Democratic republic

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A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy. Rather than being a cross between two entirely separate systems, democratic republics may function on principles shared by both republics and democracies.

Theory[edit]

Common definitions of the terms democracy and republic often feature overlapping concerns, suggesting that many democracies function as republics, and many republics operate on democratic principles, as shown by these definitions from the Oxford dictionary online:

  • Republic: "A state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives..."[1]
  • Democracy: "A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives."[2]

Eugene Volokh of the UCLA School of Law notes that the United States exemplifies the varied nature of a democratic republic—a country where some decisions (often local) are made by direct democratic processes, while others (often federal) are made by democratically elected representatives.[3] As with many large systems, US governance is incompletely described by any single term. It also employs the concept, for instance, of a constitutional democracy in which a court system is involved in matters of jurisprudence.[3]

As with other democracies, not all persons in a democratic republic are necessarily citizens, and not all citizens are necessarily entitled to vote. Suffrage is commonly restricted by criteria such as voting age.[4]

 History[edit]

In the US, the notion that a republic was a form of democracy was common from the time of its founding, and the concepts associated with representative democracy (and hence with a democratic republic) are suggested by John Adams (writing in 1784):

No determinations are carried, it is true, in a simple representative democracy, but by consent of the majority or their representatives.[5]

Historically, some inconsistency around the term is frequent. China claims to be the oldest of Asia's democratic republics, though its recent history of democratic process is largely linked only to Taiwan.[6] Likewise, Africa's oldest democratic republic, Liberia (formed in 1822) has had its political stability rocked by periodic violence and coups.[7]

Global use of the term[edit]

Many countries that use the term "democratic republic" in their official names (such as Algeria,[8] East Congo,[9] Ethiopia,[10] North Korea,[11] Laos,[12] and Nepal[13]) are identified as undemocratic "hybrid regimes" by the Democracy Index[14] and "not free" by the U.S.-based, U.S.-government-funded non-governmental organization, Freedom House.[15] In addition, East Germany was also officially known as the German Democratic Republic, but, like the Somali Democratic Republic[16] and People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia,[17] was controlled by a bureaucratic regime espousing communism.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "republic | Definition of republic in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2017-12-04. 
  2. ^ "democracy | Definition of democracy in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2017-12-04. 
  3. ^ a b Volokh, Eugene (2015-05-13). "Is the United States of America a republic or a democracy?". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  4. ^ "Voter Registration Age Requirements by State". USA.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2017. 
  5. ^ Adams, John (1851). The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: With a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations. Little, Brown. 
  6. ^ Yongnian, Zheng; Fook, Lye Liang; Hofmeister, Wilhelm (2013-10-23). Parliaments in Asia: Institution Building and Political Development. Routledge. ISBN 9781134469659. 
  7. ^ "Elections history in Africa's oldest democratic republic: Liberia". euronews. 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  8. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  9. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  10. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  11. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  12. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  13. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  14. ^ "EIU Democracy Index 2016". infographics.economist.com. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  15. ^ "Freedom in the World 2017". freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 2017-12-03. 
  16. ^ "Somali Democratic Republic". www.onwar.com. Retrieved 2017-12-04. 
  17. ^ Clapham, Christopher (1987-06-01). "The constitution of the people's democratic Republic of Ethiopia". Journal of Communist Studies. 3 (2): 192–195. doi:10.1080/13523278708414865. ISSN 0268-4535. 
  18. ^ "Berlin Wall - Cold War - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2017-12-03.