Democratic Action Party

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Democratic Action Party
Malay nameParti Tindakan Demokratik
Chinese name民主行动党
Mínzhǔ xíngdòng dǎng
Tamil nameஜனநாயக செயல் கட்சி
Jaṉanāyaka ceyal kaṭci
AbbreviationDAP
ChairmanLim Kit Siang
Secretary-GeneralLim Guan Eng
Parliamentary LeaderLoke Siew Fook
Deputy ChairmanGobind Singh Deo
Vice ChairmanChong Chieng Jen
Chow Kon Yeow
Ariffin Omar
M. Kulasegaran
Tengku Zulpuri Shah Raja Puji
Deputy Secretaries-GeneralTeresa Kok
Nga Kor Ming
V. Sivakumar
FounderChen Man Hin
Devan Nair
Founded11 October 1965 (1965-10-11)
Legalised18 March 1966 (1966-03-18)
Split fromPeople's Action Party (PAP)
HeadquartersJalan Yew (off Jalan Pudu), 55100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
NewspaperThe Rocket
RoketKini
Youth wingDAP Socialist Youth (DAPSY)
Leader: Lee Chuan How
Women's wingWanita DAP
Leader: Chong Eng
Membership (2015)450,000
IdeologySocial democracy
Progressivism
Left-wing nationalism
Secularism
Multiracialism[1]
Political positionCentre-left[2]
National affiliationGagasan Rakyat (1990–1996)
Barisan Alternatif (1999–2004)
Pakatan Rakyat (2008–2015)
Pakatan Harapan (2015–present)
International affiliationProgressive Alliance
Colours     Red, white, blue
SloganMalaysian Malaysia and Malaysian First
AnthemBerjuang Untuk Rakyat Malaysia!
(Fighting for Malaysians!)
Dewan Negara:
7 / 70
Dewan Rakyat:
42 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri:
104 / 593
Party flag
Democratic Action Party Flag.svg
Website
www.dapmalaysia.org

The Democratic Action Party, or DAP (Malay: Parti Tindakan Demokratik ‬ ,Chinese: 民主行动党, Tamil: ஜனநாயக செயல் கட்சி), is a multi-racial, centre-left Malaysian political party advocating social democracy and secularism, social justice, progressivism, and multi-racialism.[3] One of the component parties of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition, it was an opposition party for 51 years until PH won the 2018 Malaysian general election and formed the federal government. However, before the coalition finished its first term, defections from partnering PH component parties caused it to lose power after 22 months, culminating in the 2020 Malaysian political crisis. As of 24 February 2020, DAP is the largest party in Malaysia's Dewan Rakyat.

The party's vision is to establish a peaceful and prosperous social democracy that can unite its disparate races and diverse religions and cultures, based on the Malaysian Malaysia concept of forging a Malaysian race grounded on universal moral values, offering equal access and opportunity, upholding democratic governance and the rule of law, creating wealth and distributing it equitably, and fighting corruption.[4]

The DAP usually draws much of their support from secular and liberal voters with a stable electorate from voters of big cities, coastal regions, professional middle-class, and working class. The party's strongholds are primarily in the urban and semi-urban areas of Penang, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Johor, Malacca and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. In the 2018 Malaysian general election, DAP contested in 47 federal constituencies and won 42 seats and 101 out of 104 state seats contested, most under the ticket of its ally People's Justice Party (PKR), representing a win rate of 95%, the highest among the major political parties contesting.

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

On 11 October 1965, the DAP was formed by former members of the deregistered People's Action Party of Malaysia, including Bangsar Member of Parliament Devan Nair, who later became President of Singapore. The party formally registered itself as a democratic socialist party on 18 March 1966.[5] The ten members of the pro-tem committee were Devan Nair as secretary-general, Chen Man Hin (who won the Seremban state constituency as an independent) as chairman, D. P. Xavier as assistant secretary-general, Goh Hock Guan as vice-chairman, Seeveratnam Sinnathamby (younger brother of Singapore minister S. Rajaratnam) as treasurer and Zain Azahari bin Zainal Abidin, Chin Chan Sung, Michael Khong Chye Huat, Tan Chong Bee and Too Chee Cheong as members.[6]

In the August of that year, the official party organ, The Rocket, was first published. At the first DAP National Congress held in Setapak, Kuala Lumpur on 29 July 1967, the DAP declared itself to be "irrevocably committed to the ideal of a free, democratic and socialist Malaysia, based on the principles of racial and religious equality, social and economic justice, and founded on the institution of parliamentary democracy".[7]

In October that year, the DAP joined 55 other socialist parties belonging to the Socialist International (SI) at the SI International Conference in Zurich, Switzerland.[7] Devan Nair, who was amongst those who founded the DAP, later returned to Singapore. Lee Kuan Yew, then Prime Minister of Singapore under the PAP, explained in 1981 that "the Cabinet decided that Singapore-Malaysia relations would always be bedevilled if Devan Nair remained a DAP leader. I persuaded him to come back".[8]

Early electoral successes[edit]

The DAP contested a general election for the first time in 1969. In line with their commitment to equality, the DAP originally campaigned against Bumiputera privileges, such as those afforded to them by Article 153 of the Constitution. They also continued Lee Kuan Yew's campaign for a "Malaysian Malaysia",[9] the idea of which was originally conveyed by Lee in Parliament: "Malaysia – to whom does it belong? To Malaysians. But who are Malaysians? I hope I am, Mr Speaker, Sir. But sometimes, sitting in this chamber, I doubt whether I am allowed to be a Malaysian".[10][11] The DAP went on to win 13 Parliamentary seats and 31 State Assembly seats, with 11.9% of all valid votes that were cast in the election; the Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (Gerakan) which campaigned on a similar platform also made major gains. The 1969 election marked the biggest gains ever made by an opposition party in Malaysia (before 2008), and came close to seeing the ruling Alliance toppled from power. However, a march made by the DAP along with Gerakan as part of the opposition team led to violence, and resulted in what was euphemistically termed the 13 May Incident. Parliament was suspended for two years, and the executive branch of the government assumed power.[12]

When Parliament reconvened, it passed pieces of legislation such as the Sedition Act that illegalised discussion of repealing certain portions of the Constitution. Most of these concerned Bumiputra privileges, such as Article 153. The DAP and the People's Progressive Party (PPP) were the only parties that voted against the Act, which passed by a vote of 125 to 17.[13] After the 1969 election, the DAP would never come close to repeating its past successes for the next 38 years. Although the DAP remained a major opposition party, the ruling coalition had clung solidly to its two-thirds parliamentary majority. The DAP, however, continued campaigning on its platform of abolishing the Bumiputra privileges, giving equal rights for all Malaysians regardless of race and establishing a democratic socialist state in Malaysia.[14][15] During the Mahathir administration in 1987, several DAP leaders, including Parliamentary Opposition Leader Lim Kit Siang, were detained by the government without trial during Operation Lalang, under the accusation of being a national security threat. It is widely believed they were arrested for protesting the expansion of the New Economic Policy (NEP).[16]

1995–2008[edit]

In 1995, the party ran what has become widely known as the "Robocop" campaign to wrest Penang from the Barisan Nasional (BN). Despite the hype, the campaign was a failure as the party only won one state and three parliamentary seats. The strategy backfired when Prime Minister Mahathir, BN leaders and the media criticised Lim Kit Siang as a "robot" and "soulless" person.[17]

Following the ousting of Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim in September 1998, DAP co-founded the Barisan Alternatif (BA) coalition along with Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) and the newly formed People's Justice Party (PKR). However, the coalition did not work out very well for the DAP, with two of its top leaders, Lim Kit Siang and Karpal Singh losing their Parliamentary seats in the 1999 election; the DAP managed to win only 5% (10 out of 193) of the seats in Parliament. PAS became the leading opposition party in Parliament. It left the coalition in 2001 due to a disagreement with PAS over the issue of an Islamic state.[18][19]

In the 2004 general election, the DAP managed to capture 12 seats in Parliament, while PAS and Keadilan suffered major setbacks, with PAS losing 20 of the 27 seats it had held after the 1999 elections, and Keadilan lost all seats except one returned after a recount. The eventual outcome saw Lim Kit Siang, who had been elected in his constituency of Ipoh Timur with a majority of 10,000 votes, formally elected as the leader of the opposition in Parliament, a post he had lost to the president of PAS in 1999.[20]

In the 2006 Sarawak state election, the Democratic Action Party won 6 of the 12 seats it contested and narrowly lost three other seats with small majorities.[21] Up til then it was the party's best showing ever in the history of Sarawak's state elections since 1979.

2008–2015[edit]

Pakatan Rakyat (PR) was formed in 2008 by DAP, PKR and PAS. In the 2008 general election, the DAP won 13% (28 out of 222) of the seats in the Dewan Rakyat, with PAS and PKR making substantial gains as well with 23 seats and 31 seats respectively. In total, the taking of 82 seats (37%) by the opposition to Barisan Nasional's 140 seats (63%), makes it the best performance in Malaysian history by the opposition, and denied Barisan Nasional the two-thirds majority required to make constitutional changes in the Dewan Rakyat.[22] DAP advisor Lim Kit Siang expressed surprise at the election results but declared it to be the true power of the voice of the Malaysian people for the leaders of the country to hear them.[23] In addition, DAP, having secured all its contested seats in the state of Penang, formed the Penang state government with its alliance partners PKR and PAS, the Chief Minister being DAP's Lim Guan Eng, son of Lim Kit Siang.[24]

In the 2011 Sarawak state election, DAP furthered its gains from the previous election, winning 12 out of the 70 state assembly seats, with PR winning a total of 15 state seats and 41% of the popular vote. The PR's success was further enhanced in the 2013 general election when DAP went on to win 17% (38 out of 222) of the seats in the Dewan Rakyat and the PR coalition won the popular vote, giving the BN government its worst election showing since independence. In 2015, the PR alliance broke up after a PAS Muktamar (General Assembly) motion unanimously approved the breaking of ties with DAP due to disagreements over PAS's decision to propose a private member's bill to implement "hudud" (Islamic penal code).[25] Following PAS's decision to cut ties with DAP, DAP announced that PR had "ceased to exist".[26][27]

2015–present[edit]

On 22 September 2015, Pakatan Harapan (PH) was formed by DAP, PKR and National Trust Party (AMANAH) to succeed PR. In the 2016 Sarawak state election, DAP lost its gains from the previous election, retained only 7 out of the 82 state assembly seats, with PH retained only a total of 10 state seats and 29.43% of the popular vote. On 12 February 2017, Kota Melaka MP, Sim Tong Him along with three other DAP state assemblymen from Melaka namely Goh (Duyong), Lim Jack Wong (Bachang), and Chin Choong Seong (Kesidang) announced their resignation from the party to be Independent, citing lack of trust in the party leadership.[28] On 14 March 2017, PPBM officially joined PH as a member party. This made the coalition parties increase to four, where they competed in the 2018 general election against the BN coalition. During the election, PH achieved simple majority in Parliament when the coalition has secured 113 seats and finally able to form a new federal government through an early pact signed with Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN).[29][30] DAP won 42 seats out of the 47 seats it contested, making it the second-highest number of seats in PH behind PKR with 47 seats.[31] Together with other coalition members, Lim Guan Eng and his peers took on ministerial roles in the newly formed cabinet. Lim became the Minister of Finance of the current ruling government when Mahathir announced the initial 10 minister portfolio holders. He subsequently became the first Malaysian Chinese to hold the post in 44 years since Tun Tan Siew Sin of Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), who served from 1959 until 1974.[32][33] Loke Siew Fook replaced Lim Kit Siang as DAP parliamentary leader on 11 July 2018 for the 14th Dewan Rakyat session.[34]

On 24 February 2020, the DAP became the largest party in the Dewan Rakyat for the first time after 11 out of 50 PKR MPs resigned over the political crisis. UMNO had also lost 16 out of 54 MPs over several months, mostly through defections to PPBM. The 42 MPs of the DAP have remained intact.

On 9 March, Paul Yong Choo Kiong & Buntong A Sivasubramaniam declare out of party.[35]

On March 10, DAP sack Norhizam Hassan Baktee, Pengkalan Batu Assemblyman. The dismissal came after Norhizam decided to support a new Perikatan Nasional coalition in Melacca state.[36]

On 7 July, DAP sack 3 members (Kong Lai Ling, Ng Sook Whye and Khi Poh Chong) due to the involved in the incident of the fall of the Perak state government to the Perikatan Nasional (PN).[37]

On 10 July, Mary Josephine, Rahang assemblywomen declare out of party. She said the decision was made after admitting that he could no longer face the challenges and pressures from the state DAP leadership.[38] However, she had revert her decision and rejoin the party on 20 July.[39]

On 27 July, Padungan assemblyman and Sarawak DAP vice-chairman Wong King Wei has announced his resignation from DAP with immediate effect, saying he was disillusioned with its direction and management. He claimed the party has deviated from the aims, objectives and struggle of the earlier days when he joined in 2006.[40]

On 30 July, nominated Sabah assemblyman Ronnie Loh Ee Eng sack from DAP for supporting the Perikatan Nasional (PN) attempt to topple the Warisan-led Sabah government.[41]

Party symbols[edit]

[edit]

The symbol or logo of the DAP (see above) is the rocket, which it has used since the 1969 general election. Its components are symbolised as follows:

  • The red rocket symbolises the Party's aspiration for a modern, dynamic and progressive society
  • The four rocket boosters represent the support and drive given to the Party objectives by the three major ethnicities (Malay, Chinese, Indian) and others
  • The blue circle stands for the unity of the multi-racial people of Malaysia
  • The white background stands for purity and incorruptibility

Ubah mascot[edit]

Ubah bird, the official mascot of DAP.

In 2008, DAP initially introduced "Rocket Kid", a rocket as the party's official mascot during the 12th Malaysian general election. This was then changed to Ubah bird, a hornbill which was designed by Ooi Leng Hang and was launched during the Sarawak state election in 2011 and also used as part of their political campaigning during the 13th Malaysian general election in 2013. DAP had adopted this bird as a symbol for change both for its unique characteristics, hardiness and representation of the unity of both East Malaysia and West Malaysia into a Malaysian nation.[42] Its merchandise such as plush toys, buttons and car stickers were very well received by the public.[43] The idea of the mascot came from Sarawak DAP Secretary, Chong Chieng Jen, who felt a mascot would boost the spirit of the people. The name "Ubah", which means "change" in Malay, is in line with the party's aspirations in changing the ruling party of the Malaysian federal government. In addition to its original Sarawak Iban costume, "Ubah" now comes in a Malay costume for Hari Raya, Indian costume for Deepavali, Chinese costume for Chinese New Year, Santa Claus costume for Christmas, and a Superman costume that depicts the power of the people.[44][45] On 13 July 2013, a gigantic float known as the "Ubah Inflatable Bird (Water Ubah)" was officially launched at IJM Promenade, Jelutong, Penang by DAP Secretary General Lim Guan Eng.[42][46]

Songs[edit]

DAP's official party anthem is Berjuang Untuk Rakyat Malaysia (Fighting for Malaysians).

Other than the official party anthem, DAP has also unveiled several theme songs and music videos mostly with an Ubah theme such as "Ubah" with over 800,000 views, 明天 with over 400,000 views and "Ubah Rocket Style" with over 100,000 views, which is a parody of the viral YouTube hit "Gangnam Style".

Leadership structure[edit]

National[edit]

The leadership of the Democratic Action Party are elected through party delegates in national level. The executive power is vasted for the Secretary-General. The leader and the highest-ranked member of the party is the Secretary-General. The current Secretary-General is former Minister of Finance Lim Guan Eng. There will only be 20 CEC positions available for grabs while the remaining positions will be appointed by the new Central Executive Committees. The latest leadership structure could be found below.[3][47]

List of the Leaders of the Democratic Action Party (1966–present)[edit]

Below are the lists of various leaders' post for every term.

Elected representatives[edit]

Dewan Negara (Senate)[edit]

Senators[edit]

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)[edit]

Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian Parliament[edit]

DAP has 42 members in the House of Representatives.

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 Penang P043 Bagan Lim Guan Eng DAP
P045 Bukit Mertajam Steven Sim Chee Keong DAP
P046 Batu Kawan Kasthuriraani Patto DAP
P048 Bukit Bendera Wong Hon Wai DAP
P049 Tanjong Chow Kon Yeow DAP
P050 Jelutong Sanisvara Nethaji Rayer Rajaji Rayer DAP
P051 Bukit Gelugor Ramkarpal Singh DAP
 Perak P060 Taiping Teh Kok Lim DAP
P064 Ipoh Timor Wong Kah Woh DAP
P065 Ipoh Barat Kulasegaran Murugeson DAP
P066 Batu Gajah Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu DAP
P068 Beruas Ngeh Koo Ham DAP
P070 Kampar Su Keong Siong DAP
P076 Teluk Intan Nga Kor Ming DAP
 Pahang P080 Raub Tengku Zulpuri Shah Raja Puji DAP
P089 Bentong Wong Tack DAP
 Selangor P102 Bangi Ong Kian Ming DAP
P103 Puchong Gobind Singh Deo DAP
P106 Damansara Tony Pua Kiam Wee DAP
P110 Klang Charles Anthony Santiago DAP
 Kuala Lumpur P114 Kepong Lim Lip Eng DAP
P117 Segambut Hannah Yeoh Tseow Suan DAP
P120 Bukit Bintang Fong Kui Lun DAP
P122 Seputeh Teresa Kok Suh Sim DAP
P123 Cheras Tan Kok Wai DAP
 Negeri Sembilan P128 Seremban Loke Siew Fook DAP
P130 Rasah Cha Kee Chin DAP
 Malacca P138 Kota Melaka Khoo Poay Tiong DAP
 Johor P142 Labis Pang Hok Liong DAP
P145 Bakri Yeo Bee Yin DAP
P152 Kluang Wong Shu Qi DAP
P162 Iskandar Puteri Lim Kit Siang DAP
P163 Kulai Teo Nie Ching DAP
 Sabah P172 Kota Kinabalu Chan Foong Hin DAP
P181 Tenom Noorita Sual DAP
P186 Sandakan Vivian Wong Shir Yee DAP
 Sarawak P192 Mas Gading Mordi Bimol DAP
P195 Bandar Kuching Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen DAP
P196 Stampin Chong Chieng Jen DAP
P208 Sarikei Wong Ling Biu DAP
P211 Lanang Alice Lau Kiong Yieng DAP
P212 Sibu Oscar Ling Chai Yew DAP
Total Penang (7), Perak (7), Pahang (2), Selangor (4), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (5), Negeri Sembilan (2), Malacca (1), Johor (5), Sabah (3), Sarawak (6)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)[edit]

Malaysian State Assembly Representatives[edit]

State No. State Constituency Member Party
 Kedah N11 Derga Tan Kok Yew DAP
N13 Kota Darul Aman Teh Swee Leong DAP
 Penang N7 Sungai Puyu Phee Boon Poh DAP
N8 Bagan Jermal Soon Lip Chee DAP
N9 Bagan Dalam Satees Muniandy DAP
N13 Berapit Heng Lee Lee DAP
N15 Padang Lalang Chong Eng DAP
N16 Perai Ramasamy Palanisamy DAP
N19 Jawi H’ng Mooi Lye DAP
N22 Tanjong Bunga Zairil Khir Johari DAP
N23 Air Putih Lim Guan Eng DAP
N25 Pulau Tikus Lee Chun Kit DAP
N26 Padang Kota Chow Kon Yeow DAP
N27 Pengkalan Kota Gooi Zi Sen DAP
N28 Komtar Teh Lai Heng DAP
N29 Datok Keramat Jagdeep Singh Deo DAP
N30 Sungai Pinang Lim Siew Khim DAP
N31 Batu Lancang Ong Ah Teong DAP
N32 Seri Delima Syerleena Abdul Rashid DAP
N33 Air Itam Joseph Ng Soon Seong DAP
N34 Paya Terubong Yeoh Soon Hin DAP
 Perak N17 Pokok Assam Leow Thye Yih DAP
N18 Aulong Nga Kor Ming DAP
N22 Jalong Loh Sze Yee DAP
N25 Canning Jenny Choy Tsi Jen DAP
N26 Tebing Tinggi Abdul Aziz Bari DAP
N27 Pasir Pinji Howard Lee DAP
N28 Bercham Ong Boon Piow DAP
N29 Kepayang Ko Chung Sen DAP
N31 Jelapang Cheah Poh Hian DAP
N32 Menglembu Chaw Kam Foon DAP
N37 Pantai Remis Wong May Ing DAP
N38 Astaka Teoh Yee Chern DAP
N41 Malim Nawar Leong Cheok Keng DAP
N42 Keranji Chong Zhe Min DAP
N55 Pasir Bedamar Terence Naidu Rajan Naidu @ Rajanaidu DAP
N57 Sungkai Sivanesan Achalingam DAP
 Pahang N1 Tanah Rata Chiong Yoke Kong DAP
N7 Tras Chow Yu Hui DAP
N30 Mentakab Woo Chee Wan DAP
N33 Bilut Lee Chin Chen DAP
N34 Ketari Young Syefura Othman DAP
N35 Sabai Kamache Doray Rajoo DAP
N36 Triang Leong Yu Man DAP
 Selangor N4 Sekinchan Ng Suee Lim DAP
N6 Kuala Kubu Baharu Lee Kee Hiong DAP
N22 Teratai Lai Wai Chong DAP
N23 Dusun Tua Edry Faizal Eddy Yusof DAP
N27 Balakong Wong Siew Ki DAP
N28 Seri Kembangan Ean Yong Hiah Wah DAP
N30 Kinrara Ng Sze Han DAP
N31 Subang Jaya Michelle Ng Mei Sze DAP
N34 Bukit Gasing Rajiv Rishyakaran DAP
N35 Kampung Tunku Lim Yi Wei DAP
N36 Bandar Utama Jamaliah Jamaluddin DAP
N45 Bandar Baru Klang Teng Chang Khim DAP
N47 Pandamaran Leong Tuck Chee DAP
N50 Kota Kemuning Ganabatirau Veraman DAP
N52 Banting Lau Weng San DAP
N56 Sungai Pelek Ronnie Liu Tian Khiew DAP
 Negeri Sembilan N1 Chennah Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
N8 Bahau Teo Kok Seong DAP
N10 Nilai Arul Kumar Jambunathan DAP
N11 Lobak Chew She Yong DAP
N12 Temiang Ng Chin Tsai DAP
N21 Bukit Kepayang Nichole Tan Lee Koon DAP
N22 Rahang Mary Josephine Pritam Singh DAP
N23 Mambau Yap Yew Weng DAP
N24 Seremban Jaya Gunasekaren Palasamy DAP
N30 Lukut Choo Ken Hwa DAP
N36 Repah Veerapan Superamaniam DAP
 Melaka N7 Gadek Saminathan Ganesan DAP
N16 Ayer Keroh Kerk Chee Yee DAP
N19 Kesidang Seah Shoo Chin DAP
N20 Kota Laksamana Low Chee Leong DAP
N21 Duyong Damian Yeo Shen Li DAP
N22 Bandar Hilir Tey Kok Kiew DAP
N24 Bemban Wong Fort Pin DAP
 Johor N2 Jementah Tan Chen Choon DAP
N6 Bekok Ramakrishnan Suppiah DAP
N10 Tangkak Ee Chin Li DAP
N12 Bentayan Ng Yak Howe DAP
N19 Yong Peng Chew Peck Choo DAP
N23 Penggaram Gan Peck Cheng DAP
N28 Mengkibol Chew Chong Sin DAP
N30 Paloh Sheikh Umar Bagharib Ali DAP
N42 Johor Jaya Liow Chai Tung DAP
N45 Stulang Chen Kah Eng DAP
N46 Perling Cheo Yee How DAP
N48 Skudai Tan Hong Pin DAP
N52 Senai Tee Boon Tsong DAP
N55 Pekan Nanas Yeo Tung Siong DAP
 Sabah N14 Likas Tan Lee Fatt DAP
N16 Luyang Phoong Jin Zhe DAP
N19 Kapayan Jannie Lasimbang DAP
N45 Elopura Calvin Chong Ket Kiun DAP
N46 Tanjong Papat Frankie Poon Ming Fung DAP
N57 Sri Tanjong Wong Sze Phin DAP
 Sarawak N10 Pending Violet Yong Wui Wui DAP
N12 Kota Sentosa Chong Chieng Jen DAP
N51 Bukit Assek Irene Mary Chang Oi Ling DAP
N54 Pelawan David Wong Kee Woan DAP
N68 Tanjong Batu Chiew Chiu Sing DAP
Total Kedah (2), Penang (19), Perak (16), Pahang (7), Selangor (16), Negeri Sembilan (11), Melaka (7), Johor (14), Sabah (6), Sarawak (5),

General election results[edit]

Election Total seats won Seats contested Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1964
(as PAP)
1 / 144
11 42,130 2.0% Increase1 seats; Opposition Lee Kuan Yew
1969
13 / 144
24 286,606 12.1% Increase12 seats; Opposition Goh Hock Guan
1974
9 / 144
46 387,845 18.3% Decrease4 seats; Opposition Lim Kit Siang
1978
16 / 154
53 664,433 19.1% Increase7 seats; Opposition Lim Kit Siang
1982
9 / 154
63 815,473 19.6% Decrease7 seats; Opposition Lim Kit Siang
1986
24 / 154
64 968,009 21.0% Increase15 seats; Opposition Lim Kit Siang
1990
20 / 180
57 985,228 17.13% Decrease4 seats; Opposition coalition
(Gagasan Rakyat)
Lim Kit Siang
1995
9 / 192
50 712,175 12.0% Decrease11 seats; Opposition coalition
(Gagasan Rakyat)
Lim Kit Siang
1999
10 / 193
47 830,870 12.53% Increase1 seats; Opposition coalition
(Barisan Alternatif)
Lim Kit Siang
2004
12 / 219
44 687,340 9.9% Increase2 seats; Opposition Kerk Kim Hock (Secretary-general)
Lim Kit Siang (Chairman, Central Policy
& Strategic Planning Commission)
2008
28 / 222
47 1,118,025 13.77% Increase16 seats; Opposition coalition
(Pakatan Rakyat)
Lim Guan Eng (Secretary-general)
Lim Kit Siang (Parliamentary Leader)
2013
38 / 222
51 1,736,601 15.71% Increase10 seats; Opposition coalition
(Pakatan Rakyat)
Lim Guan Eng (Secretary-general)
Lim Kit Siang (Parliamentary Leader)
2018
42 / 222
47 2,040,068 18.48% Increase4 seats; Governing coalition
(Pakatan Harapan)
Lim Guan Eng (Secretary-general)
Lim Kit Siang (Parliamentary Leader)

State election results[edit]

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah State Legislative Assembly Kelantan State Legislative Assembly Terengganu State Legislative Assembly Penang State Legislative Assembly Perak State Legislative Assembly Pahang State Legislative Assembly Selangor State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly Melaka State Legislative Assembly Johor State Legislative Assembly Sabah State Legislative Assembly Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
1964
(as PAP)
0 / 12
0 / 24
0 / 30
0 / 24
0 / 24
0 / 40
0 / 24
0 / 28
0 / 24
0 / 20
0 / 32
0 / 15
1969
0 / 12
0 / 24
0 / 30
0 / 24
3 / 24
6 / 40
0 / 24
9 / 28
8 / 24
4 / 20
1 / 32
0 / 48
31 / 57
1974
0 / 12
1 / 26
0 / 36
0 / 28
2 / 27
11 / 42
0 / 32
1 / 33
3 / 24
4 / 20
1 / 32
0 / 48
23 / 120
1978
0 / 12
0 / 26
0 / 28
5 / 27
9 / 42
0 / 32
3 / 33
3 / 24
4 / 20
1 / 32
25 / 127
1979
0 / 48
0 / 11
1982
0 / 12
0 / 26
0 / 36
0 / 28
2 / 27
4 / 42
1 / 32
1 / 33
2 / 24
2 / 20
0 / 32
12 / 131
1983
0 / 48
0 / 7
1985
0 / 48
0 / 3
1986
0 / 14
0 / 28
0 / 39
0 / 32
10 / 33
13 / 46
1 / 33
5 / 42
4 / 28
3 / 20
1 / 36
0 / 48
37 / 118
1987
0 / 56
0 / 11
1990
0 / 14
1 / 28
0 / 39
0 / 32
14 / 33
13 / 46
1 / 33
6 / 42
4 / 28
3 / 20
3 / 36
0 / 48
45 / 94
1991
0 / 56
0 / 18
1994
0 / 48
0 / 2
1995
0 / 15
0 / 36
0 / 43
0 / 32
1 / 33
1 / 52
1 / 38
3 / 48
2 / 32
3 / 25
0 / 40
11 / 103
1996
3 / 62
3 / 6
1999
0 / 15
0 / 36
0 / 43
0 / 32
1 / 33
4 / 52
1 / 38
1 / 48
0 / 32
4 / 25
0 / 40
0 / 48
11 / 88
2001
1 / 62
1 / 13
2004
0 / 15
0 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
1 / 40
7 / 59
1 / 42
2 / 56
2 / 36
2 / 28
0 / 56
0 / 60
15 / 104
2006
6 / 71
6 / 12
2008
0 / 15
1 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
19 / 40
18 / 59
2 / 42
13 / 56
10 / 36
5 / 28
4 / 56
1 / 60
73 / 102
2011
12 / 71
12 / 15
2013
0 / 15
2 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
19 / 40
18 / 59
7 / 42
15 / 56
11 / 36
6 / 28
13 / 56
4 / 60
95 / 103
2016
7 / 82
7 / 31
2018
0 / 15
2 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
19 / 40
18 / 59
7 / 42
16 / 56
11 / 36
8 / 28
14 / 56
6 / 60
101 / 104
2020
? / 73
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Controversy[edit]

Allegations of racism and chauvinism[edit]

Despite constant rebuttals by party leaders, DAP has been depicted by their political opponents as a party that favours the Malaysian Chinese minority above others. This allegation of racial chauvinism culminated in a two-piece television program broadcast on government-controlled TV channel RTM entitled "Bahaya Cauvinisme". The program forced then party leader Lim Kit Siang to issue a formal media statement to counter the allegations.[49]

On 15 November 2011, Ismail Sabri Yaakob, the Malaysian Minister for Domestic Trade, Co-operatives and Consumerism, accused DAP's publicity chief, Tony Pua of racism for making repeated attacks against the Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia, a government initiative to supply cheap retail products to Malaysian consumers. Tony Pua was criticised for singling out Kedai Rakyat 1 Malaysia, whose suppliers to the store generally come from the Malaysian Bumiputra community, and for not investigating the quality of products supplied by Malaysian-Chinese suppliers or making similar accusations against independent Malaysian-Chinese stores.[50]

Allegations of racism have forced DAP party leader Lim Guan Eng to issue a formal denial in the Penang High Court.[51]

2012 party election controversy[edit]

At the DAP election in December 2012, Vincent Wu, who was initially declared to have secured the sixth spot with 1,202 votes, dropped to 26th place because he had actually secured only 669. Zairil Khir Johari was elected to the central executive committee (CEC) with 803 votes to secure the 20th spot. The glitch, reportedly because of a vote tabulation error due to the copy-and-paste method in Microsoft Excel, had raised suspicion.[52]

DAP admitted the counting error after discovering the mistake. The DAP election fiasco had caused unease among party members and led to protests to the Registrar of Societies (RoS). Two dissatisfied life members of the DAP then lodged reports with the RoS on the party elections following the revelations.[53]

Following the report the RoS had informed DAP of the dispute by its members and in turn as provided for under Section 3A of the Societies Act 1966 did recognise the office-bearers of the committee formed in the party elections on 15 December 2012, the point of contention.[54]

GE-13 logo issue[edit]

DAP chairperson Karpal Singh said DAP will contest under the PAS logo for the Peninsula and PKR logo in Sabah and Sarawak in the 13th general election, following the Registrar of Societies' (RoS) failure to respond on the withdrawal letter of RoS informing that it does not recognise the party's top leadership line-up. DAP had appealed to the RoS to withdraw its letter to suspend the party's existing central executive committee (CEC) but the department was silent on the matter.[55]

On 19 April 2013, DAP secretary-general Lim Guan Eng informed all its 51 parliament and 103 state candidates to use the rocket symbol first during nomination tomorrow, and show the Election Commission the letter of authorisation signed by secretary-general Lim Guan Eng. If the rocket symbol is rejected, then use the letter of authorisation signed by PAS secretary-general Mustafa Ali for Peninsula Malaysia and PKR letter of authorisation for Sabah and Sarawak. This came after the DAP decided to use PAS and PKR symbols for the coming general election on 5 May.[55]

On 20 April 2013, DAP secretary-general Lim Guan Eng said DAP can use its iconic rocket symbol for the 5 May general election after getting last-minute confirmation late at night on 19 April 2013. He said the DAP headquarters in Kuala Lumpur received a letter by hand from the RoS at 10 p.m. on 19 April, stating that it had no objections to the DAP using the logo, and that the Election Commission (EC) had informed all returning officers to accept nominations from the DAP.[56]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Notes[edit]

  • James Chin. The Sarawak Chinese Voters and their support for the Democratic Action Party (DAP), Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1996, pp 387–401
  • James Chin. The Malaysian Chinese Dilemma: The Never Ending Policy (NEP), Chinese Southern Diaspora Studies, Vol 3, 2009

External links[edit]