.21 3.89 5.00 4.12 Authoritarian
129  Ethiopia 3.42 0.00 3.57 5.56 5.63 2.35 Authoritarian
130  Egypt 3.36 3.58 3.21 3.33 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian
131  Cuba 3.31 1.33 4.29 3.89 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian
132  Republic of the Congo 3.25 3.17 2.50 3.89 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian
=133  Qatar 3.19 0.00 4.29 2.22 5.63 3.82 Authoritarian
=133  Rwanda 3.19 0.83 5.00 2.78 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
135  Russia 3.17 2.17 1.79 5.00 2.50 4.41 Authoritarian
136  Zimbabwe 3.16 0.50 2.00 4.44 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian
137  Guinea 3.14 3.50 0.43 4.44 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
138  Belarus 3.13 0.92 2.86 3.89 5.63 2.35 Authoritarian
139  China 3.10 0.00 5.00 2.78 6.25 1.47 Authoritarian
140  Vietnam 3.08 0.00 3.21 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian
141  Kazakhstan 3.06 0.50 2.14 4.44 4.38 3.82 Authoritarian
142  Togo 3.05 3.17 0.79 2.78 5.00 3.53 Authoritarian
143  Oman 3.04 0.00 3.93 2.78 4.38 4.12 Authoritarian
144  Swaziland 3.03 0.92 2.86 2.22 5.63 3.53 Authoritarian
145  Djibouti 2.76 0.42 1.79 3.33 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian
146  Bahrain 2.71 0.83 3.21 2.78 4.38 2.35 Authoritarian
147  United Arab Emirates 2.69 0.00 3.57 2.22 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian
148  Azerbaijan 2.65 0.50 2.14 3.33 3.75 3.53 Authoritarian
149  Afghanistan 2.55 2.50 1.14 2.78 2.50 3.82 Authoritarian
150  Iran 2.45 0.00 3.21 4.44 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian
=151  Eritrea 2.37 0.00 2.14 1.67 6.88 1.18 Authoritarian
=151  Laos 2.37 0.83 2.86 1.67 5.00 1.47 Authoritarian
153  Burundi 2.33 0.00 0.43 3.89 5.00 2.35 Authoritarian
154  Libya 2.32 1.00 0.36 1.67 5.63 2.94 Authoritarian
155  Sudan 2.15 0.00 1.79 2.78 5.00 1.18 Authoritarian
156  Yemen 2.07 0.00 0.00 4.44 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian
157  Guinea-Bissau 1.98 1.67 0.00 2.78 3.13 2.35 Authoritarian
158  Uzbekistan 1.95 0.08 1.86 2.22 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian
=159  Saudi Arabia 1.93 0.00 2.86 2.22 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian
=159  Tajikistan 1.93 0.08 0.79 1.67 6.25 0.88 Authoritarian
161  Equatorial Guinea 1.81 0.00 0.43 2.78 4.38 1.47 Authoritarian
162  Turkmenistan 1.72 0.00 0.79 2.22 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian
163  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.61 0.50 0.71 2.22 3.75 0.88 Authoritarian
164  Central African Republic 1.52 2.25 0.00 1.11 1.88 2.35 Authoritarian
165  Chad 1.50 0.00 0.00 1.11 3.75 2.65 Authoritarian
166  Syria 1.43 0.00 0.00 2.78 4.38 0.00 Authoritarian
167  North Korea 1.08 0.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 0.00 Authoritarian
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Category

Recent changes[edit]

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy;[8] its score, which had been experiencing a persistent downward trend, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report states that this was caused by a myriad of factors, dating back to the late 1960s, which eroded Americans' trust in governmental institutions.[8][9][10]

The 2017 Democracy index registered the worst year for global democracy since 2010-11 in the aftermath of the global economic and financial crisis[citation needed]. 89 countries experienced a decline in their total score compared with 2016, more than three times as many as the countries that recorded an improvement[citation needed]. Asia was the worst performing region overall, while Venezuela was downgraded from a "hybrid regime" to an "authoritarian regime" and Armenia was reupgraded from an "authoritarian regime" to a "hybrid regime".[11]

Australia (ranked 8th) and Taiwan (ranked 33rd) both legalised gay marriage in 2017. In China, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, further entrenched his power by writing his theoretical contribution to the Chinese Communist Party’s ideology, dubbed “Xi Jinping Thought”, into the party’s constitution. Moldova was downgraded from a “flawed democracy” to a “hybrid regime” as a result of problematic elections. By contrast, Armenia moved from the authoritarian category to a “hybrid regime” as a result of constitutional changes that shifted power from the presidency to parliament.[12]

Democracy Index by regime type[edit]

The following table gives the number and percentage of countries and the percentage of the world population for each regime type in 2017:[1]

Type of regime Scores (s) Number of
countries
Percentage
of countries
Percentage of
world population
Full democracies 8 ≤ s ≤ 10 19 11.4 4.4
Flawed democracies 6 ≤ s < 8 57 34.1 44.3
Hybrid regimes 4 ≤ s < 6 39 23.4 17.7
Authoritarian regimes 0 ≤ s < 4 52 31.1 32.3

World population refers to the total population of the 167 countries covered by the Index. Since this excludes only micro-states, this is nearly equal to the entire estimated world population.

Democracy Index by region[edit]

The following table gives the index average by world region, and the number of covered countries in 2017. Note that some regional groups (e.g. Eastern Europe) are very heterogeneous and composed of full democracies as well as authoritarian regimes:

Rank Region Countries 2006[4] 2008[13] 2010[3] 2011[14] 2012[2] 2013[15] 2014[16] 2015[6] 2016[17] 2017[1]
1 Northern America 2 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.56 8.56

8.56

2 Western Europe 21 8.60 8.61 8.45 8.40 8.44 8.41 8.41 8.42 8.40 8.38
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 6.37 6.43 6.37 6.35 6.36 6.38 6.36 6.37 6.33 6.26
4 Asia and Australasia 28 5.44 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.56 5.61 5.70 5.74 5.74 5.63
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.76 5.67 5.55 5.50 5.51 5.53 5.58 5.55 5.43 5.40
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.24 4.28 4.23 4.32 4.33 4.36 4.34 4.38 4.37 4.35
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 3.54 3.48 3.52 3.62 3.73 3.68 3.65 3.58 3.56 3.54
  World 167 5.52 5.55 5.46 5.49 5.52 5.53 5.55 5.55 5.52 5.48

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  4. ^ a b Laza Kekic, director, country forecasting services (15 November 2006). "The Economist Intelligence Unit's index of democracy" (PDF). The World in 2007. Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  5. ^ "More State than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus | JIA SIPA". Journal of International Affairs. 65 (1): 93–113. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  7. ^ "Democracy Index 2017 - Economist Intelligence Unit" (PDF). EIU.com. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  8. ^ a b Karlis, Nicole (31 January 2018). "New report classifies US as a "flawed democracy" - Partisanship and Trump were to blame for the US's dismal ranking in the Economist's annual Democracy Index report". Salon. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  9. ^ Eshe Nelson (25 January 2017). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Qz.com.
  10. ^ "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017.
  11. ^ "Democracy Index 2017". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  12. ^ "Democracy Index 2017 : Free Speech Under Attack" (PDF). www.eiu.com. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  13. ^ "Index of Democracy 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  14. ^ "Democracy index 2011: Democracy under stress". Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Democracy Index 2013: Democracy in limbo". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  16. ^ "Democracy Index 2014:Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  17. ^ "Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the "deplorables"". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.

External links[edit]