Democratic socialism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production[1] with an emphasis on self-management and democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.[2] Democratic socialists hold that capitalism is inherently incompatible with what they hold to be the democratic values of liberty, equality and solidarity; and that these ideals can only be achieved through the realization of a socialist society. Democratic socialism can be supportive of either revolutionary or reformist politics as a means to establish socialism.[3]

The term "democratic socialism" is sometimes used synonymously with "socialism", but the adjective "democratic" is sometimes used to distinguish democratic socialists from Marxist–Leninist-inspired socialism which is viewed as being non-democratic in practice.[4][5] Democratic socialists oppose the Stalinist political system and Soviet economic model, rejecting the authoritarian form of governance and highly centralized command economy that took form in the Soviet Union in the early 20th century.[6]

Democratic socialism is further distinguished from social democracy on the basis that democratic socialists are committed to systemic transformation of the economy from capitalism to socialism, whereas social democracy is supportive of reforms to capitalism.[7] In contrast to social democrats, democratic socialists believe that reforms aimed at addressing social inequalities and state interventions aimed at suppressing the economic contradictions of capitalism will only see them emerge elsewhere in a different guise. As socialists, democratic socialists believe that the systemic issues of capitalism can only be solved by replacing the capitalist system with a socialist system—i.e. by replacing private ownership with social ownership of the means of production.[3][8]

There is considerable overlap between democratic socialists and social democrats on practical policy positions, with the former supporting social democratic positions as practical reforms within capitalism, the distinction being democratic socialists ultimately want to go beyond social democratic reform. Policies commonly supported by democratic socialists and social democrats include some degree of regulation over the economy, social insurance schemes, public pension programs, and a gradual expansion of public ownership over major industries.[9] Partly because of this overlap, some political commentators use the terms interchangeably.[10][11]

The origins of democratic socialism can be traced to 19th-century Utopian socialist thinkers and the British Chartist movement, which differed in detail but all shared the essence of democratic decision making and public ownership in the means of production as positive characteristics of the society they advocated. In the early 20th century, the gradualist reformism promoted by the British Fabian society and Eduard Bernstein in Germany influenced the development of democratic socialism.[12]

Definition[edit]

Democratic socialism is defined as having a socialist economy in which the means of production (including wealth) are socially and collectively owned or controlled alongside a politically democratic system of government.[13] Peter Hain classifies democratic socialism, along with libertarian socialism, as a form of anti-authoritarian "socialism from below" (using the term popularized by Hal Draper), in contrast to Stalinism, a variant of authoritarian state socialism. For Hain, this democratic/authoritarian divide is more important than the revolutionary/reformist divide.[14] In this type of democratic socialism, it is the active participation of the population as a whole and workers in particular in the management of economy that characterizes democratic socialism while nationalization and economic planning (whether controlled by an elected government or not) are characteristic of state socialism. A similar, but more complex argument is made by Nicos Poulantzas.[15] Draper himself uses the term "revolutionary-democratic socialism" as a type of socialism from below in his The Two Souls of Socialism and writes: "[T]he leading spokesman in the Second International of a revolutionary-democratic Socialism-from-Below [was] Rosa Luxemburg, who so emphatically put her faith and hope in the spontaneous struggle of a free working class that the myth-makers invented for her a 'theory of spontaneity'".[16] Similarly, about Eugene Debs he writes: "'Debsian socialism' evoked a tremendous response from the heart of the people, but Debs had no successor as a tribune of revolutionary-democratic socialism".[17]

Eduard Bernstein, socialist theorist within the German Social Democratic Party who proposed that socialism could be achieved by peaceful means through incremental legislative reform in democratic societies

Tendencies of democratic socialism follow a gradual, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism rather than a revolutionary one.[18] This tendency is often invoked in an attempt to distinguish democratic socialism from Marxist–Leninist socialism as in Donald Busky's Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey,[19] Jim Tomlinson's Democratic Socialism and Economic Policy: The Attlee Years, 1945–1951, Norman Thomas Democratic Socialism: a new appraisal or Roy Hattersley's Choose Freedom: The Future of Democratic Socialism. A variant of this set of definitions is Joseph Schumpeter's argument, set out in Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1941), that liberal democracies were evolving from "liberal capitalism" into democratic socialism, with the growth of workers' self-management, industrial democracy and regulatory institutions.[20] For example the new version of Clause IV of the constitution of the UK Labour Party, though affirming a commitment to democratic socialism,[21][22] no longer definitely commits the party to public ownership of industry: in its place it advocates "the enterprise of the market and the rigour of competition" along with "high quality public services ... either owned by the public or accountable to them."[21]

Scholar Lyman Tower Sargent proposes that:

Democratic socialism can be characterized as follows: Much property held by the public through a democratically elected government, including most major industries, utilities, and transportation systems...A limit on the accumulation of private property...Governmental regulation of the economy...Extensive publicly financed assistance and pension programs...Social costs and the provision of services added to purely financial considerations as the measure of efficiency...Publicly held property is limited to productive property and significant infrastructure; it does not extend to personal property, homes, and small businesses. And in practice in many democratic socialist countries, it has not extended to many large corporations.[23]

Another example is the Democratic Socialists of America who define socialism as a decentralized socially-owned economy, but while ultimately committed to socialism they focus their political activities on reforms within capitalism:

Social ownership could take many forms, such as worker-owned cooperatives or publicly owned enterprises managed by workers and consumer representatives. Democratic socialists favor as much decentralization as possible. While the large concentrations of capital in industries such as energy and steel may necessitate some form of state ownership, many consumer-goods industries might be best run as cooperatives.

Democratic socialists have long rejected the belief that the whole economy should be centrally planned. While we believe that democratic planning can shape major social investments like mass transit, housing, and energy, market mechanisms are needed to determine the demand for many consumer goods.[24]

As we are unlikely to see an immediate end to capitalism tomorrow, DSA fights for reforms today that will weaken the power of corporations and increase the power of working people.[25]

For Labour Party (UK) politician and ex MP Peter Hain:

Democratic socialism should mean an active, democratically accountable state to underpin individual freedom and deliver the conditions for everyone to be empowered regardless of who they are or what their income is. It should be complemented by decentralisation and empowerment to achieve increased democracy and social justice...Today democratic socialism's task is to recover the high ground on democracy and freedom through maximum decentralisation of control, ownership and decision making. For socialism can only be achieved if it springs from below by popular demand. The task of socialist government should be an enabling one, not an enforcing one. Its mission is to disperse rather than to concentrate power, with a pluralist notion of democracy at its heart.[26]

The term is sometimes used to refer to policies within capitalism as opposed to an ideology that aims to transcend and replace capitalism, though this is not always the case. For example, Robert M. Page, a reader in Democratic Socialism and Social Policy at the University of Birmingham, writes about "transformative democratic socialism" to refer to the politics of the Clement Attlee government (a strong welfare state, fiscal redistribution and some public ownership) and "revisionist democratic socialism" as developed by Anthony Crosland and Harold Wilson:

The most influential revisionist Labour thinker, Anthony Crosland..., contended that a more "benevolent" form of capitalism had emerged since the [Second World War] ... According to Crosland, it was now possible to achieve greater equality in society without the need for "fundamental" economic transformation. For Crosland, a more meaningful form of equality could be achieved if the growth dividend derived from effective management of the economy was invested in "pro-poor" public services rather than through fiscal redistribution.[27]

Some proponents of market socialism see it as an economic system compatible with the political ideology of democratic socialism.[28] Some tendencies of democratic socialism advocate for revolution in order to transition to socialism, distinguishing it from some forms of social democracy.[29] The term "democratic socialism" can be used even another way to refer to a version of the Soviet model that was reformed in a democratic way. For example, Mikhail Gorbachev described perestroika as building a "new, humane and democratic socialism".[30] Consequently, some former Communist parties have rebranded themselves as democratic socialist, as with the Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany.

Philosophical support for democratic socialism can be found in the works of political philosophers like Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, among others. Honneth has put forward the view that political and economic ideologies have a social basis, that is they originate from intersubjective communication between members of a society.[31] Honneth criticizes the liberal state because it assumes that principles of individual liberty and private property are ahistorical and abstract, when in fact they evolved from a specific social discourse on human activity. Contra liberal individualism, Honneth has emphasized the inter-subjective dependence between humans, that is our well-being depends on recognising others and being recognized by them. Democratic socialism with an emphasis on community and solidarity can be seen as a way of safeguarding this dependency.

History[edit]

19th century[edit]

Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity but the first self-conscious socialist movements developed in the 1820s and 1830s. West European social critics, including Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Louis Blanc, Charles Hall, and Saint-Simon were the first modern socialists who criticised the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution. They also, especially in the case of the Owenites, overlapped with a number of other working-class movements like the Chartists in the United Kingdom".[32] The Chartists gathered significant numbers around the People's Charter of 1838, which demanded the extension of suffrage to all male adults. Leaders in the movement also called for a more equitable distribution of income and better living conditions for the working classes. The very first trade unions and consumers' cooperative societies also emerged in the hinterland of the Chartist movement as a way of bolstering the fight for these demands.[33] The first advocates of socialism favoured social levelling in order to create a meritocratic or technocratic society based on individual talent. Count Henri de Saint-Simon is regarded as the first individual to coin the term "socialism".[34] Saint-Simon was fascinated by the enormous potential of science and technology and advocated a socialist society that would eliminate the disorderly aspects of capitalism and would be based on equal opportunities.[35] He advocated the creation of a society in which each person was ranked according to his or her capacities and rewarded according to his or her work.[34] The key focus of Saint-Simon's socialism was on administrative efficiency and industrialism and a belief that science was the key to progress.[36] This was accompanied by a desire to implement a rationally organised economy based on planning and geared towards large-scale scientific and material progress,[34] thus embodied a desire for a more directed or planned economy.

Photograph of the Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington Common, London in 1848

In the United Kingdom, the democratic socialist tradition was represented in particular by William Morris's Socialist League and in the 1880s by the Fabian Society and later the Independent Labour Party (ILP) founded by Keir Hardie in the 1890s, of which writer George Orwell would later be a prominent member.[37] In the early 1920s, the guild socialism of G. D. H. Cole attempted to envision a socialist alternative to Soviet-style authoritarianism, while council communism articulated democratic socialist positions in several respects, notably through renouncing the vanguard role of the revolutionary party and holding that the system of the Soviet Union was not authentically socialist.[38] The Fabian Society is a British socialist organisation which was established with the purpose of advancing the principles of socialism via gradualist and reformist means.[39] The society laid many of the foundations of the Labour Party and subsequently affected the policies of states emerging from the decolonisation of the British Empire, most notably India and Singapore. Originally, the Fabian Society was committed to the establishment of a socialist economy, alongside a commitment to British imperialism as a progressive and modernising force.[40] Today, the society functions primarily as a think tank and is one of fifteen socialist societies affiliated with the Labour Party. Similar societies exist in Australia (the Australian Fabian Society), in Canada (the Douglas-Coldwell Foundation and the now disbanded League for Social Reconstruction) and in New Zealand. In 1889 (the centennial of the French Revolution of 1789), the Second International was founded, with 384 delegates from twenty countries representing about 300 labour and socialist organisations.[41] It was termed the Socialist International and Engels was elected honorary president at the third congress in 1893. Anarchists were ejected and not allowed in, mainly due to pressure from Marxists.[42] It has been argued that at some point the Second International turned "into a battleground over the issue of libertarian versus authoritarian socialism. Not only did they effectively present themselves as champions of minority rights; they also provoked the German Marxists into demonstrating a dictatorial intolerance which was a factor in preventing the British labor movement from following the Marxist direction indicated by such leaders as H. M. Hyndman".[42] Reformism arose as an alternative to revolution. Eduard Bernstein was a leading social democrat in Germany who proposed the concept of evolutionary socialism. Revolutionary socialists quickly targeted reformism: Rosa Luxemburg condemned Bernstein's Evolutionary Socialism in her 1900 essay Social Reform or Revolution?. Revolutionary socialism encompasses multiple social and political movements that may define "revolution" differently from one another. The Social Democratic Party (SPD) in Germany became the largest and most powerful socialist party in Europe, despite working illegally until the anti-socialist laws were dropped in 1890. In the 1893 elections, it gained 1,787,000 votes, a quarter of the total votes cast, according to Engels. In 1895, the year of his death, Engels emphasised the Communist Manifesto's emphasis on winning, as a first step, the "battle of democracy".[43]

Early 20th century[edit]

The socialist industrial unionism of Daniel DeLeon in the United States represented another strain of early democratic socialism in this period. It favoured a form of government based on industrial unions, but which also sought to establish this government after winning at the ballot box.[44] The tradition continued to flourish in the Socialist Party of America (especially under the leadership of Norman Thomas)[45] The Socialist Party of America was formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.[46] Eugene V. Debs twice won over 900,000 votes in presidential elections (1912 and 1920) while the party also elected two Representatives (Victor L. Berger and Meyer London), dozens of state legislators, more than a hundred mayors and countless lesser officials.[47] In Argentina the Socialist Party of Argentina was established in the 1890s led by, among others, Juan B. Justo and Nicolás Repetto, thus becoming the first mass party in the country and in Latin America. The party affiliated itself with the Second International.[48] Between 1924 and 1940 it was a member of the Labour and Socialist International.[49] In 1904, Australians elected Chris Watson as the first Australian Labor Party Prime Minister, becoming the first democratically elected democratic socialist. The British Labour Party first won seats in the House of Commons in 1902. The International Socialist Commission (ISC, also known as Berne International) was formed in February 1919 at a meeting in Bern by parties that wanted to resurrect the Second International.[50] By 1917, the patriotism of World War I changed into political radicalism in most of Europe, the United States and Australia. Other socialist parties from around the world who were beginning to gain importance in their national politics in the early 20th century included the Italian Socialist Party, the French Section of the Workers' International, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, the Swedish Social Democratic Party, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, the Socialist Party of America in the United States, the Chilean Partido Obrero Socialista.

Eugene V. Debs, leader and presidential candidate in the early 20th century for the Socialist Party of America

In February 1917, revolution exploded in Russia. Workers, soldiers and peasants established soviets (councils), the monarchy fell and a provisional government convoked pending the election of a constituent assembly. Alexander Kerensky was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary who was a key political figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917. After the February Revolution of 1917 he joined the newly formed Russian Provisional Government, first as Minister of Justice, then as Minister of War, and after July as the government's second Minister-Chairman. A leader of the moderate-socialist Trudoviks faction of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, he was also vice-chairman of the powerful Petrograd Soviet. On 7 November, his government was overthrown by the Lenin-led Bolsheviks in the October Revolution. The Constituent Assembly elected Socialist-Revolutionary leader Victor Chernov President of a Russian republic, but rejected the Bolshevik proposal that it endorse the Soviet decrees on land, peace and workers' control and acknowledge the power of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies. The next day, the Bolsheviks declared that the assembly was elected on outdated party lists[51] and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets dissolved it.[52][53] Parties which did not want to be a part of the resurrected Second International (ISC) or Comintern formed the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP, also known as Vienna International/Vienna Union/Two-and-a-Half International) on 27 February 1921 at a conference in Vienna.[54] The ISC and the IWUSP joined to form the Labour and Socialist International (LSI) in May 1923 at a meeting in Hamburg[55] Left-wing groups which did not agree to the centralisation and abandonment of the soviets by the Bolshevik Party led left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks—such groups included Socialist Revolutionaries,[56] Left Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and anarchists.[57] Within this left-wing discontent, the most large-scale events were the worker's Kronstadt rebellion[58][59][60] and the anarchist led Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine uprising which controlled an area known as the Free Territory.[61][62][63] In 1922, the fourth congress of the Communist International took up the policy of the United Front, urging communists to work with rank and file Social Democrats while remaining critical of their leaders, whom they criticised for betraying the working class by supporting the war efforts of their respective capitalist classes. For their part, the social democrats pointed to the dislocation caused by revolution and later the growing authoritarianism of the communist parties. When the Communist Party of Great Britain applied to affiliate to the Labour Party in 1920, it was turned down. On seeing the Soviet State's growing coercive power in 1923, a dying Lenin said Russia had reverted to "a bourgeois tsarist machine... barely varnished with socialism".[64] After Lenin's death in January 1924, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union—then increasingly under the control of Joseph Stalin—rejected the theory that socialism could not be built solely in the Soviet Union in favour of the concept of "socialism in one country".

Mid-20th century[edit]

After World War II social democratic, socialist and labour governments introduced social reform and wealth redistribution via state welfare and taxation. Those parties dominated post-war politics in countries such as France, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Norway. At one point, France claimed to be the world's most state-controlled capitalist country. The nationalised public utilities included Charbonnages de France (CDF), Electricité de France (EDF), Gaz de France (GDF), Air France, Banque de France and Régie Nationale des Usines Renault.[65] In 1945, the British Labour Party led by Clement Attlee was elected to office based on a radical socialist programme. The Labour government nationalised major public utilities such as mines, gas, coal, electricity, rail, iron, steel and the Bank of England. British Petroleum was officially nationalised in 1951.[66] Anthony Crosland said that in 1956 25% of British industry was nationalised and that public employees, including those in nationalised industries, constituted a similar proportion of the country's total employed population.[67] The Labour Governments of 1964–1970 and 1974–1979 intervened further.[68] It re-nationalised steel (1967, British Steel) after the Conservatives had denationalised it and nationalised car production (1976, British Leyland).[69] The National Health Service provided taxpayer-funded health care to everyone, free at the point of service.[70] Working-class housing was provided in council housing estates and university education became available via a school grant system.[71]

Clement Attlee, democratic socialist British Prime Minister for the UK Labour Party

The Nordic model is the economic and social models of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland). During most of the post-war era, Sweden was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party largely in cooperation with trade unions and industry.[72] In Sweden, the Social Democratic Party held power from 1936 to 1976, 1982 to 1991, 1994 to 2006 and 2014 to present. Tage Erlander was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and led the government from 1946 to 1969, an uninterrupted tenure of twenty-three years, one of the longest in any democracy. From 1945 to 1962, the Norwegian Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament led by Einar Gerhardsen who was Prime Minister with seventeen years in office. This particular adaptation of the mixed market economy is characterised by more generous welfare states (relative to other developed countries), which are aimed specifically at enhancing individual autonomy, ensuring the universal provision of basic human rights and stabilising the economy. It is distinguished from other welfare states with similar goals by its emphasis on maximising labour force participation, promoting gender equality, egalitarian and extensive benefit levels, large magnitude of redistribution and expansionary fiscal policy.[73]

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of the excesses of Stalin's regime during the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 1956[74] as well as the revolt in Hungary,[75][76][77][78] produced ideological fractures and disagreements within the communist and socialist parties of Western Europe. In the United Kingdom, the democratic socialist tradition was represented in particular by William Morris's Socialist League and in the 1880s by the Fabian Society and later the Independent Labour Party (ILP) founded by Keir Hardie in the 1890s, of which writer George Orwell would later be a prominent member.[79]

During India's freedom movement, many figures on the left-wing of the Indian National Congress organized themselves as the Congress Socialist Party. Their politics and those of the early and intermediate periods of Jayaprakash Narayan's career combined a commitment to the socialist transformation of society with a principled opposition to the one-party authoritarianism they perceived in the Stalinist revolutionary model. In the post-war years, socialism became increasingly influential throughout the so-called Third World. Embracing a new Third World socialism, countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America often nationalised industries held by foreign owners. The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists, educators, agitators and others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms on issues such as gay rights, abortion, gender roles and drugs[80] in contrast to earlier leftist or Marxist movements that had taken a more vanguardist approach to social justice and focused mostly on labour unionisation and questions of social class.[81][82][83] The New Left rejected involvement with the labour movement and Marxism's historical theory of class struggle.[84] In the United States, the New Left was associated with the Hippie movement and anti-war college campus protest movements as well as the black liberation movements such as the Black Panther Party.[85] While initially formed in opposition to the "Old Left" Democratic Party, groups composing the New Left gradually became central players in the Democratic coalition.[80]

The protests of 1968 represented a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterised by popular rebellions against military, capitalist and bureaucratic elites who responded with an escalation of political repression. These protests marked a turning point for the civil rights movement in the United States, which produced revolutionary movements like the Black Panther Party; the prominent civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. organised the "Poor People's Campaign" to address issues of economic justice,[86] while personally showing sympathy with democratic socialism.[87] In reaction to the Tet Offensive, protests also sparked a broad movement in opposition to the Vietnam War all over the United States and even into London, Paris, Berlin and Rome.

Mass socialist or communist movements grew not only in the United States, but also in most European countries. The most spectacular manifestation of this were the May 1968 protests in France in which students linked up with strikes of up to ten million workers and for a few days the movement seemed capable of overthrowing the government. In many other capitalist countries, struggles against dictatorships, state repression and colonisation were also marked by protests in 1968, such as the beginning of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Tlatelolco massacre in Mexico City and the escalation of guerrilla warfare against the military dictatorship in Brazil. Countries governed by communist parties had protests against bureaucratic and military elites. In Eastern Europe there were widespread protests that escalated particularly in the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia. In response, Soviet Union occupied Czechoslovakia, but the occupation was denounced by the Italian and French[88] communist parties and the Communist Party of Finland.

Late 20th century[edit]

In Latin America in the 1960s, a socialist tendency within the catholic church appeared which was called liberation theology[89][90]. In Chile, Salvador Allende, a physician and candidate for the Socialist Party of Chile, was elected president through democratic elections in 1970. In 1973, his government was ousted by the United States-backed military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, which lasted until the late 1980s.[91] Pinochet's regime was a leader of Operation Condor, a U.S.-backed campaign of repression and state terrorism carried out by the intelligence services of the Southern Cone countries of Latin America to eliminate suspected Communist subversion.[92][93][94] In Jamaica, the democratic socialist[95] Michael Manley served as the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica from 1972 to 1980 and from 1989 to 1992. According to opinion polls, he remains one of Jamaica's most popular Prime Ministers since independence.[96]

Salvador Allende, President of Chile and member of the Socialist Party of Chile, whose presidency and life was ended by a CIA-backed military coup[97]

Eurocommunism was a trend in the 1970s and 1980s in various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant for a Western European country and less aligned to the influence or control of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Outside Western Europe, it is sometimes called neocommunism.[98] Some communist parties with strong popular support, notably the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) adopted Eurocommunism most enthusiastically and the Communist Party of Finland was dominated by Eurocommunists. The French Communist Party (PCF) and many smaller parties strongly opposed Eurocommunism and stayed aligned with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union until the end of the Soviet Union. In the late 1970s and in the 1980s, the Socialist International (SI) had extensive contacts and discussion with the two powers of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union, about East-West relations and arms control. Since then, the SI has admitted as member parties the Nicaraguan FSLN, the left-wing Puerto Rican Independence Party, as well as former communist parties such as the Democratic Party of the Left of Italy and the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO). The SI aided social democratic parties in re-establishing themselves when dictatorship gave way to democracy in Portugal (1974) and Spain (1975). Until its 1976 Geneva Congress, the SI had few members outside Europe and no formal involvement with Latin America.[99] The Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) was founded in 1983, Michael Harrington and socialist-feminist author Barbara Ehrenreich were elected as co-chairs of the organization. The organization does not stand its own candidates in elections but instead "fights for reforms... that will weaken the power of corporations and increase the power of working people".[100]

The Panhellenic Socialist Movement was a social-democratic[101][102][103] political party in Greece. PASOK was founded in Greece on 3 September 1974 by Andreas Papandreou as a democratic socialist and left-wing nationalist party,[104] following the collapse of the military junta of 1967–1974. As a result of the 1981 legislative election, PASOK became Greece's first left-of-centre party to win a majority in the Hellenic Parliament. Mikhail Gorbachev wished to move the Soviet Union towards of Nordic-style social democracy, calling it "a socialist beacon for all mankind".[105][106] Prior to its dissolution in 1991, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy in the world after the United States.[107] With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the economic integration of the Soviet republics was dissolved and overall industrial activity declined substantially.[108] A lasting legacy remains in the physical infrastructure created during decades of combined industrial production practices, and widespread environmental destruction.[109] The transition to capitalism in the former Eastern bloc was accompanied by a steep fall in the standard of living; poverty and inequality rose sharply which was accompanied by the entrenchment of a newly established business oligarchy.[110][111]

Many social democratic parties, particularly after the Cold War, adopted neoliberal market policies including privatisation, deregulation and financialisation. They abandoned their pursuit of moderate socialism in favour of market liberalism. By the 1980s, with the rise of conservative neoliberal politicians such as Ronald Reagan in the United States, Margaret Thatcher in Britain, Brian Mulroney in Canada and Augusto Pinochet in Chile, the Western welfare state was attacked from within, but state support for the corporate sector was maintained.[112] Monetarists and neoliberals attacked social welfare systems as impediments to private entrepreneurship. In the United Kingdom, Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock made a public attack against the entryist group Militant at the 1985 Labour Party conference. The Labour Party ruled that Militant was ineligible for affiliation with the Labour Party, and the party gradually expelled Militant supporters. The Kinnock leadership had refused to support the 1984–1985 miner's strike over pit closures, a decision that the party's left wing and the National Union of Mineworkers blamed for the strike's eventual defeat. In 1989 at Stockholm, the 18th Congress of the Socialist International adopted a new Declaration of Principles, saying:

Democratic socialism is an international movement for freedom, social justice, and solidarity. Its goal is to achieve a peaceful world where these basic values can be enhanced and where each individual can live a meaningful life with the full development of his or her personality and talents, and with the guarantee of human and civil rights in a democratic framework of society.[113]

In the 1990s, the British Labour Party under Tony Blair enacted policies based on the free market economy to deliver public services via the private finance initiative. Influential in these policies was the idea of a "Third Way" which called for a re-evalutation of welfare state policies.[114] In 1995, the Labour Party re-defined its stance on socialism by re-wording Clause IV of its constitution, effectively rejecting socialism by removing all references to public, direct worker or municipal ownership of the means of production. The Labour Party stated: "The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. It believes that, by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone, so as to create, for each of us, the means to realise our true potential, and, for all of us, a community in which power, wealth, and opportunity are in the hands of the many, not the few".[115] The triumphalist attitudes of Western powers at the end of the Cold War, and the fixation with linking all leftist and socialist ideals with the excesses of Stalinism, allowed neoliberalism to fill the void, which undermined democratic institutions and reforms, leaving a trail of economic misery, unemployment, hopelessness and rising economic inequality throughout the former Eastern Bloc and much of the West in the following decades. According to Kristen R. Ghodsee, with democracy weakened and the anti-capitalist Left marginalised, the anger and resentment which followed the period of neoliberalism was channeled into extremist nationalist movements in both the former and the latter.[116][117]

21st century[edit]

The Progressive Alliance is a political international founded on 22 May 2013 by political parties, the majority of whom are current or former members of the Socialist International. The organisation states the aim of becoming the global network of "the progressive", democratic, social-democratic, socialist and labour movement".[118][119]

Africa[edit]

African socialism has been and continues to be a major ideology around the continent. In South Africa the African National Congress (ANC) abandoned its partial socialist allegiances after taking power and followed a standard neoliberal route. From 2005 through to 2007, the country was wracked by many thousands of protests from poor communities. One of these gave rise to a mass movement of shack dwellers, Abahlali baseMjondolo that despite major police suppression continues to work for popular people's planning and against the creation of a market economy in land and housing.

Asia[edit]

In Japan, the Japanese Communist Party does not advocate violent revolution, instead it proposes a "democratic revolution" to achieve "democratic change in politics and the economy". There has been a resurgent interest in the Japanese Communist Party among workers and youth due to the financial crisis of the late-2000s.[120][121]

In Malaysia, the Socialist Party of Malaysia got its first Member of Parliament, Dr. Jeyakumar Devaraj, after the 2008 general election. In 2010, there were 270 kibbutzim in Israel. Their factories and farms account for 9% of Israel's industrial output, worth US$8 billion and 40% of its agricultural output, worth over $1.7 billion.[122] Some Kibbutzim had also developed substantial high-tech and military industries. Also in 2010, Kibbutz Sasa, containing some 200 members, generated $850 million in annual revenue from its military-plastics industry.[123]

Europe[edit]

The United Nations World Happiness Report 2013 shows that the happiest nations are concentrated in Northern Europe, where the Nordic model of social democracy is employed, with Denmark topping the list. This is at times attributed to the success of the Nordic model in the region. The Nordic countries ranked highest on the metrics of real GDP per capita, healthy life expectancy, having someone to count on, perceived freedom to make life choices, generosity and freedom from corruption.[124] Indeed, the indicators of Freedom in the World have listed Scandinavian countries as ranking high on indicators such as press and economic freedom. The objectives of the Party of European Socialists, the European Parliament's socialist and social democratic bloc, are now "to pursue international aims in respect of the principles on which the European Union is based, namely principles of freedom, equality, solidarity, democracy, respect of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and respect for the Rule of Law". As a result, today the rallying cry of the French Revolution—Liberté, égalité, fraternité—is promoted as essential socialist values.[125] To the left of the PES at the European level is the Party of the European Left (PEL), also commonly abbreviated "European Left"), which is a political party at the European level and an association of democratic socialist, socialist[101] and communist[101] political parties in the European Union and other European countries. It was formed in January 2004 for the purposes of running in the 2004 European Parliament elections. PEL was founded on 8–9 May 2004 in Rome.[126]

Elected MEPs from member parties of the European Left sit in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) group in the European parliament. The socialist Left Party in Germany grew in popularity[127] due to dissatisfaction with the increasingly neoliberal policies of the SPD, becoming the fourth biggest party in parliament in the general election on 27 September 2009.[128] Communist candidate Dimitris Christofias won a crucial presidential runoff in Cyprus, defeating his conservative rival with a majority of 53%.[129] In Denmark, the Socialist People's Party (SF) more than doubled its parliamentary representation to 23 seats from 11, making it the fourth largest party.[130] In 2011, the Social Democrats, Socialist People's Party and the Danish Social Liberal Party formed government, after a slight victory over the main rival political coalition. They were led by Helle Thorning-Schmidt, and had the Red-Green Alliance as a supporting party. In Norway, the Red-Green Coalition consists of the Labour Party (Ap), the Socialist Left Party (SV) and the Centre Party (Sp) and governed the country as a majority government from the 2005 general election until 2013. In the Greek legislative election of January 2015, the Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) led by Alexis Tsipras won a legislative election for the first time while the Communist Party of Greece won 15 seats in parliament. SYRIZA has been characterised as an anti-establishment party,[131] whose success has sent "shock-waves across the EU".[132]

Jeremy Corbyn, leader of the UK Labour Party who won with a platform of rejection of Third Way "Blairite" politics within that party

In the United Kingdom, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers put forward a slate of candidates in the 2009 European Parliament elections under the banner of No to EU – Yes to Democracy, a broad left-wing alter-globalisation coalition involving socialist groups such as the Socialist Party, aiming to offer an alternative to the "anti-foreigner" and pro-business policies of the UK Independence Party.[133][134][135] In the following May 2010 United Kingdom general election, the Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition, launched in January 2010[136] and backed by Bob Crow, the leader of the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers union (RMT), other union leaders and the Socialist Party among other socialist groups, stood against Labour in 40 constituencies.[137][138] The Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition contested the 2011 local elections, having gained the endorsement of the RMT June 2010 conference, but gained no seats.[139] Left Unity was also founded in 2013 after the film director Ken Loach appealed for a new party of the left to replace the Labour Party, which he claimed had failed to oppose austerity and had shifted towards neoliberalism.[140][141][142][143] In 2015, following a defeat at the 2015 United Kingdom general election, self-described socialist Jeremy Corbyn took over from Ed Miliband as leader of the Labour Party.[144] In France, Olivier Besancenot, the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR) candidate in the 2007 presidential election, received 1,498,581 votes, 4.08%, double that of the communist candidate.[145] The LCR abolished itself in 2009 to initiate a broad anti-capitalist party, the New Anticapitalist Party, whose stated aim is to "build a new socialist, democratic perspective for the twenty-first century".[146] On 25 May 2014, the Spanish left-wing party Podemos entered candidates for the 2014 European parliamentary elections, some of which were unemployed. In a surprise result, it polled 7.98% of the vote and thus was awarded five seats out of 54[147][148] while the older United Left was the third largest overall force obtaining 10.03% and 5 seats, 4 more than the previous elections.[149] The current government of Portugal was established on 26 November 2015 as a Socialist Party (PS) minority government led by prime minister António Costa. Costa succeeded in securing support for a Socialist minority government by the Left Bloc (B.E.), the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) and the Ecologist Party "The Greens" (PEV).[150]

The Americas and Oceania[edit]

Bernie Sanders, junior Senator of Vermont and self-described democratic socialist, at his 2016 presidential campaign kickoff in May 2015

According to a 2013 article in The Guardian, "[c]ontrary to popular belief, Americans don't have an innate allergy to socialism. Milwaukee has had several socialist mayors (Frank Zeidler, Emil Seidel and Daniel Hoan), and there is currently an independent socialist in the US Senate, Bernie Sanders of Vermont".[151] Sanders, once mayor of Vermont's largest city, Burlington, has described himself as a democratic socialist[152][153] and has praised Scandinavian-style social democracy.[154][155] In 2016, Sanders made a bid for the Democratic Party presidential candidate, thereby gaining considerable popular support, particularly among the younger generation, but lost the nomination to Hillary Clinton. In Canada, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), the precursor to the social democratic New Democratic Party (NDP), had significant success in provincial politics. In 1944, the Saskatchewan CCF formed the first socialist government in North America. At the federal level, the NDP was the Official Opposition, from 2011 through 2015.[156]

For the Encyclopedia Britannica, "the attempt by Salvador Allende to unite Marxists and other reformers in a socialist reconstruction of Chile is most representative of the direction that Latin American socialists have taken since the late 20th century. [...] Several socialist (or socialist-leaning) leaders have followed Allende's example in winning election to office in Latin American countries".[157] Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, Bolivian President Evo Morales and Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa refer to their political programmes as socialist and Chávez adopted the term "socialism of the 21st century". After winning re-election in December 2006, Chávez said: "Now more than ever, I am obliged to move Venezuela's path towards socialism".[158] Chávez was also reelected in October 2012 for his third six-year term as President, but he died in March 2013 from cancer. After Chávez's death on 5 March 2013, Vice President from Chavez's party Nicolás Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the President. A special election was held on 14 April of the same year to elect a new President, which Maduro won by a tight margin as the candidate of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela and he was formally inaugurated on 19 April.[159] "Pink tide" is a term being used in contemporary 21st-century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception that leftist ideology in general and left-wing politics in particular are increasingly influential in Latin America.[160][161][162]

Presidents Fernando Lugo of Paraguay, Evo Morales of Bolivia, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil, Rafael Correa of Ecuador and Hugo Chávez of Venezuela in World Social Forum for Latin America

Foro de São Paulo is a conference of leftist political parties and other organisations from Latin America and the Caribbean. It was launched by the Workers' Party (Portuguese: Partido dos Trabalhadores – PT) of Brazil in 1990 in the city of São Paulo. The Forum of São Paulo was constituted in 1990 when the Brazilian Workers' Party approached other parties and social movements of Latin America and the Caribbean with the objective of debating the new international scenario after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the consequences of the implementation of what were taken as neoliberal policies adopted at the time by contemporary right-leaning governments in the region, the stated main objective of the conference being to argue for alternatives to neoliberalism.[163] Among its member include current socialist and social-democratic parties currently in government in the region such as Bolivia's Movement for Socialism, Brazil's Workers Party, the Ecuadorian PAIS Alliance, the Venezuelan United Socialist Party of Venezuela, the Socialist Party of Chile, the Uruguayan Broad Front, the Nicaraguan Sandinista National Liberation Front and the salvadorean Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front.

Australia has seen a recent increase in interest of socialism in recent years, especially amongst youth.[164] It is strongest in Victoria, where three socialist parties have merged into the Victorian Socialists, who aim to address problems in housing and public transportation. New Zealand has a small socialist scene, mainly dominated by Trotskyist groups. The current prime minister Jacinda Ardern has publicly condemned capitalism but describes herself as a social democrat. Melanesian Socialism developed in the 1980s, inspired by African Socialism. It aims to achieve full independence from Britain and France in Melanesian territories and creation of a Melanesian federal union. It is very popular with the New Caledonia independence movement.[citation needed]

Economic positions[edit]

Democratic socialists have promoted a variety of different models of socialism ranging from market socialism where socially-owned enterprises operate in competitive markets and are in some cases self-managed by their workforce to non-market participatory socialism based on decentralized economic planning.[165]

Historically, democratic socialism has been committed to a decentralized form of economic planning where productive units are integrated into a single organization and organized on the basis of self-management as opposed to Stalinist-style command planning.[166] For example, Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas, both of whom were United States presidential candidates for the Socialist Party of America, understood socialism to be an economic system structured upon production for use and social ownership in place of the profit system and private ownership.[167][168]

Contemporary proponents of market socialism have argued that the major reasons for the economic shortcomings of Soviet-type planned economies was their failure to create rules and operational criteria for the efficient operation of state enterprises and the lack of democracy in the political systems that the Soviet-type economies were combined with.[169]

Parliamentary democratic socialist parties[edit]

The following is a list of socialist parties and democratic socialist parties around the world.

  •   a governing party (including as junior coalition partner)
Party Country Date established % of popular vote
in the latest election
Seats in the lower house
(if bicameral)
Sandinista National Liberation Front  Nicaragua 1961 65.9% (2016)
71 / 92 (77%)
Movement for Socialism  Bolivia 1998 61.4% (2014)
88 / 130 (68%)
PAIS Alliance  Ecuador 2006 39.07% (2017)
74 / 137 (54%)
Labour Party  United Kingdom 1900 40.0% (2017)
262 / 650 (40%)
Socialist Party  Portugal 1973 32.31% (2015)
86 / 230 (37%)
Inuit Ataqatigiit[170]  Greenland 1976 33.5% (2014)
11 / 31 (35%)
United Socialist Party  Venezuela 2007 40.9% (2015)
52 / 165 (32%)
Sinn Féin[171][172]  Northern Ireland 1970 26.2% (2011)
29 / 108 (27%)
Party of Socialists[173]  Moldova 1997 20.5% (2014)
25 / 101 (25%)
Left-Green Movement[174]  Iceland 1999 16.9% (2017)
11 / 63 (17%)
Broad Front  Peru 2013 13.9% (2016)
20 / 130 (15%)
Sinn Féin[171]  Ireland 1970 13.8% (2016)
23 / 166 (14%)
Workers' Party  Brazil 1980 13.9% (2014)
58 / 513 (11%)
Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP)[175][176]  Turkey 2012 10.8% (11/2015)
59 / 550 (11%)
The Left (Die Linke)[177]  Germany 2007 9.2% (2017)
69 / 709 (10%)
Socialist Party  Netherlands 1971 9.1% (2017)
14 / 150 (9%)
Socialist Party  Serbia 1990 10.9% (2016)
20 / 250 (8%)
Red–Green Alliance  Denmark 1989 7.8% (2015)
14 / 179 (8%)
Armenian Revolutionary Federation[178][179]  Armenia 1890 6.58% (2017)
7 / 105 (7%)
United Left [180]  Slovenia 2014 6% (2014)
6 / 90 (7%)
Left Alliance[181]  Finland 1990 7.1% (2015)
12 / 200 (6%)
Left Party  Sweden 1917 5.7% (2014)
21 / 349 (6%)
Left Ecology Freedom/Italian Left[182]  Italy 2010 3.2% (2013)
37 / 630 (6%)
Labourists – Labour Party[183]  Croatia 2010 5.1% (2011)
6 / 151 (4%)
Socialist Left[184]  Norway 1975 4.1% (2013)
7 / 169 (4%)
The Left[185]  Luxembourg 1999 4.9% (2013)
2 / 60 (3%)
La France insoumise[186]  France 2016 11.03% (2017)
17 / 577 (3%)
Movement of Socialist Democrats  Tunisia 1978 N/A (2014)
1 / 217 (0.5%)

Notable self-described democratic socialists[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Heads of state[edit]

Other politicians[edit]

Intellectuals and activists[edit]

Criticism[edit]

Compatibility of "socialism" and "democracy"[edit]

Some politicians, economists, and theorists have argued that "socialism" and "democracy" are incompatible. For instance, economist Milton Friedman stated that "a society which is socialist cannot also be democratic, in the sense of guaranteeing individual freedom".[252] Sociologist Robert Nisbet argued in 1978 that there is "not a single free socialism to be found anywhere in the world".[252]

Irving Kristol argued: "Democratic socialism turns out to be an inherently unstable compound, a contradiction in terms. Every social-democratic party, once in power, soon finds itself choosing, at one point after another, between the socialist society it aspires to and the liberal society that lathered [sic – fathered?] it". He added: "[S]ocialist movements end up [in] a society where liberty is the property of the state, and is (or is not) doled out to its citizens along with other contingent 'benefits'".[252]

Richard Pipes wrote:[252]

The merger of political and economic power implicit in socialism greatly strengthens the ability of the state and its bureaucracy to control the population. Theoretically, this capacity need not be exercised and need not lead to growing domination of the population by the state. In practice, such a tendency is virtually inevitable. For one thing, the socialization of the economy must lead to a numerical growth of the bureaucracy required to administer it, and this process cannot fail to augment the power of the state. For another, socialism leads to a tug of war between the state, bent on enforcing it's economic monopoly, and the ordinary citizen, equally determined to evade it; the result is repression and the creation of specialized repressive organs.

According to Michael Makovi: "An economic analysis of the political institutions of democratic socialism shows that democratic socialism must necessarily fail for political (not economic) reasons even if nobody in authority has ill-intentions or abuses their power".[253]

Response[edit]

One of the major scholars who have argued that socialism and democracy are compatible is the Austrian-born American economist Joseph Schumpeter, who was hostile to socialism.[254] In his book Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (first published in 1942), he "emphasize[s] that political democracy was thoroughly compatible with socialism in its fullest sense, noting that he didn't believe that democracy was a good political system, but rather advocated to republican values. [252]

In a 1963 address to the All India Congress Committee, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru stated: "Political Democracy has no meaning if it does not embrace economic democracy. And economic democracy is nothing but socialism".[255]

Political historian Theodore Draper wrote: "I know of no political group which has resisted totalitarianism in all its guises more steadfastly than democratic socialists".[252]

Robert Heilbroner: "There is, of course, no conflict between such a socialism and freedom as we have described it; indeed, this conception of socialism is the very epitome of these freedoms", referring to open association of individuals in political and social life; the democratization and humanization of work; and the cultivation of personal talents and creativities.[252]

Bayard Rustin wrote:[252]

For me, socialism has meaning only if it is democratic. Of the many claimants to socialism only one has a valid title—that socialism which views democracy as valuable per se, which stands for democracy unequivocally, and which continually modifies socialist ideas and programs in the light of democratic experience. This is the socialism of the labor, social-democratic, and socialist parties of Western Europe.

Kenneth Arrow argued: "We cannot be sure that the principles of democracy and socialism are compatible until we can observe a viable society following both principles. But there is no convincing evidence or reasoning which would argue that a democratic-socialist movement is inherently self-contradictory. Nor need we fear that gradual moves in the direction of increasing government intervention will lead to an irreversible move to "serfdom" [referring to The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich Hayek]".[252]

William Pfaff wrote: "It might be argued that socialism ineluctably breeds state bureaucracy, which then imposes its own kinds of restrictions upon individual liberties. This is what the Scandinavians complain about. But Italy's champion bureaucracy owes nothing to socialism. American bureaucracy grows as luxuriantly and behaves as officiously as any other".[252]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Busky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8.ISBN 978-0275968861. Democratic socialism is the wing of the socialist movement that combines a belief in a socially owned economy with that of political democracy.
  2. ^ Anderson and Herr, Gary L. and Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. p. 448. ISBN 978-1412918121. Some have endorsed the concept of market socialism, a post-capitalist economy that retains market competition but socializes the means of production, and in some versions, extends democracy to the workplace. Some holdout for a nonmarket,participatory economy. All democratic socialists agree on the need for a democratic alternative to capitalism.
  3. ^ a b Curian, Alt, Chambers, Garrett, Levi, McClain, George Thomas, James E., Simone, Geoffrey, Margaret, Paula D. (October 12, 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401.ISBN 978-1933116440. Though some democratic socialists reject the revolutionary model and advocate a peaceful transformation to socialism carried out by democratic means, they also reject the social democratic view that capitalist societies can be successfully reformed through extensive state intervention within capitalism. In the view of democratic socialists, capitalism, based on the primacy of private property, generates inherent inequalities of wealth and power and a dominant egoism that are incompatible with the democratic values of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Only a socialist society can fully realize democratic practices. The internal conflicts within capitalism require a transition to socialism. Private property must be superseded by a form of collective ownership.
  4. ^ Busky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8.ISBN 978-0275968861. Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasize by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism.
  5. ^ Curian, Alt, Chambers, Garrett, Levi, McClain, George Thomas, James E., Simone, Geoffrey, Margaret, Paula D. (October 12, 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401.ISBN 978-1933116440. Democratic socialism is a term meant to distinguish a form of socialism that falls somewhere between authoritarian and centralized forms of socialism on the one hand and social democracy on the other. The rise of authoritarian socialism in the twentieth century in the Soviet Union and its sphere of influence generated this new distinction.
  6. ^ Prychito, David L. (July 31, 2002). Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1840645194. It is perhaps less clearly understood that advocates of democratic socialism (who are committed to socialism in the above sense but opposed to Stalinist-style command planning) advocate a decentralized socialism, whereby the planning process itself (the integration of all productive units into one huge organization) would follow the workers’ self-management principle.
  7. ^ Eatwell & Wright, Roger & Anthony (March 1, 1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies: Second Edition. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 80. ISBN 978-0826451736. So too with ‘democratic socialism’, a term coined by its adherents as an act of disassociation from the twentieth-century realities of undemocratic socialism…but also, at least in some modes, intended to reaffirm a commitment to system transformation rather than a merely meliorist social democracy.
  8. ^ Anderson and Herr, Gary L. and Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications, inc. p. 447. ISBN 978-1412918121. ...the division between social democrats and democratic socialists. The former had made peace with capitalism and concentrated on humanizing the system. Social democrats supported and tried to strengthen the basic institutions of the welfare state--pensions for all, public health care, public education, unemployment insurance. They supported and tried to strengthen the labor movement. The latter, as socialists, argued that capitalism could never be sufficiently humanized, and that trying to suppress the economic contradictions in one area would only see them emerge in a different guise elsewhere. (E.g., if you push unemployment too low, you'll get inflation; if job security is too strong, labor discipline breaks down.)
  9. ^ Sargent, Lyman Tower (2008). "The Principles of Democratic Socialism". Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis, 14th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 117. ISBN 978-0495569398.Democratic socialism can be characterized as follows: *Much property held by the public through a democratically elected government, including most major industries, utilities, and transportation systems *A limit on the accumulation of private property *Governmental regulation of the economy *Extensive publicly financed assistance and pension programs *Social costs and the provision of services added to purely financial considerations as the measure of efficiency. Publicly held property is limited to productive property and significant infrastructure; it does not extend to personal property, homes, and small businesses.
  10. ^ Because many communists now call themselves democratic socialists, it is sometimes difficult to know what a political label really means. As a result, social democratic has become a common new label for democratic socialist political parties." Lyman Tower Sargent. Contemporary Political Ideologies A Comparative Analysis Fourteenth Edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2009. pg. 117
  11. ^ "Crosland’s response to 1951 was to develop his ‘revisionist’ theory of socialism, what today we call democratic socialism or ‘social democracy’. By freeing Labour from past fixations that social change had rendered redundant, and by offering fresh objectives to replace those which had already been achieved or whose relevance had faded over time, Crosland showed how socialism made sense in modern society." Peter Hain. Back to the future of socialism, Policy Press (26 January 2015). pg. 3
  12. ^ Sargent, Lyman Tower (2008). "The Principles of Democratic Socialism". Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis, 14th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 118. ISBN 978-0495569398.Still, the origins of contemporary democratic socialism are best located in the early to mid-nineteenth century writings of the so-called utopian socialists, Robert Owen (1771-18588), Charles Fourier (1772-1837), Claude-Henri Saint-Simon (1760-1825), and Etienne Cabet (1788-1856). All these writers proposed village communities combining industrial and agricultural production, owned in varying ways, by the inhabitants themselves. Thus the essence of early socialism was public ownership of the means of production. These theorists also included varying forms of democratic political decision making, but they all distrusted the ability of people raised under capitalism to understand what was in their own best interest.
  13. ^ Busky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0275968861. Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasize by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism.
  14. ^ Peter Hain Ayes to the Left Lawrence and Wishart.
  15. ^ "Towards a Democratic Socialism," New Left Review I/109, May–June 1978.
  16. ^ Draper 1966, Chapter 7: The "Revisionist" Facade.
  17. ^ Draper 1966, Chapter 8: The 100% American Scene.
  18. ^ This tendency is captured in this statement: Anthony Crosland "argued that the socialisms of the pre-war world (not just that of the Marxists, but of the democratic socialists too) were now increasingly irrelevant." Pierson, Chris (2005). "Lost property: What the Third Way lacks". Journal of Political Ideologies. 10 (2): 145–163. doi:10.1080/13569310500097265.. Other texts which use the terms "democratic socialism" in this way include Malcolm Hamilton Democratic Socialism in Britain and Sweden (St Martin's Press 1989).
  19. ^ See pp. 7–8.
  20. ^ See John Medearis, "Schumpeter, the New Deal, and Democracy," The American Political Science Review, 1997.
  21. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference constitution was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ "How we work – How the party works". Labour.org.uk. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  23. ^ Lyman Tower Sargent. Contemporary Political Ideologies. A Comparative Analysis. Fourteenth Edition. University of Missouri—St. Louis. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2009. pg. 118.
  24. ^ "Doesn't socialism mean that the government will own and run everything?". Democratic Socialists of America. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  25. ^ "About DSA". Democratic Socialists of America. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  26. ^ Peter Hain. Back to the future of socialism, Policy Press (26 January 2015), pp. 133–148
  27. ^ Robert M Page, "Without a Song in their Heart: New Labour, the Welfare State and the Retreat from Democratic Socialism," Jnl Soc. Pol., 36, 1, 19–37. 2007.
  28. ^ For example, David Miller, Market, State, and Community: Theoretical Foundations of Market Socialism (Oxford University Press, 1990).
  29. ^ What is Democratic Socialism? Questions and Answers from the Democratic Socialists of America.
  30. ^ Paul T. Christensen "Perestroika and the Problem of Socialist Renewal" Social Text 1990.
  31. ^ Honneth, Axel (1995). "The Limits of Liberalism: On the Political-Ethical Discussion Concerning Communitarianism". In Honneth, Axel. The Fragmented World of the Social. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 231–247. ISBN 0-7914-2300-X.
  32. ^ Andrew Vincent. Modern political ideologies. Wiley-Blackwell publishing. 2010. p. 88
  33. ^ Nik Brandal, Øivind Bratberg and Dag Einar Thorsen. The Nordic Model of Social Democracy. Pallgrave-Macmillan. 2013. p. 20
  34. ^ a b c "Adam Smith". Fsmitha.com. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  35. ^ "2:BIRTH OF THE SOCIALIST IDEA". Anu.edu.au. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  36. ^ Newman, Michael. (2005) Socialism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280431-6
  37. ^ Donald Busky, "Democratic Socialism in Great Britain and Ireland," Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey, pp. 83–5 on Morris, pp. 91–109 on Hardie and the ILP. On Morris as democratic socialist, see also volume 3 of David Reisman, ed., Democratic Socialism in Britain: Classic Texts in Economic and Political Thought, 1825–1952 and E P Thompson, William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary (London: Merlin, 1977). On the ILP as democratic socialist, see also The ILP: A Very Brief History; James, David, Jowitt, Tony, and Laybourn, Keith, eds. The Centennial History of the Independent Labour Party. Halifax: Ryburn, 1992.
  38. ^ On Cole as democratic socialist, see also volume 7 of David Reisman, ed, Democratic Socialism in Britain: Classic Texts in Economic and Political Thought, 1825–1952.
  39. ^ Cole, Margaret (1961). The Story of Fabian Socialism. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804700917.
  40. ^ Discovering Imperialism: Social Democracy to World War I, 25 November 2011. (p. 249): "the pro-imperialist majority, led by Sidney Webb and George Bernard Shaw, advanced an intellectual justification for central control by the British Empire, arguing that existing institutions should simply work more 'efficiently'."
  41. ^ The Second (Socialist) International 1889–1923. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  42. ^ a b George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962). pp. 263–64
  43. ^ Marx, Engels, Communist Manifesto, Selected Works, p. 52
  44. ^ Donald Busky "Democratic Socialism in North America" Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey especially pp. 150–154.
  45. ^ Robert John Fitrakis, "The idea of democratic socialism in America and the decline of the Socialist Party: Eugene Debs, Norman Thomas and Michael Harrington. (Volumes I and II) Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine." (January 1, 1990). ETD Collection for Wayne State University. Paper AAI9029621. See also "What is Democratic Socialism? Questions and Answers from the Democratic Socialists of America."
  46. ^ Note that the Socialist Party of America was also known at various times in its long history as the Socialist Party of the United States (as early as the 1910s) and Socialist Party USA (as early as 1935, most common in the 1960s). The original, official name of the organization was Socialist Party of America.
  47. ^ James Weinstein, The Decline of Socialism in America, 1912-1925, New York: Vintage Books, 1969, pp. 116–118 (Tables 2 and 3).
  48. ^ Rubio, José Luis. Las internacionales obreras en América. Madrid: 1971. p. 49
  49. ^ Kowalski, Werner. Geschichte der sozialistischen arbeiter-internationale: 1923 - 19. Berlin: Dt. Verl. d. Wissenschaften, 1985. p. 286
  50. ^ Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 52
  51. ^ Declaration of the RSDLP (Bolsheviks) group at the Constituent Assembly meeting 5 January 1918 Lenin, Collected Works, Vol 26, p. 429. Lawrence and Wishart (1964)
  52. ^ Draft Decree on the Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly Lenin, Collected Works, Vol 26, p. 434. Lawrence and Wishart (1964)
  53. ^ Payne, Robert; "The Life and Death of Lenin", Grafton: paperback, pp. 425–40
  54. ^ Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 177
  55. ^ Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 197
  56. ^ Carr, E.H. – The Bolshevik Revolution 1917–1923. W. W. Norton & Company 1985.
  57. ^ Avrich, Paul. "Russian Anarchists and the Civil War", Russian Review, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Jul. 1968), pp. 296–306. Blackwell Publishing
  58. ^ Guttridge, Leonard F. (1 August 2006). Mutiny: A History of Naval Insurrection. Naval Institute Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-59114-348-2.
  59. ^ Smele, Jonathan (15 June 2006). The Russian Revolution and Civil War 1917–1921: An Annotated Bibliography. Continuum. p. 336. ISBN 978-1-59114-348-2.
  60. ^ Avrich, Paul. Kronstadt 1921. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08721-4.
  61. ^ Noel-Schwartz, Heather. The Makhnovists & The Russian Revolution – Organization, Peasantry and Anarchism. Archived on Internet Archive. Accessed October 2010.
  62. ^ Peter Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, PM Press (2010), p. 473.
  63. ^ Skirda, Alexandre, Nestor Makhno: Anarchy's Cossack. AK Press, 2004, p. 34
  64. ^ Serge, Victor, From Lenin to Stalin, p. 55
  65. ^ "Les trente glorieuses: 1945–1975". Sund.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  66. ^ "Nationalisation of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1951". Yourarchives.nationalarchives.gov.uk. 11 June 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  67. ^ Crosland, Anthony, The Future of Socialism, pp. 9, 89. (Constable, 2006)
  68. ^ "The New Commanding Height: Labour Party Policy on North Sea Oil and Gas, 1964–74" in Contemporary British History, vol., Issue 1, Spring 2002, pp. 89–118.
  69. ^ "home : UK steel : EEF". UK steel. 12 September 2013. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  70. ^ Bevan, Aneurin, In Place of Fear, 2nd ed. (MacGibbon and Kee, 1961), p. 104
  71. ^ Beckett, Francis, Clem Attlee (Politico's, 2007) p. 247.
  72. ^ Globalization and Taxation: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State. By Sven Steinmo.
  73. ^ Esping-Andersen, G. (1991). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  74. ^ John Rettie, "The day Khrushchev denounced Stalin", BBC, 18 February 2006.
  75. ^ Within the Italian Communist Party (PCI) a split ensued: most ordinary members and the Party leadership, including Palmiro Togliatti and Giorgio Napolitano, regarded the Hungarian insurgents as counter-revolutionaries, as reported in l'Unità, the official PCI newspaper. The following are references in English on the conflicting positions of l'Unità, Antonio Giolitti and party boss Palmiro Togliatti, Giuseppe Di Vittorio and Pietro Nenni.
  76. ^ However, Giuseppe Di Vittorio (chief of the Communist trade union CGIL) repudiated the leadership position as did the prominent party members Antonio Giolitti, Loris Fortuna and many other influential communist intellectuals, who later were expelled or left the party. Pietro Nenni, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party, a close ally of the PCI, opposed the Soviet intervention as well. Napolitano, elected in 2006 as President of the Italian Republic, wrote in his 2005 political autobiography that he regretted his justification of Soviet action in Hungary and that at the time he believed in party unity and the international leadership of Soviet communism.Napolitano, Giorgio (2005). Dal Pci al socialismo europeo. Un'autobiografia politica (From the Communist Party to European Socialism. A political autobiography) (in Italian). Laterza. ISBN 978-88-420-7715-2.
  77. ^ Within the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB), dissent that began with the repudiation of Stalin by John Saville and E.P. Thompson, influential historians and members of the Communist Party Historians Group, culminated in a loss of thousands of party members as events unfolded in Hungary. Peter Fryer, correspondent for the CPGB newspaper The Daily Worker, reported accurately on the violent suppression of the uprising, but his dispatches were heavily censored; Fryer resigned from the paper upon his return, and was later expelled from the Communist Party. Fryer, Peter (1957). Hungarian Tragedy. London: D. Dobson. Chapter 9 (The Second Soviet Intervention). ASIN B0007J7674.
  78. ^ In France, moderate Communists, such as historian Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, resigned, questioning the policy of supporting Soviet actions by the French Communist Party. The French anarchist philosopher and writer Albert Camus wrote an open letter, The Blood of the Hungarians, criticising the West's lack of action. Even Jean-Paul Sartre, still a determined Communist Party member, criticised the Soviets in his article Le Fantôme de Staline, in Situations VII. Sartre, Jean-Paul (1956), L’intellectuel et les communistes français (in French)[permanent dead link] Le Web de l'Humanite, 21 June 2005. Retrieved 24 October 2006.
  79. ^ Donald Busky, "Democratic Socialism in Great Britain and Ireland," Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey, pp. 83–5 on Morris, pp. 91–109 on Hardie and the ILP. On Morris as democratic socialist, see also volume 3 of David Reisman, ed., Democratic Socialism in Britain: Classic Texts in Economic and Political Thought, 1825–1952 and E P Thompson, William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary (London: Merlin, 1977). On the ILP as democratic socialist, see also The ILP: A Very Brief History; James, David, Jowitt, Tony, and Laybourn, Keith, eds. The Centennial History of the Independent Labour Party. Halifax: Ryburn, 1992.
  80. ^ a b Carmines, Edward G., and Geoffrey C. Layman. 1997. "Issue Evolution in Postwar American Politics." In Byron Shafer, ed., Present Discontents. NJ:Chatham House Publishers.
  81. ^ Cynthia Kaufman (2003). Ideas for Action: Relevant Theory for Radical Change. South End Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-89608-693-7.
  82. ^ Todd Gitlin, "The Left's Lost Universalism". In Arthur M. Melzer, Jerry Weinberger and M. Richard Zinman, eds., Politics at the Turn of the Century, pp. 3–26 (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).
  83. ^ Farred, Grant (2000). "Endgame Identity? Mapping the New Left Roots of Identity Politics". New Literary History. 31 (4): 627–48. doi:10.1353/nlh.2000.0045. JSTOR 20057628.
  84. ^ Jeffrey W. Coker. Confronting American Labor: The New Left Dilemma. Univ of Missouri Press, 2002.
  85. ^ Pearson, Hugh (1994). In the Shadow of the Panther: Huey Newton and the Price of Black Power in America. Perseus Books. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-201-48341-3.
  86. ^ Isserman, Maurice (2001). The Other American: The Life of Michael Harrington. Public Affairs. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-58648-036-3.
  87. ^ "There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism."Franklin, Robert Michael (1990). Liberating Visions: Human Fulfillment and Social Justice in African-American Thought. Fortress Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-8006-2392-0.
  88. ^ Devlin, Kevin. "Western CPs Condemn Invasion, Hail Prague Spring". Open Society Archives. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
  89. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Catholicism (Harper Collins, 1994), chapter IV.
  90. ^ "One manifestation of this connection was liberation theology – sometimes characterised as an attempt to marry Marx and Jesus – which emerged among Roman Catholic theologians in Latin America in the 1960s." "socialism" at Encyclopedia Britannica Online
  91. ^ "Profile of Salvador Allende". BBC. 8 September 2003.
  92. ^ Blakeley, Ruth (2009). State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. Routledge. p. 22 & 23. ISBN 978-0415686174.
  93. ^ Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9004156917 pp. 71
  94. ^ McSherry, J. Patrice (2011). "Chapter 5: "Industrial repression" and Operation Condor in Latin America". In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R. Huttenbach; Daniel Feierstein. State Violence and Genocide in Latin America: The Cold War Years (Critical Terrorism Studies). Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-415-66457-8.
  95. ^ Robert Buddan (8 March 2009). "Michael Manley: nation-builder". Jamaica Gleaner. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  96. ^ "Where Would Jamaica Be Without Michael Manley?". Jamaica Gleaner. 12 August 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
  97. ^ Harvey, David (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0199283279.
  98. ^ Webster, Dictionary. "Definition of Eurocommunism". Dictionary Entry. Webster's Dictionary. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  99. ^ The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of South America, Routledge, 1989
  100. ^ "About DSA". Democratic Socialists of America. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  101. ^ a b c Nordsieck, Wolfram. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu.
  102. ^ Dimitrakopoulos, Dionyssis G.; Passas, Argyris G. (2011), "The Panhellenic Socialist Movement and European integration: The primacy of the leader", Social democracy and European integration, Taylor & Francis, pp. 117–156
  103. ^ Dimitri Almeida (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. Routledge. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-415-69374-5.
  104. ^ Καταστατικό ΠΑΣΟΚ (PDF) (in Greek). ΠΑΣΟΚ. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  105. ^ Klein, Naomi (2008). The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Picador. ISBN 0312427999 p. 276
  106. ^ Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy). Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108
    • "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model."
  107. ^ "1990 CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  108. ^ Oldfield, J.D. (2000) Structural economic change and the natural environment in the Russian Federation. Post-Communist Economies, 12(1): 77–90
  109. ^ D. J. Peterson (1993). Troubled Lands: The Legacy of Soviet Environmental Destruction (A Rand Research Study). Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813316741. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  110. ^ Scheidel, Walter (2017). The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 51 & 222–223. ISBN 978-0691165028.
  111. ^ Milanović, Branko (2015). "After the Wall Fell: The Poor Balance Sheet of the Transition to Capitalism". Challenge. 58 (2): 135–138. doi:10.1080/05775132.2015.1012402.
  112. ^ Gary Teeple (2000). Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform: Into the Twenty-first Century. Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. University of Toronto Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-55193-026-8
  113. ^ Socialist International – Progressive Politics For A Fairer World Archived 22 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  114. ^ Jane Lewis, Rebecca Surender. Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?. Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 3–4, 16.
  115. ^ "Labour Party Clause Four". Labour.org.uk. 30 October 2008. Archived from the original on 11 July 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  116. ^ Ghodsee, Kristen (2017). Red Hangover: Legacies of Twentieth-Century Communism. Duke University Press. pp. xix–xx, 134, 197–200. ISBN 978-0822369493.
  117. ^ Ghodsee, Kristen R. (2014). "A Tale of "Two Totalitarianisms": The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism" (PDF). History of the Present. 4 (2): 115–142. doi:10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115. JSTOR 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115. In addition to the desire for historical exculpation, however, I argue that the current push for commemorations of the victims of communism must be viewed in the context of regional fears of a re-emergent left. In the face of growing economic instability in the Eurozone, as well as massive anti- austerity protests on the peripheries of Europe, the “victims of communism” narrative may be linked to a public relations effort to link all leftist political ideals to the horrors of Stalinism. Such a rhetorical move seems all the more potent when discursively combined with the idea that there is a moral equivalence between Jewish victims of the Holocaust and East European victims of Stalinism. This third coming of the German Historikerstreit is related to the precariousness of global capitalism, and perhaps the elite desire to discredit all political ideologies that threaten the primacy of private property and free markets.
  118. ^ "Basic document | Progressive Alliance". Progressive-alliance.info. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  119. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  120. ^ Demetriou, Danielle (17 October 2008). "Japan's young turn to Communist Party as they decide capitalism has let them down". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  121. ^ "Communism on rise in recession-hit Japan", BBC, 4 May 2009
  122. ^ "Kibbutz reinvents itself after 100 years of history". taipeitimes.com.
  123. ^ Bulletproof Innovation: Kibbutz-Owned Plasan Sasa's Ikea-Style, Flat-Pack Armor Kits, Nadav Shemer, Fast Company.
  124. ^ Carolyn Gregoire (10 September 2013). The Happiest Countries In The World (INFOGRAPHIC). The Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  125. ^ R Goodin and P Pettit (eds), A Companion to Contemporary political philosophy
  126. ^ Hudson, Kate (19 June 2012). The New European Left: A Socialism for the Twenty-First Century?. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-137-26511-1.
  127. ^ "Germany's Left Party woos the SPD". Wsws.org. 15 February 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  128. ^ "Germany: Left makes big gains in poll | Green Left Weekly". Greenleft.org.au. 10 October 2009. Archived from the original on 17 December 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  129. ^ "Nation and World News – El Paso Times". 30 May 2012. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012.
  130. ^ "Danish centre-right wins election". BBC News. 14 November 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  131. ^ "Global Daily – Europe's political risks". ABN AMRO Insights.
  132. ^ "Anti-establishment parties defy EU". BBC News.
  133. ^ Wheeler, Brian (22 May 2009). "Crow launches NO2EU euro campaign". BBC News. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  134. ^ "Exclusive: Tommy Sheridan to stand for Euro elections". The Daily Record. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  135. ^ "Conference: Crisis in Working Class Representation". RMT. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  136. ^ "Launch of Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition". Socialistparty.org.uk. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  137. ^ Mulholland, Hélène (27 March 2010). "Hard left Tusc coalition to stand against Labour in 40 constituencies". London: Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  138. ^ "Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition". TUSC. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  139. ^ "How do we vote to stop the cuts?". Socialist Party. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  140. ^ "The Labour party has failed us. We need a new party of the left". The Guardian. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  141. ^ Seymour, Richard. "Left Unity: A Report From The Founding Conference". newleftproject.org. New Left Project. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  142. ^ "'Left Unity' a New Radical Political Party of the Left". Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  143. ^ "RT News reports on Left Unity's founding conference". Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  144. ^ "Jeremy Corbyn's policies: how will he lead Labour?". The Week. UK. 12 September 2015.
  145. ^ "Has France moved to the right?". Socialism Today. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  146. ^ "Le Nouveau parti anticapitaliste d'Olivier Besancenot est lancé". Agence France-Presse. 29 June 2008.
  147. ^ Sky news:Spanish voters punish mainstream parties Archived 9 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  148. ^ "Vote 2014". bbc.co.uk.
  149. ^ Estado, Boletín Oficial del (12 June 2014). "Acuerdo de la Junta Electoral Central, por el que se procede a la publicación de los resultados de las elecciones de Diputados al Parlamento Europeo".
  150. ^ "Presidente da República indicou Secretário-Geral do PS para Primeiro-Ministro" (in Portuguese). Presidência da República. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  151. ^ Paul, Ari (19 November 2013). Seattle's election of Kshama Sawant shows socialism can play in America. The Guardian. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  152. ^ Lerer, Lisa (16 July 2009). "Where's the outrage over AIG bonuses?". The Politico. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
  153. ^ Powell, Michael (6 November 2006). "Exceedingly Social But Doesn't Like Parties". Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  154. ^ Sanders, Bernie (26 May 2013). What Can We Learn From Denmark? The Huffington Post. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  155. ^ Sasha Issenberg (9 January 2010). "Sanders a growing force on the far, far left". Boston Globe. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
    • "You go to Scandinavia, and you will find that people have a much higher standard of living, in terms of education, health care, and decent paying jobs." – Bernie Sanders
  156. ^ "PARTY STANDINGS 41st Parliament seats".
  157. ^ Cite error: The named reference britannica.com1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  158. ^ Many Venezuelans Uncertain About Chávez' '21st century Socialism' Archived 12 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  159. ^ "Nicolas Maduro sworn in as new Venezuelan president". BBC News. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  160. ^ Gross, Neil (14 January 2007). "The many stripes of anti-Americanism – The Boston Globe". Boston.com. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  161. ^ "South America's leftward sweep". BBC News. 2 March 2005. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  162. ^ McNickle, Colin (6 March 2005). "Latin America's 'pragmatic' pink tide – Pittsburgh Tribune-Review". Pittsburghlive.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  163. ^ Cf. Carlos Baraibar & José Bayardi: "Foro de San Pablo ¿qué es y cuál es su historia?", 23 August 2000, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  164. ^ Boyle, Peter. "Poll shows 58% of 'Millennials' in Australia favourable to socialism". Green Left Wiki. Retrieved 22/08/2018. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  165. ^ Anderson and Herr, Gary L. and Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. p. 448. ISBN 978-1412918121. Some have endorsed the concept of market socialism, a post-capitalist economy that retains market competition but socializes the means of production, and in some versions, extends democracy to the workplace. Some holdout for a nonmarket, participatory economy. All democratic socialists agree on the need for a democratic alternative to capitalism.
  166. ^ Prychito, David L. (July 31, 2002). Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1840645194. It is perhaps less clearly understood that advocates of democratic socialism (who are committed to socialism in the above sense but opposed to Stalinist-style command planning) advocate a decentralized socialism, whereby the planning process itself (the integration of all productive units into one huge organization) would follow the workers' self-management principle.
  167. ^ The Socialist Party's Appeal, by Debs, Eugene. 1912. The Independent.
  168. ^ Thomas, Norman (2 February 1936). Is the New Deal Socialism? (Speech). Chicago Democratic Socialists of America. Archived from the original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  169. ^ Gregory and Stuart, Paul and Robert (2003). Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First. South-Western College Pub. p. 152. ISBN 0-618-26181-8. ..market socialism's contemporary supporters argue that planned socialism failed because it was based on totalitarianism rather than democracy and that it failed to create rules for the efficient operation of state enterprises.
  170. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram. "Parties and Elections in Europe". www.parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
  171. ^ a b "What Sinn Féin stands for". sinnfein.ie. Sinn Féin. Sinn Féin is a 32-County party striving for an end to partition on the island of Ireland and the establishment of a democratic socialist republic.
  172. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  173. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram. "Parties and Elections in Europe". www.parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  174. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  175. ^ Ozcelik, Burcu (11 June 2015). "What the HDP Success Means for Turkey". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The pro-Kurdish democratic socialist Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP)...
  176. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  177. ^ Evans, Alex (16 September 2013). "Your Guide - The Left Party (Die Linke)". The Local. Die Linke describe themselves as the party of democratic socialism...
  178. ^ Armenian Revolutionary Federation Program (PDF). The Armenian Revolutionary Federation in its world outlook and traditions is essentially a socialist, democratic, and revolutionary party.
  179. ^ "Դաշնակցության սոցիալիզմի մոդելը [The Socialist Model of Dashnaktsutyun]". parliamentarf.am (in Armenian). Armenian Revolutionary Federation faction in the National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia. 9 July 2011.
  180. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  181. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  182. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  183. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  184. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  185. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  186. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "France". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  187. ^ Dann, Liam (6 August 2017). "Liam Dann: Not another Jacinda Ardern column". NZ Herald. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  188. ^ Patsouras, Louis (2005). Marx in Context. iUniverse. p. 265. In Chile, where a large democratic socialist movement was in place for decades, a democratic socialist, Salvadore Allende, led a popular front electoral coalition, including Communists, to victory in 1970.
  189. ^ Medina, Eden (2014). Cybernetic Revolutionaries: Technology and Politics in Allende's Chile. MIT Press. p. 39. ...in Allende's democratic socialism.
  190. ^ Winn, Peter (2004). Victims of the Chilean Miracle: Workers and Neoliberalism in the Pinochet Era, 1973–2002. Duke University Press. p. 16. The Allende government that Pinochet overthrew in 1973 had been elected in 1970 on a platform of pioneering a democratic road to a democratic socialism.
  191. ^ Stephen Schlesinger (June 3, 2011). Ghosts of Guatemala's Past. The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  192. ^ Morgan, Kenneth O. (2001). Britain Since 1945: The People's Peace. Oxford University Press. p. 111. The last years of Attlee's democratic socialist regime...
  193. ^ Beech, Matt (2012). "The British Welfare State and its Discontents". In Connelly, James; Hayward, Jack. The Withering of the Welfare State: Regression. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 90. Attlee's goal was a democratic socialist society...
  194. ^ Livingston Hall, Anthony (2007). The Ipinions Journal: Commentaries on Current Events, Volume 2. iUniverse. p. 18. Chileans elected Michelle Bachelet as their new president ... Because her advocacy of democratic socialism.
  195. ^ Gal, Allon (1991). David Ben-Gurion and the American Alignment for a Jewish State. Indiana University Press. p. 216. Ben-Gurion, Zionist and socialist-democrat...
  196. ^ Jones, Clive A. (2013). Soviet Jewish Aliyah, 1989-92: Impact and Implications for Israel and the Middle East. Routledge. p. 61. ...Mapai, the democratic socialist party of David Ben Gurion.
  197. ^ Cohen, Mitchell (12 June 2015). "'Léon Blum: Prime Minister, Socialist, Zionist,' by Pierre Birnbaum". New York Times. Blum declared that he was what Nazis "hated most, . . . a democratic socialist and a Jew."
  198. ^ Gress, David (1 July 1983). "Whatever Happened to Willy Brandt?". Commentary.
  199. ^ a b c d e f g h Sargent, Lyman (2008). Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis. Cengage Learning. p. 118.
  200. ^ "Hugo Chavez". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Campaigning as a democratic socialist, Chávez...
  201. ^ a b c d e f g Navarro, Armando (2012). Global Capitalist Crisis and the Second Great Depression: Egalitarian Systemic Models for Change. Lexington Books. p. 299.
  202. ^ Munck, Ronaldo (2012). Contemporary Latin America. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 119. In a broad historical sense Chávez has undoubtedly played a progressive role but he is clearly not a democratic socialist...
  203. ^ a b Patrick Iber "[https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/path-democratic-socialism-lessons-latin-america The Path to Democratic Socialism: Lessons from Latin America" Dissent Spring 2016: "Most of the world's democratic socialist intellectuals have been skeptical of Latin America's examples [including Chavez and Correa), citing their authoritarian qualities and occasional cults of personality. To critics, the appropriate label for these governments is not socialism but populism."
  204. ^ Edwards, Brian (2001). Helen: Portrait of A Prime Minister. Auckland: Exisle Publishing. ISBN 0-908988-20-6.
  205. ^ a b Hanhimäki, Jussi M.; Westad, Odd Arne (2004). The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts. Oxford University Press. p. 441. Palme: Why I am a Democratic Socialist, 1982.
  206. ^ Beaglehole, Tim. "Fraser, Peter - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  207. ^ Sachs, Jeffrey (26 December 2011). "Gorbachev and the Struggle for Democracy". The Huffington Post. During his six years of rule, Gorbachev was intent on renovating Soviet socialism through peaceful and democratic means.
  208. ^ "Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World by Mikhail S. Gorbachev". stetson.edu. 1987. The more socialist democracy there is, the more socialism we will have.[permanent dead link]
  209. ^ Bassett, Michael. "Kirk, Norman Eric". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  210. ^ Benson, Mary (1986). Nelson Mandela. Harmondsworth: Penguin. pp. 231–232. ISBN 9780140089417.
  211. ^ Smith, David James (2010). Young Mandela. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-297-85524-8.
  212. ^ Taylor, Bruce M. (15 March 1989). "In Jamaica, Manley's Success Will Be U.S. Gain". New York Times. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  213. ^ Riemer, Neal; Simon, Douglas (1997). The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 147.
  214. ^ Borsody, Stephen (29 May 1981). "In the wake of Francois Mitterrand's victory". The New York Times. ...a democratic Socialist success, such as President Mitterrand's...
  215. ^ Gustafson, Barry. "Nash, Walter". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  216. ^ Moraes, Frank (2007). Jawaharlal Nehru. Jaico Publishing House. p. 187.
  217. ^ Powers, Roger S.; Vogele, William B.; Bond, Douglas; Kruegler, Christopher (1997). Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action from Act-Up to Women's Suffrage. Taylor & Francis. p. 347. ISBN 9781136764820.
  218. ^ Hoadley, J. Stephen (1975). The Future of Portuguese Timor. Institute of Southeast Asian. p. 25. Ramos Horta during his December 1974 trip to Australia was careful to distinguish between Fretilin and Frelimo, arguing that his own party was a democratic socialist party....
  219. ^ Gustafson, Barry. "Savage, Michael Joseph - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  220. ^ Anwar, Rosihan (2010). Sutan Sjahrir: True Democrat, Fighter for Humanity, 1909–1966. Penerbit Buku Kompas. p. 115. Sjahrir...called the ideology he had thought up and that he followed 'democratic socialism'...(sosialisme kerakyatan).
  221. ^ Astikainen, Arto (20 January 2004). "Kalevi Sorsa (21.12.1930 - 16.1.2004)". Helsingin Sanomat. "We already are in democratic socialism. It will never be much different from this", Sorsa had said ten years earlier.
  222. ^ Stone, Jon (26 January 2015). "Syriza: Everything you need to know about Greece's new Marxist governing party". The Independent. ...a democratic socialist group Synaspismós, which current Syriza leader Alexis Tsipras led.
  223. ^ Adams, Ian (1993). Political Ideology Today. Manchester University Press. p. 139. Tony Benn's socialism is distinctive in the importance he places in combining socialism with radical democracy.
  224. ^ "Tony Benn: Committed Democratic Socialist". Transnational Institute. 22 April 2014.
  225. ^ Duncan Hall (2011). A2 Government and Politics: Ideologies and Ideologies in Action. Lulu.com. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-4477-3399-7.
  226. ^ "How a Socialist Beat One of Virginia's Most Powerful Republicans". Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  227. ^ Calamur, Krishnadev (18 August 2015). "How Jeremy Corbyn Would Govern Britain". theatlantic.com. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  228. ^ Lovick, L.D. (September 30, 2013). "Tommy Douglas". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  229. ^ https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781498515894/The-Political-Philosophy-of-Chief-Obafemi-Awolowo
  230. ^ Ryan, Craig (17 August 2015). "I'm no Bennite. But I'm increasingly tempted by Jeremy Corbyn". New Statesman. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  231. ^ Dabby, George (29 April 2014). "Interview: Denis Healey". York Vision. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  232. ^ "HEALEY, Denis Winston (b.1917)". History of Parliament. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  233. ^ Hill, Dave (2002). Marxism Against Postmodernism in Educational Theory. Lexington Books. p. 188. Tony Benn and Ken Livingstone can be depicted as two of the leaders of the democratic socialist (or 'hard') left...
  234. ^ Bierman, Noah (12 April 2014). "Bernie Sanders seeks to pull Democrats left in 2016 primary". The Boston Globe. The lawmaker, who is possibly the most liberal of all members of Congress — and the only one to call himself a democratic socialist...
  235. ^ Jamieson, Dave (6 May 2015). "Meet The Fist-Shaking Socialist Behind America's Highest Minimum Wage". The Huffington Post. ...identifies as a member of Socialist Alternative, an anti-capitalist, democratic-socialist party.
  236. ^ Richard Heffernan; Mike Marqusee (1992). Defeat from the Jaws of Victory: Inside Kinnock's Labour Party. Verso. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-86091-561-4.
  237. ^ Alan Ryan (1981). Bertrand Russell: A Political Life. Macmillan. p. 87. ISBN 9780374528201. None the less Russell joined the ILP [Independent Labour Party] and declared himself a democratic socialist, then and thereafter.
  238. ^ Isaacson, Walter (2007). Einstein: His Life and Universe. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780743264747. For the rest of his life Einstein would expound a democratic socialism that had a liberal, anti—authoritarian underpinning.
  239. ^ Calaprice, Alice; Lipscombe, Trevor (2005). Albert Einstein: A Biography. Greenwood. p. 61. ISBN 9780313330803. He committed himself to the democratic- socialist goals that became popular among intellectuals in Europe at the time.
  240. ^ Intellect, Manufacturing. "Christopher Hitchens interview on the Clintons (1999)". YouTube. YouTube. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  241. ^ Jones, Owen (OwenJones84). "Modern capitalism is a sham, and why democratic socialism is our only hope" 30 October 2015, 3:41 AM
  242. ^ Sturm, Douglas (1990). "Martin Luther King, Jr., as Democratic Socialist". The Journal of Religious Ethics. 18 (2): 79–105. JSTOR 40015109. The essay argues that King was in fact a democratic socialist...
  243. ^ Osagyefo Uhuru Sekou (20 January 2014). "The radical gospel of Martin Luther King". Al Jazeera. King's democratic socialism...
  244. ^ Hendricks, Obery M. (20 January 2014). "The Uncompromising Anti-Capitalism of Martin Luther King Jr". The Huffington Post. For King the answer was democratic socialism.
  245. ^ Chris Nineham (2007). The Shock Doctrine Book Review. Socialist Review. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  246. ^ Orwell, George (1968) [1958]. Bott, George, ed. Selected Writings. London: Heinemann. p. 103. ISBN 0-435-13675-5. Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it. [italics from printed source]
  247. ^ "Andrei Sakharov". Spartacus Educational. He also advocated the integration of the communist and capitalist systems to form what he called democratic socialism.
  248. ^ Greene, Andy. "Roger Waters on 'The Wall,' Socialism and His Next Concept Album". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  249. ^ "Young Democratic Socialists: Interview With Professor Richard Wolff" Archived 2015-09-09 at the Wayback Machine.. rdwolff.com. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  250. ^ "Howard Zinn's Personal Philosophy". youtube.com. Retrieved on 9 December 2016.
  251. ^ [1] "Ocasio-Cortez discusses 'Democratic Socialist' label"]."politico.com". Retrieved on August 15, 2018.
  252. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Barrett, William, ed. (1 April 1978). "Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy: A Symposium". Commentary. (archived PDF)
  253. ^ Makovi, Michael (2015). "George Orwell and the Incoherence of Democratic Socialism". MPRA Paper 62527. Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.
  254. ^ Horwitz, Morton J. (1994). The Transformation of American Law, 1870–1960 : The Crisis of Legal Orthodoxy: The Crisis of Legal Orthodoxy. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 255. ISBN 9780195092592.
  255. ^ S. Jafar Raza Bilgrami (1965). "Problems of Democratic Socialism". Indian Journal of Political Science. 26 (4): 26–31. JSTOR 41854084.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]