2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries

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2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries

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1,885 of 3,768[a] pledged delegate votes needed to win the presidential nomination at the convention's first ballot.[1]
(2,267 of all 4,532[b] delegate votes needed to win any subsequent ballots at a contested convention)[1]

Previous Democratic nominee

Hillary Clinton



The 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses will be a series of electoral contests organized by the Democratic Party to select the approximately 3,768[a] pledged delegates to the Democratic National Convention, who by pledged votes shall elect the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in the 2020 U.S. presidential election.[1] The elections are scheduled to take place from February to June 2020, within all fifty U.S. states, the District of Columbia, five U.S. territories, and Democrats Abroad.

Independently of the result of primaries and caucuses, the Democratic Party will, from its group of party leaders and elected officials, also appoint 764[b] unpledged delegates (superdelegates) to participate in its national convention. In contrast to all previous election cycles, superdelegates will no longer have the right to cast decisive votes at the convention's first ballot for the presidential nomination (limiting their voting rights to either non-decisive votes on the first ballot or decisive votes for subsequent ballots on a contested convention).[1][2][3]

Twenty-seven major candidates have entered the race for the 2020 Democratic Party presidential nomination. Two of them, Richard Ojeda and Eric Swalwell, have opted to withdraw so far. This is the largest field of presidential candidates for any political party in the post-reform era of American history,[c] exceeding the field of 17 major candidates that sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2016.[5]

Background[edit]

After Hillary Clinton's loss in the previous election, many felt the Democratic Party lacked a clear leader.[6] There remained divisions in the party following the 2016 primaries which pitted Clinton against Bernie Sanders.[7][8] Between the 2016 election and the 2018 midterm elections, Senate Democrats have generally shifted to the political left in relation to college tuition, healthcare, and immigration.[9][10]

Soon after the 2016 general election, the division between Clinton and Sanders supporters was highlighted in the 2017 Democratic National Committee chairmanship election between Tom Perez and Keith Ellison.[11] Perez was narrowly elected Chairman and subsequently appointed Ellison as the Deputy Chair, a largely ceremonial role.[9][10] Several candidates began releasing serious policy proposals early in 2019 resulting in the "invisible primary" being more visible than in previous elections.[citation needed] The number of candidates running for the presidency is the largest in "modern history".[12]

Reforms since 2016[edit]

On August 25, 2018, the Democratic National Committee (DNC) members passed reforms to the Democratic Party's primary process in order to increase participation[13] and ensure transparency.[14] State parties are encouraged to use a government-run primary whenever available and increase the accessibility of their primary through same-day or automatic registration and same-day party switching. Caucuses are required to have absentee voting, or to otherwise allow those who cannot participate in person to be included.[13]

The new reforms also regulate how the Democratic National Convention shall handle the outcome of primaries and caucuses for three potential scenarios:[1][3]

  1. If a single candidate wins at least 2,267 pledged delegates: Superdelegates will be allowed to vote at first ballot, as their influence can not overturn the majority of pledged delegates.
  2. If a single candidate wins 1,885-2,266 pledged delegates: Superdelegates will be barred from voting at first ballot, which solely will be decided by the will of pledged delegates.
  3. If no candidate will win more than 1,884 pledged delegates: This will result in a contested convention, where superdelegates are barred from voting at the first formal ballot, but regain their right to vote for their preferred presidential nominee for all subsequent ballots needed until the delegates reach a majority.

The reforms mandate that superdelegates refrain from voting on the first presidential nominating ballot, unless a candidate via the outcome of primaries and caucuses already has gained enough votes (more than 50% of all delegate votes) among only the elected pledged delegates. The prohibition for superdelegates to vote at the first ballot for the last two mentioned scenarios, does not preclude superdelegates from publicly endorsing a candidate of their choosing before the convention.[3]

In a contested convention where no majority of minimum 1,885 pledged delegate votes is found for a single candidate in the first ballot, all superdelegates will then regain their right to vote on any subsequent ballot necessary in order for a presidential candidate to be nominated (raising the majority needed for such to 2,267 votes).[1][3]

Candidates[edit]

Declared candidates[edit]

In addition to having filed with the Federal Election Commission to run for president in the Democratic Party primary in 2020 and having confirmed this by an official campaign announcement (while still campaigning actively as of today), the 25 major candidates have either: (a) held public office, (b) been included in a minimum of five independent national polls, or (c) received substantial media coverage.[15][16][17][18][19][20]

Among the active major candidates (which included Swalwell at the time, but not Ojeda), all qualified and participated in the first DNC sanctioned debate, with the following exceptions: Bullock, Gravel, Messam, and Moulton (who did not meet the threshold), along with Sestak and Steyer (who entered the race after the qualification deadline for the first debate).

Name Born Experience State Campaign
Announcement date
Ref.
Michael Bennet Official Photo (cropped).jpg
Michael Bennet
November 28, 1964
(age 54)
New Delhi, India
U.S. senator from Colorado (2009–present) Flag of Colorado.svg
Colorado
Michael Bennet 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: May 2, 2019
FEC filing[21]
[22]
Joe Biden 2013.jpg
Joe Biden
November 20, 1942
(age 76)
Scranton, Pennsylvania
Vice President of the United States (2009–2017)
U.S. senator from Delaware (1973–2009)
Democratic candidate for President in 1988 and 2008
Flag of Delaware.svg
Delaware
Joe Biden 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: April 25, 2019
FEC filing[23]
[24]
Cory Booker, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
Cory Booker
April 27, 1969
(age 50)
Washington, D.C.
U.S. senator from New Jersey (2013–present)
Mayor of Newark, New Jersey (2006–2013)
Flag of New Jersey.svg
New Jersey
Cory Booker 2020 Logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: February 1, 2019
FEC filing[25]
[26]
Steve Bullock by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Steve Bullock
April 11, 1966
(age 53)
Missoula, Montana
Governor of Montana (2013–present)
Attorney General of Montana (2009–2013)
Flag of Montana.svg
Montana
Steve Bullock 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: May 14, 2019
FEC filing[27]
[28][29]
Pete Buttigieg by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Pete Buttigieg
January 19, 1982
(age 37)
South Bend, Indiana
Mayor of South Bend, Indiana (2012–present)
Candidate for DNC Chair in 2017
Democratic nominee for Treasurer of Indiana in 2010
Flag of Indiana.svg
Indiana
Pete for America logo (Strato Blue).svg
Campaign
Exploratory committee: January 23, 2019
Campaign: April 14, 2019

FEC filing[30]
[31]
Julián Castro's Official HUD Portrait (cropped).jpg
Julian Castro
September 16, 1974
(age 44)
San Antonio, Texas
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (2014–2017)
Mayor of San Antonio, Texas (2009–2014)
Flag of Texas.svg
Texas
Julian Castro 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Exploratory committee:
December 12, 2018
Campaign: January 12, 2019

FEC filing[32]
[33]
Bill de Blasio January 2019.jpg
Bill de Blasio
May 8, 1961
(age 58)
Manhattan, New York
Mayor of New York City, New York (2014–present) Flag of New York.svg
New York
Bill de Blasio 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: May 16, 2019
FEC filing[34]
[35]
John Delaney 113th Congress official photo (cropped) 2.jpg
John Delaney
April 16, 1963
(age 56)
Wood-Ridge, New Jersey
U.S. representative from MD-06 (2013–2019) Flag of Maryland.svg
Maryland
John Delaney 2020 logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: July 28, 2017
FEC filing[36]
[37]
Tulsi Gabbard, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped 3).jpg
Tulsi Gabbard
April 12, 1981
(age 38)
Leloaloa, American Samoa
U.S. representative from HI-02 (2013–present)
Vice Chair of the DNC (2013-2016)
Member of the Honolulu City Council (2011-2012)
Flag of Hawaii.svg
Hawaii
Tulsi Gabbard 2020 presidential campaign logo black.svg
Campaign
Campaign: January 11, 2019
FEC filing[38]
[39]
Kirsten Gillibrand, official photo, 116th Congress (cropped).jpg
Kirsten Gillibrand
December 9, 1966
(age 52)
Albany, New York
U.S. senator from New York (2009–present)
U.S. Representative from NY-20 (2007–2009)
Flag of New York.svg
New York
Gillibrand2020Logo.png
Campaign
Exploratory committee:
January 15, 2019
Campaign: March 17, 2019

FEC filing[40]
[41]
Mike Gravel cropped.png
Mike Gravel
May 13, 1930
(age 89)
Springfield, Massachusetts
U.S. senator from Alaska (1969–1981)
Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives (1965-1967)
Democratic and Libertarian candidate for President in 2008
Candidate for Vice President in 1972
Flag of California.svg
California
Gravel Mg web logo line two color.svg
Campaign
Exploratory committee:
March 19, 2019
Campaign: April 8, 2019

FEC filing[42]
[43]
Kamala Harris official photo (cropped).jpg
Kamala Harris
October 20, 1964
(age 54)
Oakland, California
U.S. senator from California (2017–present)
Attorney General of California (2011–2017)
District Attorney of San Francisco (2004-2011)
Flag of California.svg
California
Kamala Harris 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: January 21, 2019
FEC filing[44]
[45]
John Hickenlooper by Gage Skidmore.jpg
John Hickenlooper
February 7, 1952
(age 67)
Narberth, Pennsylvania
Governor of Colorado (2011–2019)
Mayor of Denver, Colorado (2003–2011)
Flag of Colorado.svg
Colorado
John Hickenlooper 2020 presidential campaign logo.png
Campaign
Campaign: March 4, 2019
FEC filing[46]
[47]
Jay Inslee official portrait (cropped 2).jpg
Jay Inslee
February 9, 1951
(age 68)
Seattle, Washington
Governor of Washington (2013–present)
U.S. Representative from WA-01 (1999–2012)
U.S. Representative from WA-04 (1993–1995)
Flag of Washington.svg
Washington
Jay Inslee 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: March 1, 2019
FEC filing[48]
[49]
Amy Klobuchar, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped 2).jpg
Amy Klobuchar
May 25, 1960
(age 59)
Plymouth, Minnesota
U.S. senator from Minnesota (2007–present) Flag of Minnesota.svg
Minnesota
Amy Klobuchar 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: February 10, 2019
FEC filing[50]
[51]
Mayor Messam.jpg
Wayne Messam
June 7, 1974
(age 45)
South Bay, Florida
Mayor of Miramar, Florida (2015–present) Flag of Florida.svg
Florida
Wayne Messam 2020 presidential campaign logo.png
Campaign
Exploratory committee:
March 13, 2019
Campaign: March 28, 2019

FEC filing[52]
[53]
Seth Moulton (cropped 2).jpg
Seth Moulton
October 24, 1978
(age 40)
Salem, Massachusetts
U.S. representative from MA-06 (2015–present) Flag of Massachusetts.svg
Massachusetts

Campaign
Campaign: April 22, 2019
FEC filing[54]
[55]
Beto O'Rourke, Official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped 3).jpg
Beto O'Rourke
September 26, 1972
(age 46)
El Paso, Texas
U.S. representative from TX-16 (2013–2019)
Democratic nominee for U.S. senate from Texas in 2018
Flag of Texas.svg
Texas
Beto O'Rourke 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: March 14, 2019
FEC filing[56]
[57]
Rep. Tim Ryan Congressional Head Shot 2010 (cropped 3).jpg
Tim Ryan
July 16, 1973
(age 45)
Niles, Ohio
U.S. representative from OH-13 (2013–present)
U.S. representative from OH-17 (2003–2013)
Flag of Ohio.svg
Ohio
Timryan2020.png
Campaign
Campaign: April 4, 2019
FEC filing[58]
[59]
Bernie Sanders.jpg
Bernie Sanders
September 8, 1941
(age 77)
Brooklyn, New York
U.S. senator from Vermont (2007–present)
U.S. representative from VT-AL (1991–2007)
Mayor of Burlington, Vermont (1981–1989)
Democratic candidate for President in 2016
Candidate for Governor of Vermont in 1972, 1976, and 1986
Flag of Vermont.svg
Vermont
Bernie Sanders 2020 logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: February 19, 2019
FEC filing[60]
[61]
Congressman Sestak Official Congressional headshot.jpg
Joe Sestak
December 12, 1951
(age 67)
Secane, Pennsylvania
U.S. representative from PA-07 (2007–2011)
Democratic candidate for U.S. Senate from Pennsylvania in 2010 and 2016
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg
Pennsylvania
Joe Sestak 2020 Logo.png
Campaign
Campaign: June 22, 2019
FEC filing[62]
[63]
Tom Steyer by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Tom Steyer
June 27, 1957
(age 62)
Manhattan, New York
Hedge fund manager and philanthropist Flag of California.svg
California
Tom Steyer 2020 logo (black text).svg
Campaign

Campaign: July 9, 2019

[64]
Elizabeth Warren, official portrait, 114th Congress (cropped)(2).jpg
Elizabeth Warren
June 22, 1949
(age 70)
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
U.S. senator from Massachusetts (2013–present)
Special Advisor for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (2010-2011)
Flag of Massachusetts.svg
Massachusetts
Elizabeth Warren 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Exploratory committee:
December 31, 2018
Campaign: February 9, 2019

FEC filing[65]
[66]
Marianne Williamson - 33252886458 (cropped).jpg
Marianne Williamson
July 8, 1952
(age 67)
Houston, Texas
Author, lecturer, and activist
Independent candidate for U.S. representative from CA-33 in 2014
Flag of Iowa.svg
Iowa
Marianne Williamson 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Exploratory committee:
November 15, 2018
Campaign: January 28, 2019

FEC filing[67]
[68]
Andrew Yang talking about urban entrepreneurship at Techonomy Conference 2015 in Detroit, MI (cropped).jpg
Andrew Yang
January 13, 1975
(age 44)
Schenectady, New York
Attorney, entrepreneur, philanthropist, and founder of Venture for America Flag of New York.svg
New York
Andrew Yang 2020 logo.png
Campaign
Campaign: November 6, 2017
FEC filing[69]
[70]

Beside the 25 major candidates, more than 240 other candidates who did not meet the criteria above to be deemed major, also filed with the Federal Election Commission to run for president in the Democratic Party primary.[71] Among the other candidates, the notable ones who are still active include:

Withdrawn candidates[edit]

The candidates in this section have withdrawn or suspended their campaigns.

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign Ref
MAJ Richard Ojeda.jpg
Richard Ojeda
September 25, 1970
(age 48)
Rochester, Minnesota
West Virginia state senator (2016–2019)
Democratic nominee for U.S. representative from WV-03 in 2018
Flag of West Virginia.svg
West Virginia
Campaign
Campaign: November 11, 2018
FEC filing[85]
Suspended: January 25, 2019
[86][87]
Eric Swalwell 114th official photo (cropped).jpg
Eric Swalwell
November 16, 1980
(age 38)
Sac City, Iowa
U.S. representative from CA-15 (2013–present) Flag of California.svg
California
Eric Swalwell 2020 presidential campaign logo.svg
Campaign
Campaign: April 8, 2019
FEC filing[88]
Suspended: July 8, 2019
[89][90]


Individuals who have publicly expressed interest[edit]

Individuals in this section have expressed an interest in running for president within the last six months, as of July 2019.


Declined to be candidates[edit]

These individuals have been the subject of speculation, but have publicly denied or recanted interest in running for president.

Political positions of candidates[edit]

Debates[edit]

Primary election polling[edit]

Timeline[edit]

Background[edit]

In the weeks following the election of Donald Trump in the 2016 election, media speculation regarding potential candidates for the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries began to circulate. As the Senate began confirmation hearings for members of the cabinet, speculation centered on the prospects of the "hell-no caucus", six senators who went on to vote against the majority of Trump's nominees. According to Politico, the members of the "hell-no caucus" were Cory Booker, Kamala Harris, Kirsten Gillibrand, Bernie Sanders, Jeff Merkley and Elizabeth Warren.[175][176] Other speculation centred on then-Vice-President Joe Biden, making a third presidential bid following failed attempts in 1988 and 2008. Biden had previously served as U.S. senator from Delaware (1973-2009).[177]

On July 28, 2017, U.S. representative John Delaney became the first major Democrat to announce their candidacy in an op-ed in The Washington Post.[37] On November 6, 2017, tech entrepreneur Andrew Yang became the second major Democrat to announce their candidacy.[178] In August 2018, Democratic Party officials and television networks begin discussions as to the nature and scheduling of the following year's debates and the nomination process.[179] In December 2018, the Democratic National Committee (DNC) announced the preliminary schedule for 12 official DNC-sanctioned debates, set to begin in June 2019, with six debates in 2019 and the remaining six during the first four months of 2020. Following these announcements, there was a general consensus that debates would have a greater, influential role in the primaries.

Overview[edit]

Active
campaign
Exploratory
committee
Withdrawn
candidate
Midterm
elections
Debate
Iowa
caucuses
Super
Tuesday
Democratic
convention
Eric Swalwell 2020 presidential campaignRichard Ojeda 2020 presidential campaignAndrew Yang 2020 presidential campaignMarianne Williamson 2020 presidential campaignElizabeth Warren 2020 presidential campaignTom Steyer 2020 presidential campaignJoe Sestak 2020 presidential campaignBernie Sanders 2020 presidential campaignTim Ryan 2020 presidential campaignBeto O'Rourke 2020 presidential campaignSeth Moulton 2020 presidential campaignWayne Messam 2020 presidential campaignAmy Klobuchar 2020 presidential campaignJay Inslee 2020 presidential campaignJohn Hickenlooper 2020 presidential campaignKamala Harris 2020 presidential campaignMike Gravel 2020 presidential campaignKirsten Gillibrand 2020 presidential campaignTulsi Gabbard 2020 presidential campaignJohn Delaney 2020 presidential campaignBill de Blasio 2020 presidential campaignJulian Castro 2020 presidential campaignPete Buttigieg 2020 presidential campaignSteve Bullock 2020 presidential campaignCory Booker 2020 presidential campaignJoe Biden 2020 presidential campaignMichael Bennet 2020 presidential campaign

2017[edit]

John Delaney was the first major candidate to announce his campaign, two and a half years before the 2020 Iowa caucus.

2018[edit]

August

  • August 25: Democratic Party officials and television networks begin discussions as to the nature and scheduling of the following year's debates and the nomination process.[179] Changes were made to the role of superdelegates, deciding to only allow them to vote on the first ballot if the nomination is uncontested.[180]

November

December

2019[edit]

Sen. Kamala Harris launched her bid on January 21, 2019.
Sen. Elizabeth Warren launched her bid on February 9, 2019
Sen. Bernie Sanders launched his second campaign on February 19, 2019.
Rep. Beto O'Rourke launched his bid on March 14, 2019.
Former Vice President Joe Biden launched his campaign on April 25, 2019.

January

February

March

April

May

June

  • June 5: Iowa Democrats' Hall of Fame Dinner: a "Cattle Call" event featuring 19 candidates.[210]
  • June 13: The Democratic National Committee announces that 20 candidates will participate in the first official debate on June 26–27.[211]
  • June 22: Former representative Joe Sestak of Pennsylvania announces his candidacy with a midnight campaign website launch.[63][212]
  • June 26: The first part of the first official debate is held in Miami, Florida.[213]
  • June 27: The second part of the first official debate is held in Miami, Florida.[213]

July

  • July 8: Swalwell drops out of the race.[90]
  • July 9: Billionaire hedge fund manager Tom Steyer announces his candidacy with a YouTube video, despite declaring that he would not enter the race six months prior.[64]
  • July 30: The first part of the second official debate will take place in Detroit, Michigan.[214]
  • July 31: The second part of the second official debate will take place in Detroit, Michigan.

September

  • September 12: The third official debate will take place, aired on ABC and Univision.[215]
  • September 13: If necessary, a second part of the third official debate will take place.

Primary and caucus calendar[edit]

Democratic primary and caucus calendar by currently scheduled date
  February
  March 3 (Super Tuesday)
  March 10
  March 17
  March 24
  April 4–7
  April 28
  May
  June
  No scheduled 2020 date

The following primary and caucus dates have been scheduled by state statutes or state party decisions, but are subject to change pending legislation, state party delegate selection plans, or the decisions of state secretaries of state:[216]

As of June 2019, primaries and caucuses for the following states/territories are not yet scheduled:[216]

The 57 states, districts, territories, or other constituencies with elections of pledged delegates to decide the Democratic presidential nominee, currently plan to hold the first major determining step for these elections via 49 primaries[e] and 6 caucuses (Iowa, Nevada and four territories),[216] while two states (Wyoming and Maine) have not yet decided their election format - as their state parties currently consider approving last minute changes to their earlier drafted state delegate selection plans.[238] The number of states holding caucuses decreased from 14 in the 2016 nomination process to so far only two in 2020.[238]

National convention[edit]

The 2020 Democratic National Convention is scheduled to take place in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on July 13–16, 2020.[240][241][242]

In addition to Milwaukee, the DNC also considered bids from three other cities: Houston, Texas;[243] Miami Beach, Florida;[244] and Denver, Colorado. Denver, though, was immediately withdrawn from consideration by representatives for the city, who cited scheduling conflicts.[245]

Endorsements[edit]

Campaign finance[edit]

This is an overview of the money being raised and spent by each campaign for the entire period running from January 1, 2017 to March 31, 2019, as it was reported to the Federal Election Commission (FEC). Total raised are the sum of all individual contributions (large and small), loans from the candidate, and transfers from other campaign committees. The last column, Cash On Hand (COH), has been calculated by subtracting the "spent" amount from the "raised" amount, thereby showing the remaining cash each campaign had available for its future spending as of March 31, 2019.

  Withdrawn candidate
Candidate Campaign committee (January 1, 2017 to March 31, 2019)
Total raised Ind. contrib. <$200
donations
(as % of
ind.contrib)
Debt Spent COH
Bennet did not file
Biden did not file
Booker[246] $8,989,204 $6,044,390 15.97% $51,989 $1,792,194 $6,131,010
Bullock did not file
Buttigieg[247] $25,191,224 $11,086,155 64.02% $0 $485,295 $7,405,930
Castro[248] $3,888,029 $1,399,329 30.20% $19,285 $890,374 $677,655
de Blasio did not file
Delaney[249] $10,301,623 $1,681,310 6.96% $17,443,250 $7,781,888 $10,567,865
Gabbard[250] $6,495,770 $2,449,075 54.75% $0 $1,706,544 $2,789,226
Gillibrand[251] $16,601,580 $5,997,884 16.68% $0 $2,433,078 $10,168,502
Gravel did not file
Harris[252] $19,243,551 $12,024,122 50.77% $65,000 $4,285,426 $8,958,125
Hickenlooper[253] $2,020,683 $2,014,099 9.97% $0 $685,514 $1,335,169
Inslee[254] $2,256,655 $2,255,455 34.00% $365,195 $843,775 $1,412,881
Klobuchar[255] $8,832,322 $5,232,376 34.60% $0 $1,849,949 $6,982,373
Messam[256] $43,532 $43,532 26.58% $0 $1,701 $41,830
Moulton did not file
O'Rourke[257] $9,373,261 $9,369,861 59.15% $0 $2,511,056 $6,862,206
Ryan did not file
Sanders[258] $20,688,027 $18,186,300 84.03% $0 $5,026,077 $15,661,950
Sestak did not file
Steyer did not file
Warren[259] $17,771,752 $6,016,435 70.30% $0 $5,267,562 $10,215,191
Williamson[260] $1,546,975 $1,544,697 60.39% $105,017 $997,471 $549,504
Yang[261] $2,387,537 $2,385,475 63.64% $0 $1,286,813 $1,151,702
Ojeda[262] $119,478 $77,476 62.91% $44,373 $117,476 $2,002
Swalwell did not file

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The overall number of pledged delegates is subject to change as possible penalty/bonus delegetes (awarded for each states scheduled election date and potential regional clustering) are not yet included.[1]
  2. ^ a b The number of extra unpledged delegates (superdelegates), who after the first ballot at a contested convention participates in any subsequently needed nominating ballots (together with the 3,768 pledged delegates), was expected to be 764 as of June 2019, but the exact number of superdelegates is still subject to change due to possible deaths, resignations, accessions, or potential election as a pledged delegete.[1]
  3. ^ Prior to the electoral reforms taking effect starting with the 1972 presidential elections, the Democrats used elite-run state conventions to choose convention delegates in two-thirds of the states, and candidates for the presidential nominee could be elected at the national convention of the party without needing to participate in any prior statewide election events.[4] In this pre-1972 era, the record number of presidential candidates appeared at the 1924 Democratic National Convention, where 29[5] had announced their candidacy ahead of the convention and a record of 58 candidates received delegate votes during the 103 nominating ballots of the 17 day long convention. In the post-reform era after 1968, over three-quarters of the states used primary elections to choose delegates, and over 80% of convention delegates are selected in these primaries.[4]
  4. ^ a b c d This individual is not a member of the Democratic Party, but has been the subject of speculation or expressed interest in running under this party.
  5. ^ 5 out of 49 primaries are not state-run but party-run. "North Dakota Firehouse caucuses" is the official name of their event, but it's held as a party-run primary and not a caucus in 2020. Democrats Abroad likewise conduct their election as a party-run primary, with their pledged delegates allocated at later conventions solely on basis of the proportional result of their party-run primary. The last three states with party-run primaries are Alaska, Kansas and Hawaii.[239][238]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Green Papers". Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  2. ^ Scott Detrow (June 27, 2018). "DNC Officials Vote To Scale Back Role Of 'Superdelegates' In Presidential Nomination". National Public Radio. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d "Magic Number? Determining the Winning Number of Democratic Delegates Will Be Tougher in 2020". Frontloading HQ. May 15, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  4. ^ a b Kaufmann, Karen M; Gimpel, James G.; Hoffman, Adam H. (May 2003). "A Promise Fulfilled? Open Primaries and Representation". The Journal of Politics. 65 (2): 457–476. JSTOR 3449815. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  5. ^ a b Louis Jacobson (May 2, 2019). "The big 2020 Democratic primary field: What you need to know". Updated: May 17, 2019. PolitiFact. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  6. ^ Easley, Jonathan (March 31, 2017). "For Democrats, no clear leader". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  7. ^ Vyse, Graham (April 28, 2017). "The 2020 Democratic primary is going to be the all-out brawl the party needs". The New Republic. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  8. ^ Edsall, Thomas B. (September 7, 2017). "The Struggle Between Clinton and Sanders Is Not Over". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
  9. ^ a b Schor, Elana (December 30, 2017). "Dem senators fight to out-liberal one another ahead of 2020". Politico. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
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