Demographics of Angola

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Angola population pyramid in 2020

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Angola, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Angolas population between 1960 and 2017.

According to 2014 census data, Angola had a population of 25,789,024 inhabitants in 2014.[1] Ethnically, there are three main groups, each speaking a Bantu language: the Ovimbundu who represent 37% of the population, the Ambundu with 25%, and the Bakongo 13%. Other numerically important groups include the closely interrelated Chokwe and Lunda, the Ganguela and Nyaneka-Khumbi (in both cases classification terms that stand for a variety of small groups), the Ovambo, the Herero, the Xindonga and scattered residual groups of San. In addition, mixed race (European and African) people amount to about 2%, with a small (1%) population of whites, mainly ethnically Portuguese.

As a former overseas territory of Portugal until 1975, Angola possesses a Portuguese population of over 200,000, a number that has been growing from 2000 onwards, because of Angola's growing demand for qualified human resources. Currently, over 300,000 Angolans are white, 1 million Angolans are mixed race (black and white) and 50,000 Angolans are from China, which accounts for 1.35 million people. In 1974, white Angolans made up a population of 330,000 to 350,000 people in an overall population of 6.3 million Angolans at that time. The only reliable source on these numbers is Gerald Bender & Stanley Yoder, Whites in Angola on the Eve of Independence: The Politics of Numbers, Africa Today, 21 (4) 1974, pp. 23 – 37. Today, many Angolans who are not ethnic Portuguese can claim Portuguese nationality under Portuguese law. Estimates on the overall population are given in O País[2][3][4] Besides the Portuguese, significant numbers of people from other European and from diverse Latin American countries (especially Brazil) can be found. From the 2000s, many Chinese have settled and started up small businesses, while at least as many have come as workers for large enterprises (construction or other). Observers claim that the Chinese community in Angola might include as many as 300,000 persons at the end of 2010, but reliable statistics are not at this stage available.[5] In 1974/75, over 25,000 Cuban soldiers arrived in Angola to help the MPLA forces at the beginning of the Angolan Civil War. Once this was over, a massive development cooperation in the field of health and education brought in numerous civil personnel from Cuba. However, only a very small percentage of all these people has remained in Angola, either for personal reasons (intermarriage) or as professionals (e.g., medical doctors).

The largest religious denomination is Catholicism, to which adheres about half the population. Roughly 26% are followers of traditional forms of Protestantism (Congregationals, Methodists, Baptista, Lutherans, Reformed), but over the last decades there has in addition been a growth of Pentecostal communities and African Initiated Churches. In 2006, one out of 221 people were Jehovah's Witnesses. Blacks from Mali, Nigeria and Senegal are mostly Sunnite Muslims, but do not make up more than 1 - 2% of the population. By now few Angolans retain African traditional religions following different ethnic faiths.

Population[edit]

Angolas population between 1960 and 2017.

According to the 2022 revision of the world factbook the total population was 34,795,287 in 2022.[6] The proportion of children below the age of 14 in 2020 was 47.83%, 49.87% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.3% was 65 years or older.[6]

Total population[6] Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 4,148,000 41.2 55.7 3.1
1955 4,542,000 42.4 54.9 2.7
1960 4,963,000 43.7 53.6 2.7
1965 5,431,000 45.3 52.0 2.7
1970 5,926,000 46.0 51.3 2.7
1975 6,637,000 46.2 51.1 2.7
1980 7,638,000 46.5 50.8 2.7
1985 9,066,000 47.0 50.4 2.7
1990 10,335,000 47.5 49.9 2.6
1995 12,105,000 47.6 49.8 2.5
2000 13,926,000 47.7 49.9 2.5
2005 16,489,000 47.6 49.9 2.5
2010 19,082,000 46.6 50.9 2.5
2014 25,789,000 47.3 50.3 2.4
2020 32,522,339 47.8 49.9 2.3

Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 16.V.2014):[7]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 12 499 041 13 289 983 25 789 024 100
0–4 2 484 582 2 513 566 4 998 148 19.38
5–9 2 062 888 2 097 287 4 160 174 16.13
10–14 1 504 180 1 533 993 3 038 173 11.78
15–19 1 222 700 1 287 736 2 510 436 9.73
20–24 1 020 699 1 153 802 2 174 501 8.43
25–29 913 726 1 031 323 1 945 050 7.54
30–34 714 239 789 281 1 503 520 5.83
35–39 654 408 728 550 1 382 959 5.36
40–44 510 344 539 742 1 050 085 4.07
45–49 417 953 446 951 864 904 3.35
50–54 332 638 376 532 709 169 2.75
55–59 229 641 253 678 483 319 1.87
60–64 165 937 190 217 356 154 1.38
65-69 95 614 119 773 215 387 0.84
70-74 78 673 101 494 180 167 0.70
75-79 39 257 53 687 92 944 0.36
80-84 28 351 38 441 66 792 0.26
85-89 9 967 14 861 24 828 0.10
90-94 7 603 10 572 18 175 0.07
95+ 5 640 8 498 14 138 0.05
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 6 051 650 6 144 846 12 196 496 47.29
15–64 6 182 286 6 797 811 12 980 097 50.33
65+ 265 105 347 326 612 431 2.37

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2020):[8]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 15 168 180 15 959 494 31 127 674 100
0–4 2 499 013 2 501 045 5 000 058 16.06
5–9 2 486 762 2 525 617 5 012 379 16.10
10–14 2 109 413 2 147 502 4 256 915 13.68
15–19 1 646 467 1 703 593 3 350 060 10.76
20–24 1 324 586 1 389 321 2 713 907 8.72
25–29 1 080 096 1 160 339 2 240 435 7.20
30–34 893 015 978 811 1 871 826 6.01
35–39 743 420 828 169 1 571 589 5.05
40–44 618 724 692 419 1 311 143 4.21
45–49 503 305 556 808 1 060 113 3.41
50–54 401 888 445 257 847 145 2.72
55–59 304 199 343 355 647 554 2.08
60–64 222 814 258 393 481 207 1.55
65-69 148 455 180 188 328 643 1.06
70-74 93 883 119 433 213 316 0.69
75-79 53 235 71 070 124 305 0.40
80+ 38 905 58 174 97 079 0.31
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 7 095 188 7 174 164 14 269 352 45.84
15–64 7 738 514 8 356 465 16 094 979 51.71
65+ 334 478 428 865 763 343 2.45

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Angola not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations and the CIA World Factbook[9] prepared the following estimates. [10]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 235,000 156,000 79,000 54.0 35.9 18.1 7.00 230
1955-1960 259,000 159,000 99,000 54.4 33.5 20.9 7.20 215
1960-1965 282,000 162,000 121,000 54.3 31.1 23.2 7.40 200
1965-1970 302,000 163,000 139,000 53.2 28.7 24.5 7.40 186
1970-1975 325,000 166,000 160,000 51.8 26.4 25.5 7.20 173
1975-1980 374,000 176,000 197,000 52.4 24.7 27.7 7.20 161
1980-1985 441,000 202,000 239,000 52.8 24.2 28.6 7.20 157
1985-1990 512,000 228,000 284,000 52.8 23.5 29.3 7.20 153
1990-1995 584,000 259,000 325,000 52.1 23.1 29.0 7.10 150
1995-2000 664,000 274,000 390,000 51.0 21.1 29.9 6.92 138
2000-2005 746,000 268,000 478,000 49.0 17.6 31.4 6.63 116
2005-2010 774,000 272,000 502,000 43.5 15.3 28.2 5.79 104
2018 43.7 9 34.7 6.09
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1,000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1,000); NC = natural change (per 1,000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1,000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[11][9]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2006-2007 42.4 5.8 35.0 4.4 50.2 7.7
2011 45.5 6.3 36.5 4.6 51.8 7.7
2014 (census) 5.7 5.2 6.5
2015-16 43.4 6.2 (5.2) 40.6 5.3 (4.4) 48.4 8.2 (7.1)

Life expectancy[edit]

Development of life expectancy
Period Life expectancy in
Years[12]
1950–1955 31.39
1955–1960 Increase 32.54
1960–1965 Increase 34.09
1965–1970 Increase 36.04
1970–1975 Increase 38.05
1975–1980 Increase 40.00
1980–1985 Increase 40.89
1985–1990 Increase 41.48
1990–1995 Increase 42.22
1995–2000 Increase 44.73
2000–2005 Increase 49.98
2005–2010 Increase 55.59
2010–2015 Increase 60.19

Other demographics statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[13]

  • One birth every 23 seconds
  • One death every 2 minutes
  • One net migrant every 360 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 29 seconds

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[9]

Population[edit]

34,795,287 (2022 est.)
30,355,880 (July 2018 est.)
29,310,273 (July 2017 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Age pyramid of Angola in 2020
0-14 years: 47.83% (male 7,758,636 /female 7,797,869)
15-24 years: 18.64% (male 2,950,999 /female 3,109,741)
25-54 years: 27.80% (male 4,301,618 /female 4,740,463)
55-64 years: 3.43% (male 523,517 /female 591,249)
65 years and over: 2.3% (male 312,197 /female 436,050) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 48.07% (male 7,257,155 /female 7,336,084)
15-24 years: 18.33% (male 2,701,123 /female 2,863,950)
25-54 years: 27.95% (male 4,044,944 /female 4,441,028)
55-64 years: 3.32% (male 466,085 /female 540,452)
65 years and over: 2.32% (male 296,411 /female 408,648) (2018 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 15.9 years. Country comparison to the world: 225th
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.4 years (2020 est.)
total: 15.9 years. Country comparison to the world: 224th
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.3 years (2018 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

3.36% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 6th
3.49% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 2nd

The population is growing by 3.52% annually. There are 44.2 births and 9.2 deaths per 1,000 citizens. The net migration rate is 0.2 migrants per 1,000 citizens. The fertility rate of Angola is 6.16 children born per woman as of 2017. The infant mortality rate is 67.6 deaths for every 1,000 live births with 73.3 deaths for males and 61.8 deaths for females for every 1,000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is 60.2 years; 58.2 years for males and 62.3 years for females.

Total fertility rate[edit]

5.83 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 2nd
6.09 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 2nd

Birth rate[edit]

41.8 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 2nd
43.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 1st

Death rate[edit]

8.01 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 88th
9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 60th

Net migration rate[edit]

-0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 108th
0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 67th

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

19.4 years (2015/16 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 20-49

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 62.11 years (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 214th
male: 60.05 years (2022 est.)
female: 64.24 years (2022 est.)
total population: 60.6 years (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 207th
male: 58.5 years (2018 est.)
female: 62.7 years (2018 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

13.7% (2015/16)
57.1% (2012/13)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 10 years (2011)
male: 13 years (2011)
female: 8 years (2011)

Sex ratio[edit]

  • At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  • Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  • 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and older: .79 male(s)/female
  • Total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 68.1% of total population (2022 est.)
4.04% annual rate of change (2020-2025 est.)

Health[edit]

According to the CIA World Factbook, 2% of adults (aged 15–49) are living with HIV/AIDS (as of 2009).[14] The risk of contracting disease is very high. There are food and waterborne diseases, bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever; vectorborne diseases, malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness); respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis, and schistosomiasis, a water contact disease, as of 2005.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups of Angola 1970

Roughly 37% of Angolans are Ovimbundu, 25% are Ambundu, 13% are Bakongo, 2% are mestiço, 1-2% are white Africans, and people from other African ethnicities make up 22% of Angola's population.

Religions[edit]

Angola is a majority Christian country. Official statistics do not exist, however it is estimated that over 80% belong to a Christian church or community. More than half are Catholic, the remaining ones comprising members of traditional Protestant churches as well as of Pentecostal communities. Only 0.1% are Muslims - generally immigrants from other African countries. Traditional indigenous religions are practiced by a very small minority, generally in peripheral rural societies.

Education[edit]

Literacy is quite low, with 71.1% of the population over the age of 15 able to read and write in Portuguese. 82% of males and 60.7% of women are literate as of 2015.

Languages[edit]

Portuguese is the official language of Angola, but Bantu and other African languages are also widely spoken. In fact, Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu, Tuchokwe, Nganguela, and Ukanyama have the official status of "national languages". The mastery of Portuguese is widespread; in the cities the overwhelming majority are either fluent in Portuguese or have at least a reasonable working knowledge of this language; an increasing minority are native Portuguese speakers and have a poor, if any, knowledge of an African language.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://aiangola.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Publicação-Resultados-Definitivos-Censo-Geral-2014_Versão-22032016_DEFINITIVA-18H17.pdf Archived May 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Flight from Angola". The Economist. August 16, 1975. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  3. ^ "Angola - The Portuguese Coup d'Etat and the End of the Colonial Era". countrystudies.us. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  4. ^ (in Portuguese) Portugueses em Angola quadruplicaram, Jornal de Notícias (March 10, 2009)
  5. ^ "BBC News - Chinese karaoke fans sing Angola's praises". news.bbc.co.uk. October 2, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c "Angola". May 11, 2022.
  7. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  8. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  9. ^ a b c Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "World Factbook EUROPE : Algeria", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018
  10. ^ "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  11. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  12. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
  13. ^ "Angola Population 2022", World Population Review
  14. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved July 10, 2017.

External links[edit]