Demographics of Algeria

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Algeria, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Algeria, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Ninety-one percent of the Algerian population lives along the Mediterranean coast on 12% of the country's total land mass. Forty-five percent of the population is urban, and urbanization continues, despite government efforts to discourage migration to the cities. Currently, 24,182,736 Algerians live in urban areas, and about 1.5 million nomads live in the Saharan area.

99% of the population is classified ethnically as Berber and Arabized Berber[1] and 96% religiously as Sunni Muslim, the few non-Sunni Muslims are mainly Ibadis 1.3% from the M'Zab valley (See Islam in Algeria). A mostly foreign Roman Catholic community also about Christians especially Protestant evangelic and almost 500 Jewish, most of them live in Bejaia. The Jewish community of Algeria, which once constituted 2% of the total population, has substantially decreased due to emigration, mostly to France and Israel.

Algeria's educational system has grown rapidly since 1962; in the last 12 years, attendance has doubled to more than 5 million students. Education is free and compulsory to age 16. Despite government allocation of substantial educational resources, population pressures and a serious shortage of teachers have severely strained the system, as have terrorist attacks against the educational infrastructure during the 1990s. Modest numbers of Algerian students study abroad, primarily in French-speaking areas of France and Canada. In 2000, the government launched a major review of the country's educational system.

Housing and medicine continue to be pressing problems in Algeria. Failing infrastructure and the continued influx of people from rural to urban areas has overtaxed both systems. According to the UNDP, Algeria has one of the world's highest per housing unit occupancy rates for housing, and government officials have publicly stated that the country has an immediate shortfall of 1.5 million housing units.

Population[edit]

Vital Statistics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1901 4,739,300 —    
1906 5,231,700 +2.00%
1911 5,563,800 +1.24%
1921 5,804,200 +0.42%
1926 6,066,400 +0.89%
1931 6,553,500 +1.56%
1936 7,234,700 +2.00%
1948 8,681,800 +1.53%
2010 35,600,000 +2.30%
2011 36,300,000 +1.97%
2012 37,100,000 +2.20%
2013 37,900,000 +2.16%
Source: Office National des Statistiques (ONS)[2]

Figures from National Office of Statistics Algeria[3] and United Nations Demographic Yearbook:[4]

Average population (x 1000) (1 January) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1966 13 123 667 000 50.8
1967 13 497 630 000 46.7
1968 13 887 618 000 44.5
1969 14 287 665 000 46.5
1970 14 691 689 000 46.9
1971 15 098 687 000 45.5
1972 15 512 697 000 44.9
1973 15 936 717 000 45.0
1974 16 375 722 000 44.1
1975 16 834 738 000 43.8
1976 17 311 751 000 43.4
1977 17 809 728 000 40.9
1978 18 331 767 000 41.9
1979 18 885 797 000 42.2
1980 19 475 819 000 42.0
1981 20 104 835 000 41.5
1982 20 767 852 000 41.0
1983 21 453 812 000 37.9
1984 22 150 850 000 38.4
1985 22 847 864 000 37.8
1986 23 539 781 000 33.2
1987 24 226 755 000 31.2
1988 24 905 806 000 32.4
1989 25 577 755 000 153 000 602 000 29.5
1990 25 022 775 000 151 000 624 000 30.94 6.03 24.91 4.50
1991 25 643 773 000 155 000 618 000 30.1 6.0 24.1
1992 26 271 799 000 160 000 639 000 30.4 6.1 24.3
1993 26 894 775 000 168 000 607 000 28.8 6.2 22.6
1994 27 496 776 000 180 000 596 000 28.2 6.5 21.7
1995 28 060 711 000 180 000 531 000 25.3 6.4 18.9
1996 28 566 654 000 172 000 482 000 22.9 6.0 16.9
1997 29 045 654 000 178 000 476 000 22.5 6.1 16.4
1998 29 507 607 000 144 000 463 000 20.6 4.9 15.7
1999 29 965 593 643 141 000 452 643 19.8 4.7 15.1
2000 30 416 588 628 140 000 448 628 19.36 4.59 14.77
2001 30 879 618 380 141 000 477 380 20.0 4.6 15.5
2002 31 357 616 963 138 000 478 963 19.7 4.4 15.3
2003 31 848 649 000 145 000 504 000 20.4 4.6 15.8
2004 32 364 669 000 141 000 528 000 20.7 4.4 16.3
2005 32 906 703 000 147 000 556 000 21.4 4.5 16.9
2006 33 481 739 000 144 000 595 000 22.1 4.3 17.8
2007 34 096 783 000 149 000 634 000 23.0 4.4 18.6
2008 34 591 817 000 153 000 664 000 23.62 4.42 19.2 2.81
2009 35 268 849 000 159 000 690 000 24.07 4.51 19.56 2.84
2010 35 978 888 000 157 000 731 000 24.68 4.37 20.31 2.87
2011 36 717 910 000 162 000 748 000 24.78 4.41 20.37 2.87
2012 37 495 978 000 170 000 808 000 26.08 4.53 21.55 3.02
2013 38 297 963 000 168 000 795 000 25.14 4.39 20.75 2.93
2014[5] 39 114 1014 000 174 000 840 000 25.93 4.44 21.49 3.03
2015 39 500

Structure of the population[edit]

Structure of the population (10 000) (2011)
Age Group Female Male Total
00-04 565 534 1099
05-09 435 413 849
10-14 422 404 826
15-19 484 465 949
20-24 522 509 1031
25-29 512 504 1016
30-34 439 430 869
35-39 351 350 701
40-44 303 306 609
45-49 255 256 511
50-54 207 205 412
55-59 172 165 337
60-64 125 120 245
65-69 86 88 174
70-74 75 77 152
75-79 55 57 111
80+ 54 55 109
TOTAL 5061 4939 10 000
Age group Male Female Percent
0-14 14,22 13,51 27,74
15-64 33,70 33,10 66,80
65+ 2,70 2,77 5,46
Structure of the population (10 000) (2012)
Age group Male Female Total
00-04 577 546 1123
05-09 447 423 870
10-14 405 388 792
15-19 463 445 907
20-24 506 492 997
25-29 507 500 1007
30-34 449 439 888
35-39 356 353 709
40-44 304 307 612
45-49 260 261 520
50-54 209 208 418
55-59 174 169 342
60-64 133 127 259
65-69 86 88 174
70-74 75 77 152
75-79 55 58 113
80-84 35 36 72
85+ 21 22 43
TOTAL 5061 4939 10 000
Age group Male Female Percent
0-14 14,29 13,57 27,85
15-64 33,61 33,01 66,59
65+ 2,72 2,81 5,54

Population structure by age and sex (10 000) (01/07/2014)

Age group Male Female Total
00-04 595 563 1158
05-09 478 450 928
10-14 386 369 755
15-19 419 402 821
20-24 471 455 926
25-29 491 484 975
30-34 459 451 910
35-39 371 366 737
40-44 308 310 619
45-49 266 268 534
50-54 216 217 433
55-59 177 175 353
60-64 143 137 280
65-69 92 93 185
70-74 73 76 149
75-79 55 59 115
80-84 37 39 76
85+ 24 24 48
TOTAL 5062 4938 10 000
Age group Male Female Percent
0-14 14,59 13,82 28,41
15-64 33,22 32,65 65,87
65+ 2,81 2,91 5,72

Cities[edit]

Below is a list of the most important Algerian cities:

Ethnic groups[edit]

The Berbers are the indigenous ethnic group of Algeria and are believed to be the ancestral stock on which elements from the Phoenicians, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks as well as other ethnic groups have contributed to the ethnic makeup of Algeria.[6] Descendants of Andalusian refugees are also present in the population of Algiers and other cities.[7] Moreover, Spanish was spoken by these Aragonese and Castillian Morisco descendants deep into the 18th century, and even Catalan was spoken at the same time by Catalan Morisco descendants in the small town of Grish El-Oued.[8]

Algerians in traditional clothes

There are 600,000 to 2 million erstwhile Algerian Turks, descendants of Turk rulers, soldiers, doctors and others who ruled the region during the Ottoman rule in North Africa.[9] Today's Turkish descendants are often called Kouloughlis, meaning descendants of Turkish men and native Algerian women.[10][11]

The majority of Algerians identifies with an Arabic-based culture.[12][13] Berbers are divided into many groups with varying languages. The largest of these are the Kabyles, who live in the Kabylie region east of Algiers, the Chaoui of North-East Algeria, the Tuaregs in the southern desert and the Shenwa people of North Algeria.[14][page needed]

During the colonial period, there was a large (10% in 1960)[15] European population who became known as Pied-Noirs. They were primarily of French, Spanish and Italian origin. Almost all of this population left during the war of independence or immediately after its end.[16]

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Algeria
Religion in Algeria, 2010 (Pew Research)[17]
Religion Percent
Muslim
  
98%
Christian
  
1%
Other
  
0.4%

Islam is the predominant religion with 99% of the population.[18][18] There are about 150,000 Ibadis in the M'zab Valley in the region of Ghardaia.[19]

There were an estimated 10,000 Christians in Algeria in 2008.[20] In a 2009 study the UNO estimated there were 45,000 Catholics[21] and 50,000–100,000 Protestants in Algeria.[21]

Following the Revolution and Algerian independence, all but 6,500 of the country's 140,000 Jews left the country, of whom about 90% moved to France with the Pied-Noirs and 10% moved to Israel.

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Algeria
Traffic sign in Isser in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French

Modern Standard Arabic is the official language.[22] Algerian Arabic (Darja) is the language used by the majority of the population. Colloquial Algerian Arabic is heavily infused with borrowings from French and Berber.

Berber is spoken by one quarter of the population and has been recognized as a "national language" by the constitutional amendment since 8 May 2002.[23] Kabyle, the predominant Berber language, is taught and is partially co-official (with a few restrictions) in parts of Kabylie.

Although French has no official status, Algeria is the second-largest Francophone country in the world in terms of speakers,[24] and French is widely used in government, media (newspapers, radio, local television), and both the education system (from primary school onwards) and academia due to Algeria's colonial history. It can be regarded as the de facto co-official language of Algeria. In 2008, 11.2 million Algerians could read and write in French.[25] An Abassa Institute study in April 2000 found that 60% of households could speak and understand French. In recent decades the government has reinforced the study of French and TV programs have reinforced use of the language.

Algeria emerged as a bilingual state after 1962.[26] Colloquial Algerian Arabic is spoken by about 72% of the population and Berber by 27–30%.[27]

Spoken and popular languages[edit]

Official and recognized languages[edit]

  • Classical Arabic: official language of the state, as defined in the Algerian constitution. Classical Arabic can be read and written by about 40% of Algerians. The language is used in writing only, not in daily conversation.
  • Berber language (Tamazight): recognized as "national language" in the Algerian constitution.

Literacy[edit]

Definition: Age 15 and over can read and write

Total population: 69.9%
Male: 79.6%
Female: 60.1% (2002 est.)

Education expenditures[edit]

5.1% of GDP (1999)

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[29]

Nationality

Noun: Algerian(s)
Adjective: Algerian

Median age

total: 27.6 years
male: 27.4 years
female: 27.8 years (2011 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
-0.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization

Urban population: 66% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 2.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate

Total: 27.73 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 30.86 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 24.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Total: 24.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 27.82 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 21.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total population: 74.73 years
Male: 72.99 years
Female: 76.57 years (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: 0.1% ; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 21,000 (2007 est.)
Deaths: less than 1000 (2007 est.)

Major infectious diseases

Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: cutaneous leishmaniasis is a high risk in some locations (2005)

Genetics[edit]

Y-Dna Haplogroup frequencies in coastal Algeria[edit]

Population Nb E1a E1b1a E1b1b1a E1b1b1b E1b1b1c F K J1 J2 R1a R1b Q Study
1 Oran 102 0 7.85% 5.90% 45.10% 0 0 0 22.50% 4.90% 1% 11.80% 1% Robino et al. (2008)[30]
2 Algiers 35 2.85% 0 11.40% 42.85% 0 11.80% 2.85% 22.85% 5.70% 0 0 0 Arredi et al. (2004)[31]
3 Tizi Ouzou 19 0 0 0 47.35% 10.50% 10.50% 0 15.80% 0 0 15.80% 0 Arredi et al. (2004)
Total 156 0.65% 5.10% 6.40% 44.90% 1.30% 9.58% 0.65% 21.80% 4.50% 0.65% 9.60% 0.65%

In a recent genetic study by Semino et al. (2004), Algerian Arabs and Berbers were found to have more genetic similarities than was once believed.[32] This led scientists to conclude that the North African population was mainly Berber in origin and that the population had been 'Arabised', by the migration of Near-Eastener people.

The Haplogroup J, common marker in Middle-Eastern population is found at near 30% in Algeria, which is one of the most common haplogroup of the country along with E1b1b .

Recent studies on the common J1 Y chromosome suggest it arrived over ten thousand years ago in North Africa, and M81/E3b2 is a Y chromosome specific to North African ancestry, dating to the Neolithic. A thorough study by Arredi et al. (2004) which analyzed populations from Algeria concludes that the North African pattern of Y-chromosomal variation (including both E3b2 and J haplogroups is largely of Neolithic origin, which suggests that the Neolithic transition in this part of the world was accompanied by demic diffusion of Afro-Asiatic–speaking pastoralists from the Middle East. This Neolithic origin was later confirmed by Myles et al. (2005) which suggest that "contemporary Berber populations possess the genetic signature of a past migration of pastoralists from the Middle East",[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y-DNA_J/default.aspx
  2. ^ Office National des Statistiques
  3. ^ "National Office of Statistics". 2015-06-09. 
  4. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2015-06-09. 
  5. ^ http://www.ons.dz/-Demographie-.html
  6. ^ UNESCO (2009). "Diversité et interculturalité en Algérie" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 9. 
  7. ^ Ruedy, John Douglas (2005). Modern Algeria – The Origins and Development of a Nation. Indiana University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780253217820. 
  8. ^ De Epalza, Mikel (2011). El español hablado en Túnez por los moriscos (siglos XVII-XVIII). Universitat de València. pp. 32–38–39–444. ISBN 9788437084152. 
  9. ^ Turkish Embassy in Algeria (2008). "Cezayir Ülke Raporu 2008". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. p. 4. 
  10. ^ Ruedy, John Douglas (2005). Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation. Indiana University Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-253-21782-2. 
  11. ^ Stone, Martin (1997). The Agony of Algeria. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 29. ISBN 1-85065-177-9. 
  12. ^ Stokes, Jamie (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East: L to Z. Infobase Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-4381-2676-0. 
  13. ^ Oxford Business Group (2011). The Report: Algeria 2011. Oxford Business Group. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-907065-37-8. 
  14. ^ Marion Mill Preminger (1961). The sands of Tamanrasset: the story of Charles de Foucauld. Hawthorn Books. 
  15. ^ Cook, Bernard A. (2001). Europe since 1945: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland. p. 398. ISBN 0-8153-4057-5. 
  16. ^ De Azevedo, Raimond Cagiano (1994). Migration and Development Co-Operation. Council of Europe. p. 25. ISBN 9789287126115. 
  17. ^ Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Algeria. Pew Research Center. 2010.
  18. ^ a b "The World Factbook – Algeria". Central Intelligence Agency. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  19. ^ [unreliable source?] "Ibadis and Kharijis". (via Angelfire). Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  20. ^ "Algerian Christian converts fined". BBC News. 3 June 2008. 
  21. ^ a b Deeb, Mary Jane. "Religious minorities" Algeria (Country Study). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; Helen Chapan Metz, ed. December 1993. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.[1]
  22. ^ "Présentation de l'Algérie". French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2013. 
  23. ^ "L'Algérie crée une académie de la langue amazigh". Magharebia.com. Retrieved 17 January 2013. 
  24. ^ "La mondialisation, une chance pour la francophonie". Senat.fr. Retrieved 17 January 2013.  (Archive) "L'Algérie, non-membre de l'Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, comptabilise la seconde communauté francophone au monde, avec environ 16 millions de locuteurs, suivie par la Côte d'Ivoire avec près de 12 millions de locuteurs francophones, le Québec avec 6 millions et la Belgique avec plus de 4 millions de francophones."
  25. ^ "Le dénombrement des francophones" (PDF). Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.  (Archive) p. 9 "Nous y agrégeons néanmoins quelques données disponibles pour des pays n’appartenant pas à l’OIF mais dont nous savons, comme pour l’Algérie (11,2 millions en 20081)," and "1. Nombre de personnes âgées de cinq ans et plus déclarant savoir lire et écrire le français, d’après les données du recensement de 2008 communiquées par l’Office national des statistiques d’Algérie."
  26. ^ New, The (19 November 2008). "Algeria's liberation terrorism and Arabization". blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 17 January 2013. 
  27. ^ Leclerc, Jacques (5 April 2009). "Algérie: Situation géographique et démolinguistique". L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde (in French). Université Laval. Archived from the original on 24 January 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  28. ^ "French article on Languages of Algeria". 
  29. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Algeria
  30. ^ Robino et al. (2008), Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample
  31. ^ Arredi et al. (2004),A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa
  32. ^ Semino et al. (2004), Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J
  33. ^ although later papers have suggested that this date could have been as longas ten thousand years ago, with the transition from the Oranian to the Capsian culture in North Africa. SpringerLink - Journal Article

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2009 edition". and the As of 2003 U.S. Department of State website.