Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea

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Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea

조국통일민주주의전선
Choguk T'ongil Minju Chuŭi Chŏnsŏn
Supreme LeaderKim Jong-un
President and Secretary GeneralPak Myong-chol
FounderKim Il-sung
Founded22 July 1946
HeadquartersPyongyang
IdeologyJuche
Songun
Political positionFar-left
Supreme People's Assembly
687 / 687
Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea
Chosŏn'gŭl
조국통일민주주의전선
Hancha
Revised RomanizationJoguk tong(-)il minju juui jeonseon
McCune–ReischauerChoguk t'ongil minju chuŭi chŏnsŏn
Emblem of North Korea.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
North Korea
Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea portal

The Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea, also known as the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, DFRF, or the Fatherland Front, formed on 22 July 1946,[1] is a North Korean popular front led by the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK). It was initially called the North Korean Fatherland United Democratic Front.[2]

Initially 72 parties and social organizations,[3] from both the North and the South, comprised the front.[4] Today it has 24 members.[3] The three political parties of North Korea—the WPK, the Korean Social Democratic Party, and the Chondoist Chongu Party—all participate in the front.[5] The four most important mass organizations—the Kimilsungist-Kimjongilist Youth League, Socialist Women's Union of Korea, General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea, and Union of Agricultural Workers of Korea—are also members.[6][7] The Korean Children's Union is also a member organization.[8]

All candidates for elective office must be members of the front, and are elected by it; mass meetings are held to decide which candidates will be nominated and their names can go on the ballot paper only with the approval of the meeting.[9] In practice, however, the minor parties and mass organizations in the front are completely subservient to the WPK.[10] The WPK is thus able to predetermine the composition of the Supreme People's Assembly (SPA).

There is an ostensible South Korean counterpart for the DFRF, known as the Anti-Imperialist National Democratic Front, which operates in North Korea.

The current President and Secretary General of the Central Committee of the DFRF is Pak Myong-chol.[11] Other people on its presidium include Ri Kil-song and Kim Wan-su.[12]

Members[edit]

Political parties[edit]

Party Emblem Korean name Ideology Foundation Seats in the SPA (2014) Ref
Workers' Party of Korea WPK symbol.svg 조선로동당
Chosŏn Rodongdang
Juche
Songun
29 July 1946
607 / 687
[13][14]
Korean Social Democratic Party Emblem of Korean Social Democratic Party.svg 조선사회민주당
Chosŏn Sahoe Minjudang
Social democracy (de jure) 3 November 1945
50 / 687
[15][14]
Chondoist Chongu Party Cheondoism flag.svg 천도교청우당
Ch'ŏndogyo Ch'ŏngudang
Cheondoist interests 18 February 1946
22 / 687
[16][14]

Other organizations[edit]

Organization Emblem Korean name Foundation Ref
Kimilsungist-Kimjongilist Youth League Emblem of KSYL.svg 김일성-김정일주의청년동맹 17 January 1946 [17]
Socialist Women's Union of Korea Korean Women's League logo.svg 조선사회주의녀성동맹 18 November 1945 [18]
General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea 朝鮮職業總同盟logo of GFTUK.png 조선직업총동맹 30 November 1945 [19]
Union of Agricultural Workers of Korea Union of Agricultural Workers of Korea.jpg 조선농업근로자동맹 31 January 1946 [19]
Korean Children's Union Emblem of Korean Youth Corps.svg 조선소년단 6 June 1946 [20]
Korean Journalists' Union 조선기자동맹 10 February 1946 [21][22]
Korean Federation of Literature and Arts 조선문학예술총동맹 25 March 1946 [21][23]
Korean Christian Federation 조선그리스도교연맹 28 November 1946 [24]

[25]

Electoral history[edit]

Supreme People's Assembly elections[edit]

Election % Seats +/– Position
1948 98.49%
572 / 572
Increase 572 Increase 1st
1957 99.92%
215 / 215
Decrease 357 Steady 1st
1962 100%
383 / 383
Increase 168 Steady 1st
1967 100%
457 / 457
Increase 74 Steady 1st
1972 100%
541 / 541
Increase 84 Steady 1st
1977 100%
579 / 579
Increase 38 Steady 1st
1982 100%
615 / 615
Increase 36 Steady 1st
1986 100%
655 / 655
Increase 40 Steady 1st
1990 100%
687 / 687
Increase 32 Steady 1st
1998 100%
687 / 687
Steady Steady 1st
2003 100%
687 / 687
Steady Steady 1st
2009 100%
687 / 687
Steady Steady 1st
2014 100%
687 / 687
Steady Steady 1st
2019 100%
687 / 687
Steady Steady 1st

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland". Naenara.kp. 2004. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008.
  2. ^ Andrei N. Lankov (2001). "The Demise of Non-Communist Parties in North Korea (1945–1960)". jhu.edu. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  3. ^ a b 조국통일민주주의전선(조국전선) - 개요. nk.chosun.com (in Korean). 30 October 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  4. ^ "Korea". The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). 1970–1979. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  5. ^ "Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland". An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Marxism, Socialism and Communism: Economic, Philosophical, Political and Sociological Theories, Concepts, Institutions and Practices. Macmillan International Higher Education. 1981. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-349-05806-8.
  6. ^ Scalapino, Robert A.; Chun-yŏp Kim (1983). North Korea Today: Strategic and Domestic Issues. Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, Center for Korean Studies. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-912966-55-7.
  7. ^ Lansford, Tom (2015). Political Handbook of the World 2015. Singapore: CQ Press. p. 3330. ISBN 978-1-4833-7155-9.
  8. ^ "Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (DPRK) - Organizations". Retrieved 31 August 2006.
  9. ^ "The Parliamentary System of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea" (PDF). Constitutional and Parliamentary Information. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
  10. ^ Savada, Andrea Matles. "Mass Organizations." North Korea: A country study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993.
  11. ^ "Vietnam's Party, State delegation visits DPRK". Nhân Dân. NDO/VNA. 10 September 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  12. ^ "National Foundation Day Marked". KCNA Watch. Uriminzokkiri. 5 October 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  13. ^ Lanʹkov, Andreĭ Nikolaevich (2002). From Stalin to Kim Il Song: The Formation of North Korea, 1945-1960. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-85065-563-3.
  14. ^ a b c "IPU PARLINE Database: Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Choe Go In Min Hoe Ui". Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  15. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 1128.
  16. ^ Tertitskiy, Fyodor (26 November 2014). "Being a minor party in the North: In a totalitarian regime, what do N. Korea's other political blocs do?". NK News. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  17. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 391.
  18. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 390.
  19. ^ a b North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 389.
  20. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 929.
  21. ^ a b 조국통일민주주의전선(祖國統一民主主義戰線). Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  22. ^ Lent, John A. (1982). Newspapers in Asia: Contemporary Trends and Problems. Hong Kong: Heinemann Asia. p. 127. ISBN 978-962-225-079-6.
  23. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 1121.
  24. ^ 조국통일민주주의전선. North Korea Information Portal (in Korean). Ministry of Unification. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  25. ^ Hoare, James (2012). Historical Dictionary of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. p. xxix. ISBN 978-0-8108-6151-0.

Works cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Kim Il-sung (1981). "On the Formation of the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland: Report Delivered at the Sixth Meeting of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of North Korea, June 11, 1949". Works. 5. Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House. OCLC 311616915.