Democratic Convergence of Catalonia

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Democratic Convergence of Catalonia

Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya
AbbreviationCDC
FounderJordi Pujol
Founded17 November 1974 (1974-11-17)
Registered23 February 1977 (1977-02-23)
Dissolved10 July 2016 (2016-07-10) (refoundation)[a]
Succeeded byCatalan European Democratic Party
HeadquartersHistorical:
C/ Còrsega, 331-333
08037, Barcelona
Current:
C/ Consell de Cent, 113-115, bjs.
08015, Barcelona
Youth wingNationalist Youth of Catalonia (1980–2016)
IdeologyCatalan independence[b]
Catalan nationalism[2][3]
Liberalism[2]
Conservatism[2]
Conservative liberalism[4]

Social democracy (minority)[5][6][7]
Political positionCentre-right
National affiliationDemocratic Pact for Catalonia (1977–78)
Democracy and Catalonia (1977–78)
Convergence and Union (1978–2015)
Catalonia in the Senate (1982–83)
Junts pel Sí (2015–16)
Democracy and Freedom (2015–16)
Together for Catalonia (2017–19)[c]
European affiliationAlliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
European Parliament groupAlliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Colors  Blue
  Orange
Website
www.convergencia.cat

The Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (Catalan: Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya; IPA: [kumbəɾˈʒɛnsi.ə ðəmuˈkɾatikə ðə kətəˈluɲə], CDC), frequently shortened as Convergence (Catalan: Convergència; Catalan pronunciation: [kumbəɾˈʒɛnsi.ə]) was a Catalan nationalist, liberal political party in Catalonia (Spain),[2][3] currently still existing without any political activity.[c]

The party was originally created around the figure of Jordi Pujol in 1974, but it was not legally registered until February 1977.[11] Between 1978 and 2015, the party was a member of the Convergence and Union (CiU) alliance that dominated Catalan politics for almost the entirety of its existence; first as an electoral alliance with the christian democratic Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC), then as a party federation on 2 December 2001.[12] For 37 years, both parties contested all elections under the CiU umbrella, being the first political group in the Parliament of Catalonia for its entire history and forming the regional government for nearly three decades (1980–2003 and 2010–2015). In June 2015, the CiU federation split over the issue of Catalan independence.

On 8–10 July 2016, the party was refounded into the Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT),[13][14] with CDC's political activity being passed to the new party, though CDC has remained active as a way to preserve its public funding and electoral rights in favour of the PDeCAT and the Together for Catalonia alliance.[9] At the time of the party's refoundation in July 2016, it had 15,019 members.[15]

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

The party was founded on 17 November 1974 in Santa Maria de Montserrat Abbey as a "political movement" centered around the figure of Jordi Pujol.[16][17] After the death of dictator Francisco Franco and in the wake of the Spanish transition to democracy, CDC was constituted as a political party in February 1976,[16] being officially registered as such one year later in 1977.[11] Convergence's aim would be to articulate itself as a transversal big tent political platform, able of bringing together various social sectors—from left to right in the political spectrum—of public life in Catalonia.[17]

Ahead of the first democratic election in 15 June 1977, CDC formed the Democratic Pact for Catalonia electoral alliance for the Congress of Deputies, together with the Socialist Party of Catalonia–Regrouping (PSC–R), Democratic Left of Catalonia (EDC) and the National Front of Catalonia (FNC);[18][19] for the Spanish Senate it formed the Democracy and Catalonia coalition with the PSC–R, EDC and Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC). In the spring of 1978, a sector of the party unsuccessfully proposed its renaming as "Nationalist Party of Catalonia", a name which would be used by several party members 42 years later for another political force.[20][21]

On 19 September 1978, CDC and UDC established the Convergence and Union (CiU) alliance,[22][23] under which both parties would contest together all elections held in Catalonia throughout the next 37 years together.[24] From the 1979 Spanish general election onwards, CDC and UDC would maintain the CiU alliance for all elections at all levels of administration: local, regional and general.

Political hegemony[edit]

Until their split in June 2015, the CiU alliance would dominate Catalan regional politics from the 1980s to the early 2000s, providing for Jordi Pujol's long stay in the regional government for 23 consecutive years,[25] until a left-wing alliance comprising the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV) was able to oust CiU from government and into opposition. It would not be until the 2010 Catalan regional election held seven years later that CiU, under Artur Mas's leadership, was returned to government.

Beyond its dominance of Catalan politics, CDC sought to have influence in the Spanish parliament, collaborated with governments both under the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) (and more critically, in the 1993–1996 period when the PSOE was forced into a minority government) as well as under the People's Party (PP) (1996–2004), giving their support to both parties's attempts to form government, then maintaining confidence and supply agreements with them. CiU's support to Felipe González's government provided for the development of the "state of autonomies" the foundations for the financing of the autonomous communities. Under the PP governments of José María Aznar, CDC supported the liberalizing and budgetary control measures that allowed Spain to eventually adopt the euro as the country's currency. In the so-called "Majestic Pacts" signed between CiU and the PP after the latter's victory in the 1996 Spanish general election, both parties had also agreed to further expand on the development of regional financing started during González's tenure, the abolition of compulsory military service and the devolution of powers to the autonomous communities.

Pujol's retirement ahead of the 2003 Catalan regional election prompted Artur Mas—who served as chief minister (Catalan: Conseller en cap) and Pujol's protegée during the late stages of his government[26]—as his successor as CDC leader and CiU leading candidate.[27][28] After CiU's victory in the 2010 regional election, Mas would become the new president of the Government of Catalonia, introducing previously unseen variable geometry in the region's politics: first by partnering with the opposition's main party the PSC,[29] then seeking collaboration with the local PP branch for approving the regional budget.[30] As a result of the 11 September 2012 demonstration, Mas sought to capitalize on the social momentum of independence by triggering a snap election for 25 November, hoping to expand his parliamentary majority and attain an absolute majority; instead, his party suffered a severe setback by falling from 62 to 50 seats, having to rely on the support of the pro-independence Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) to keep himself in power. Frictions with CDC's alliance partner UDC over the issue of independence ended up in the termination of CiU as a political project in June 2015.[31]

Concurrently, the party had been shaken by CDC founder Jordi Pujol's confession on 25 July 2014 that he had hidden "money located abroad" from the Public Treasury for 34 years, allegedly attributed to his father's, Florenci Pujol, heritage.[32] In his statement, Pujol regretted never having found the "right time" for the regularization of these amounts of money and asked the public for forgiveness.[33] Various media outlets pointed out that this money was located in secret bank accounts abroad and could have benefitted from the fiscal amnesty promoted by the Spanish government of Mariano Rajoy in 2012.[34][35] Coupled with the ongoing judicial investigations on an alleged CDC corruption scandal involving the payment of illegal commissions in exchange for the award of public works—in what would be known as the "3% case" because of that amount being the percentage of the public works' budgets that was to be illegally paid—Pujol's confession caused a profound commotion in Catalan society, which had the former president as a revered public figure with a large amount of influence.[36]

Following CiU's breakup, CDC contested the 2015 Catalan regional election within the Junts pel Sí coalition,[37][38] and the 2015 Spanish general election within the Democracy and Freedom alliance.[39] The 2016 Spanish general election would be the only one in CDC's long electoral history which the party would contest entirely on its own.[40]

Refoundation and legacy[edit]

In a party ballot held on 21 May 2016 to determine the party's future, CDC members were asked whether they backed a "renovation" of the party as it was, or instead supported a full "refoundation" with the establishment of a new, different party,[15][41] leading to a 67–32% result in favour of refoundation.[42] As a result, during its congress held from 8 to 10 July 2016, the new Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT) was established, out of a desire for presenting a renewed trademark disassociated from CDC's corruption scandals, occurring during its long-term dominance of Catalan regional politics.[43][44] The refoundation, intended as a pre-ordained scheme which the party's grassroots ultimately took away from its leadership, would only hasten the blurring of the post-convergent political space, after seeing the loss of the historical CDC label, the dilution of the PDeCAT within the Junts pel Sí parliamentary group with a number of various parties and independents, the increasing influence of Catalan president Carles Puigdemont in regional politics even after his ousting and subsequent self-exile in late October 2017 and the eventual coalescing of former pro-independence CDC members around the Together for Catalonia umbrella, dominated by Puigdemont's own party, the National Call for the Republic.[45][46]

Several parties would be formed from splinter CDC/PDeCAT elements weary of Puigdemont's growing influence and seeking to occupy the vacuum left by CiU's dissolution and appeal to Convergence's "orphan" voters. These included the Free (Lliures) party founded by former regional minister Antoni Fernández Teixidó, Convergents (CNV) of former regional minister of justice Germà Gordó, the Democratic League (LD) of political scientist Astrid Barrio and the Nationalist Party of Catalonia (PNC) led by former PDeCAT coordinator-general between 2016 and 2018 Marta Pascal.[47]

Corruption convictions[edit]

On 15 January 2018, a court in Barcelona ruled that CDC had received €6.6 million in illegal commissions from building firm Ferrovial between 1999 and 2009, in exchange for public works contracts. The scheme used the Palau de la Música Catalana concert venue as a front for false invoicing.[48] Twelve people were jailed and fined millions. The former CDC treasurer Daniel Osàcar was sentenced to four years and five months in prison and fined €3.7 million for influence peddling and money laundering.[49] Fèlix Millet, the former director of the Palau, was jailed for just under 10 years and fined €4.1 million and his deputy, Jordi Montull, received a 7 years and six months sentence and was fined €2.9 million. Millet and Montull were the individuals who benefited most from the scam, controlling the Palau's funds.[48][49] The Turkey Telegraph noted the "final impunity of the CDC leaders", and also the impunity for the company that paid illegal commissions. Earlier in January, Artur Mas, who was a close ally of Osàcar, had stepped down as party president.[50]

Electoral performance[edit]

Parliament of Catalonia[edit]

Parliament of Catalonia
Election Votes % # Seats +/– Leading candidate Status in legislature
1980 Within CiU
35 / 135
Jordi Pujol Minority
1984 Within CiU
56 / 135
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg21 Jordi Pujol Coalition (CiU–ERC)
Majority (from February 1987)
1988 Within CiU
54 / 135
Red Arrow Down.svg2 Jordi Pujol Majority
1992 Within CiU
54 / 135
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Jordi Pujol Majority
1995 Within CiU
46 / 135
Red Arrow Down.svg8 Jordi Pujol Minority
1999 Within CiU
43 / 135
Red Arrow Down.svg3 Jordi Pujol Minority
2003 Within CiU
33 / 135
Red Arrow Down.svg10 Artur Mas Opposition
2006 Within CiU
34 / 135
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Artur Mas Opposition
2010 Within CiU
45 / 135
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg11 Artur Mas Minority
2012 Within CiU
37 / 135
Red Arrow Down.svg8 Artur Mas Minority (CDC–UDC)
Minority (CDC; from June 2015)
2015 Within JxSí
30 / 135
Red Arrow Down.svg7[51] Artur Mas Coalition (CDC–ERC)

Cortes Generales[edit]

Nationwide[edit]

Cortes Generales
Election Congress Senate Leading candidate Status in legislature
Votes % # Seats +/– Seats +/–
1977 Within PDC/DiC
5 / 350
2 / 207
Jordi Pujol Opposition
1979 Within CiU
7 / 350
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2
1 / 208
Red Arrow Down.svg1 Jordi Pujol Opposition
1982 Within CiU/CatSen
9 / 350
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2
4 / 208
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3 Miquel Roca Opposition
1986 Within CiU
13 / 350
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4
7 / 208
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3 Miquel Roca Opposition
1989 Within CiU
13 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
8 / 208
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Miquel Roca Opposition
1993 Within CiU
12 / 350
Red Arrow Down.svg1
7 / 208
Red Arrow Down.svg1 Miquel Roca Confidence and supply
1996 Within CiU
11 / 350
Red Arrow Down.svg1
6 / 208
Red Arrow Down.svg1 Joaquim Molins Confidence and supply
2000 Within CiU
11 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
6 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Xavier Trias Opposition
2004 Within CiU
6 / 350
Red Arrow Down.svg5
4 / 208
Red Arrow Down.svg2 Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida Opposition
2008 Within CiU
6 / 350
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
4 / 208
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida Opposition
2011 Within CiU
10 / 350
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4
7 / 208
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3 Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida Opposition
2015 Within DiL
7 / 350
Red Arrow Down.svg3
5 / 208
Red Arrow Down.svg2 Francesc Homs New election
2016 483,488 2.01% 6th
8 / 350
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
2 / 208
Red Arrow Down.svg3 Francesc Homs Opposition

Regional breakdown[edit]

Election Catalonia
Congress Senate
Votes % # Seats +/– Seats +/–
1977 Within PDC/DiC
5 / 47
2 / 16
1979 Within CiU
7 / 47
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2
1 / 16
Red Arrow Down.svg1
1982 Within CiU/CatSen
9 / 47
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2
4 / 16
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3
1986 Within CiU
13 / 47
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4
7 / 16
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3
1989 Within CiU
13 / 46
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
8 / 16
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
1993 Within CiU
12 / 47
Red Arrow Down.svg1
7 / 16
Red Arrow Down.svg1
1996 Within CiU
11 / 46
Red Arrow Down.svg1
6 / 16
Red Arrow Down.svg1
2000 Within CiU
11 / 46
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
6 / 16
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2004 Within CiU
6 / 47
Red Arrow Down.svg5
4 / 16
Red Arrow Down.svg2
2008 Within CiU
6 / 47
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
4 / 16
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2011 Within CiU
10 / 47
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4
7 / 16
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3
2015 Within DiL
7 / 47
Red Arrow Down.svg3
5 / 16
Red Arrow Down.svg2
2016 483,488 13.90% 6th
8 / 47
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
2 / 16
Red Arrow Down.svg3

European Parliament[edit]

European Parliament
Election Total
Votes % # Seats +/–
1987 Within CiU
2 / 60
1989 Within CiU
1 / 60
Red Arrow Down.svg1
1994 Within CiU
2 / 64
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
1999 Within CiU
2 / 64
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2004 Within CiU (Galeusca)
1 / 54
Red Arrow Down.svg1
2009 Within CiU (CEU)
1 / 54
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2014 Within CiU (CEU)
1 / 54
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0

See also[edit]

Notelist[edit]

  1. ^ CDC was "refounded" into the Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT), which assumed CDC's political activity, but CDC was not legally dissolved nor its trademark removed from the electoral register and retains full legal personality.[1]
  2. ^ Since 2012.
  3. ^ a b CDC's trademark was registered as part of the Together of Catalonia alliance ahead of the 2017 Catalan regional election, in order to allow its successor party, PDeCAT, to be guaranteed the public funding and electoral rights corresponding to CDC for the campaign.[8][9] This practice was discontinued ahead of the general election repetition in November 2019.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ García Pagán, Isabel; Gisbert, Josep (11 July 2016). "Las nueve claves del Partir Demòcrata y su independentismo sin matices". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Dowling, Andrew (2005), "Convergència i Unió, Catalonia and the new Catalanism", The Politics of Contemporary Spain, Rotledge, p. 106
  3. ^ a b Ramiro, Luis; Morales, Laura (2007), "European integration and Spanish parties: Elite empowerment amidst limited adaptation", The Europeanization of National Political Parties: Power and organizational adaptation, Routledge, p. 145
  4. ^ Slomp, Hans (2011). Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-313-39181-1.
  5. ^ Sallés, Quico (7 March 2015). "El sector liberal planta batalla a la socialdemocràcia de la nova CDC". Nació Digital (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  6. ^ Lamelas, Marcos (22 June 2015). "Mas vira hacia la socialdemocracia a las puertas del 27-S con su nuevo Gobierno". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  7. ^ "Perfil: Puigdemont, el ala más independentista de CDC". Diario de Sevilla (in Spanish). Barcelona. EFE. 9 January 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  8. ^ "C3. Coalición electoral "Junts per Catalunya"". www.juntaelectoralcentral.es (in Spanish). Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  9. ^ a b Lamelas, Marcos (24 November 2017). "El PDeCAT va el 21-D en coalición consigo mismo para cobrar las subvenciones de CDC". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  10. ^ "El PDeCAT se quedará todas las subvenciones electorales que obtenga la coalición Junts" (in Spanish). Madrid: Europa Press. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  11. ^ a b "Registro de Partidos Políticos". sede.mir.gob.es (in Spanish). Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  12. ^ Quadrado, Susana (3 December 2001). "CDC y Unió firman la federación que sella la paz para ganar las próximas elecciones". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  13. ^ Casals, David (8 July 2016). "Fuerte malestar contra Artur Mas en el congreso de la nueva CDC". Expansión (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  14. ^ García Sastre, Daniel (10 July 2016). "Convergència ya se llama Partit Demòcrata Català". El Mundo (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  15. ^ a b Masreal, Fidel (20 May 2016). "Las bases de CDC deciden este sábado entre haraquiri o refundación" (in Spanish). El Periódico de Catalunya. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  16. ^ a b Riera, Ignasi (2002). Jordi Pujol, luces y sombras. Reverso. p. 31. ISBN 978-84-88811-83-7.
  17. ^ a b Molinero, Carme; Ysàs, Pere (2014). La cuestión catalana. Cataluña en la transición española. Barcelona: Crítica. p. 38. ISBN 9788498927283.
  18. ^ Sáenz-Díez, Margarita (4 May 1977). "Con la formación de siete coaliciones se clarifica el panorama catalán". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  19. ^ "Cataluña: domina la autonomía". ABC (in Spanish). 25 May 1977. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  20. ^ Pardo Torregrosa, Iñaki (12 May 2020). "El partido del grupo de Poblet se llamará Partit Nacionalista de Catalunya". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  21. ^ "La JNC acusa al Partit Nacionalista de Catalunya de "intentar apropiarse" de su legado" (in Spanish). Barcelona: Europa Press. 13 May 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  22. ^ "Hoy, Convergència y Unió firman el acuerdo electoral". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 19 September 1978. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  23. ^ "Convergencia y Unió quieren vertebrar el centro-izquierda catalán". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 20 September 1978. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  24. ^ "Las fechas clave de CiU". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. EFE. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  25. ^ "UDC sale del Govern y pone en jaque una alianza de 37 años de CiU". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. EFE. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  26. ^ "Pujol anuncia que Mas será el consejero jefe de la Generalitat". El Mundo (in Spanish). L'Hospitalet (Barcelona). EFE. 14 January 2001. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  27. ^ Garriga, Josep (30 March 2001). "Duran reclama la secretaría general de CiU para aceptar a Mas como sucesor de Pujol". El País (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  28. ^ "Jordi Pujol anuncia que no volverá a concurrir a las elecciones". El País (in Spanish). Barcelona. 1 April 2001. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  29. ^ "Mas, investido presidente con la abstención del PSC". El País (in Spanish). Barcelona. 23 December 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  30. ^ B. García, Luis (15 February 2012). "La abstención del PPC permite la aprobación de los presupuestos de Catalunya de 2012". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  31. ^ Oms, Javier (18 June 2015). "CiU se desintegra: 'El proyecto político de la federación se ha acabado'". El Mundo (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  32. ^ "Comunicado del señor Jordi Pujol y Soley". El Mundo (in Spanish). 25 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  33. ^ García, Jesús (25 July 2016). "Pujol reconoce que su familia tuvo en el extranjero una fortuna sin declarar". El País (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  34. ^ Pérez, Manel (25 July 2014). "Jordi Pujol anuncia la regularización fiscal de las cuentas de su familia en el exterior". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  35. ^ "Pujol demana perdó per haver tingut fins ara diners sense regularitzar a l'estranger". Ara (in Catalan). Barcelona. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  36. ^ "La confesión de Jordi Pujol sacude la política catalana". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. Agencias. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  37. ^ "Rull y Junqueras anuncian un principio de acuerdo Convergència-ERC sobre la lista unitaria". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 18 June 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  38. ^ "La lista unitaria soberanista se presentará como Junts pel Sí". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. Agencias. 20 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  39. ^ Masreal, Fidel (6 November 2015). "CDC concurrirá a las generales bajo el nombre de Democràcia i Llibertat". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  40. ^ "CDC rechaza la lista junto con Demòcrates y concurrirá sola con sus siglas". El Mundo (in Spanish). Barcelona. EFE. 6 May 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  41. ^ "CDC convoca una consulta a la militancia sobre si funda un nuevo partido o se renueva" (in Spanish). Barcelona: Europa Press. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  42. ^ Lasalas, Marta (21 May 2016). "Los militantes de CDC votan a favor de crear un nuevo partido y por Homs como candidato". El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  43. ^ "Los fantasmas de la corrupción de CiU irrumpen en la era del PDECat". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 2 February 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  44. ^ "Siete síntomas que muestran que la refundación de Convergència en el PDECat no ha funcionado". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 4 May 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  45. ^ Sorolla, José Antonio (28 June 2020). "Muerte y resurrección de la posconvergencia". Crónica Global (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  46. ^ Gisbert, Josep (9 July 2020). "Réquiem por el PDECat". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  47. ^ Espada, Ferran (11 July 2020). "Cinco años del Big Bang de CiU que ha provocado una constelación de siglas". Público (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  48. ^ a b Hedgecoe, Guy (15 January 2018). "Corruption sentence hits Catalonia's dominant nationalist party". The Irish Times. Madrid. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  49. ^ a b Jones, Sam. "Catalonia corruption scandal: court orders party to repay €6.6m". The Guardian. Madrid. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  50. ^ "Guilty (editorial)". Turkey Telegraph. 16 January 2018. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  51. ^ "Composición interna de JxSí: 30 escaños de CDC, 21 de ERC, 11 independientes". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. EFE. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2020.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]