Demographics of Belgium

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Demographics of Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium demography.svg
1948-2009
Population 11,250,000 (2016)
Growth rate 0.82% (2008)
Birth rate 11.7 births/1,000 population (2008)
Death rate 9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2008)
Life expectancy 80.38 years (2012)
 • male 78.0 years (2013 est.)
 • female 83.0 years (2013 est.)
Fertility rate 1.85 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate 4,62
Age structure
0–14 years 16.1% (male 857,373/female 822,303)
15–64 years 66.3% (male 3,480,072/female 3,419,721)
65 and over 17.6% (male 760,390/female 1,074,477) (2009 est.)
Sex ratio
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Under 15 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years 1.02 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.72 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality noun: Belgian(s) adjective: Belgian
Major ethnic 58% Flemish
Minor ethnic 31% Walloon, 11% Mixed/Other
Language
Spoken Dutch, French, German

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Belgium, including ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. All figures are from the National Institute for Statistics unless otherwise indicated.[1]

Population[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1846 4,337,196—    
1856 4,529,460+4.4%
1866 4,827,833+6.6%
1876 5,336,185+10.5%
1880 5,520,009+3.4%
1890 6,069,321+10.0%
1900 6,693,548+10.3%
1910 7,423,784+10.9%
1920 7,465,782+0.6%
1930 8,092,004+8.4%
1947 8,512,195+5.2%
1961 9,189,741+8.0%
1970 9,650,944+5.0%
1981 9,848,647+2.0%
1991 9,978,681+1.3%
2001 10,296,350+3.2%
2011 11,000,638+6.8%
2018 11,376,070+3.4%
Source: Statistics Belgium


Belgium had a population of 11,190,846 people on 1 January 2015 as compared to the 10,839,905 people on 1 January 2010, an increase of 601,000 in comparison to 2000 (10,239,085 inhabitants). Between 1990 (9,947,782 inhabitants) and 2000 the increase was only 291,000. The population of Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels on January 1, 2010 was 6,251,983 (57.7%), 3,498,384 (32.3%) and 1,089,538 (10.1%), respectively.

Immigration[edit]

In the beginning of 2012, people of foreign background and their descendants were estimated to have formed 25% of the total population.[2]

Of these 'New Belgians', 1,200,000 (49%) are of European ancestry and 1,350,000 (51%)[3] are from non-Western countries.

Since the relaxation of the Belgian nationality law more than 1.3 million migrants have acquired Belgian citizenship and are now considered new Belgians. 89.2% of inhabitants of Turkish origin have been naturalized, as have 88.4% of people of Moroccan background, 75.4% of Italians, 56.2% of the French and 47.8% of Dutch people.[3]

In 2007, there were 1.38 million foreign-born residents in Belgium, corresponding to 12.9% of the total population. Of these, 685 000 (6.4%) were born outside the EU and 695 000 (6.5%) were born in another EU Member State.[4]

Total Fertility Rate from 1830 to 1899[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[5]

Years 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Belgium 4.72 4.77 4.82 4.87 4.92 4.97 4.97 4.98 4.98 4.99 5
Years 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Belgium 4.94 4.88 4.82 4.76 4.7 4.64 4.58 4.51 4.45 4.38
Years 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Belgium 4.32 4.25 4.18 4.25 4.31 4.38 4.44 4.51 4.53 4.56
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Belgium 4.58 4.61 4.63 4.66 4.68 4.71 4.73 4.76 4.78 4.8
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Belgium 4.83 4.85 4.87 4.85 4.83 4.82 4.8 4.78 4.75 4.71
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Belgium 4.68 4.64 4.61 4.55 4.49 4.42 4.36 4.3 4.27 4.25
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[5]
Total Fertility Rate in Belgium 4.22 4.2 4.17 4.13 4.09 4.06 4.02 3.98 3.91

Vital statistics from 1900[edit]

Note: Territorial changes in East-Belgium occurred in 1925, 1940 and 1944.

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates[fn 1][5][6]
1900 6,719,000 193,789 129,046 64,743 28.8 19.2 9.6 3.84
1901 6,747,000 200,077 116,077 84,000 29.7 17.2 12.4 3.79
1902 6,848,000 195,871 119,330 76,541 28.6 17.4 11.2 3.73
1903 6,941,000 192,301 118,675 73,626 27.7 17.1 10.6 3.68
1904 7,030,000 191,721 119,506 72,215 27.3 17.0 10.3 3.63
1905 7,118,000 187,437 118,343 69,094 26.3 16.6 9.7 3.57
1906 7,200,000 186,271 118,884 67,387 25.9 16.5 9.4 3.52
1907 7,278,000 185,138 115,347 69,791 25.4 15.8 9.64 3.47
1908 7,352,000 183,834 121,964 61,870 25.0 16.6 8.4 3.42
1909 7,419,000 176,431 117,571 58,860 23.8 15.8 7.9 3.95
1910 7,438,000 176,413 112,826 63,587 23.7 15.2 8.5 3.31
1911 7,457,000 171,802 122,843 48,959 23.0 16.5 6.6 3.26
1912 7,531,000 171,187 112,378 58,809 22.7 14.9 7.8 3.2
1913 7,605,000 171,099 111,227 59,872 22.5 14.6 7.9 3.15
1914 7,662,000 156,389 108,720 47,669 20.4 14.2 6.2 3.22
1915 7,697,000 124,291 100,674 23,617 16.1 13.1 3.1 3.04
1916 7,701,000 99,360 101,044 -1,684 12.9 13.1 -0.2 2.99
1917 7,667,000 86,675 124,824 -38,149 11.3 16.3 -5.0 2.94
1918 7,599,000 85,056 157,340 -72,284 11.2 20.7 -9.5 2.89
1919 7,566,000 123,314 113,732 9,582 16.3 15.0 1.3 2.87
1920 7,491,000 164,950 102,505 62,445 22.0 13.7 8.3 2.78
1921 7,444,000 164,603 102,908 61,695 22.1 13.8 8.3 2.73
1922 7,511,000 154,871 106,615 48,256 20.6 14.2 6.4 2.67
1923 7,573,000 156,600 100,084 56,516 20.7 13.2 7.5 2.62
1924 7,646,000 154,083 99,653 54,430 20.2 13.0 7.1 2.57
1925 7,748,000 155,330 99,569 55,761 20.0 12.9 7.2 2.51
1926 7,843,000 151,009 101,018 49,991 19.3 12.9 6.4 2.46
1927 7,903,000 146,296 103,007 43,289 18.5 13.0 5.5 2.41
1928 7,968,000 148,071 102,270 45,801 18.6 12.8 5.7 2.36
1929 8,032,000 147,311 115,901 31,410 18.3 14.4 3.9 2.3
1930 8,076,000 152,530 103,397 49,133 18.9 12.8 6.1 2.25
1931 8,126,000 149,657 103,773 45,884 18.4 12.8 5.6 2.22
1932 8,186,000 145,835 104,221 41,614 17.8 12.7 5.1 2.19
1933 8,231,000 136,757 104,640 32,117 16.6 12.7 3.9 2.08
1934 8,262,000 133,514 96,851 36,663 16.2 11.7 4.4 2.04
1935 8,288,000 128,432 102,132 26,300 15.5 12.3 3.2 1.94
1936 8,315,000 127,751 101,595 26,156 15.4 12.2 3.1 1.95
1937 8,346,000 128,696 104,163 24,533 15.4 12.5 2.9 1.99
1938 8,374,000 133,610 104,684 28,926 16.0 12.5 3.5 2.11
1939 8,391,000 130,019 110,393 19,626 15.5 13.2 2.3 2.1
1940 8,301,000 112,497 125,083 -12,586 13.6 15.1 -1.5 1.84
1941 8,276,000 100,616 118,670 -18,054 12.2 14.3 -2.2 1.66
1942 8,246,000 108,603 117,291 -8,688 13.2 14.2 -1.1 1.81
1943 8,241,000 123,349 107,767 15,582 15.0 13.1 1.9 2.06
1944 8,291,000 127,122 124,861 2,261 15.3 15.1 0.3 2.12
1945 8,339,000 130,526 121,155 9,371 15.7 14.5 1.1 2.17
1946 8,367,000 152,962 110,413 42,549 18.3 13.2 5.1 2.53
1947 8,450,000 150,227 108,136 42,091 17.8 12.8 5.0 2.47
1948 8,557,000 150,416 108,016 42,400 17.6 12.6 5.0 2.45
1949 8,614,000 147,854 111,104 36,750 17.2 12.9 4.3 2.39
1950 8,639,000 145,672 108,236 37,436 16.9 12.5 4.3 2.33
1951 8,678,000 142,314 109,763 32,551 16.4 12.6 3.8 2.34
1952 8,730,000 146,064 104,178 41,886 16.7 11.9 4.8 2.35
1953 8,778,000 146,125 105,863 40,262 16.6 12.1 4.6 2.37
1954 8,819,000 148,538 105,033 43,505 16.8 11.9 4.9 2.4
1955 8,868,000 149,195 108,743 40,452 16.8 12.3 4.6 2.42
1956 8,924,000 150,210 108,761 41,449 16.8 12.2 4.6 2.6
1957 8,989,000 152,871 107,840 45,031 17.0 12.0 5.0 2.49
1958 9,053,000 155,048 106,051 48,997 17.1 11.7 5.4 2.53
1959 9,104,000 158,237 103,933 54,304 17.4 11.4 6.0 2.57
1960 9,153,000 154,787 113,938 40,849 16.9 12.4 4.5 2.6
1961 9,184,000 158,431 106,985 51,446 17.3 11.6 5.6 2.62
1962 9,251,000 155,061 112,758 42,303 16.8 12.2 4.6 2.63
1963 9,328,000 159,192 116,718 42,474 17.1 12.5 4.6 2.62
1964 9,428,000 160,838 110,100 50,738 17.1 11.7 5.4 2.6
1965 9,499,000 155,496 115,045 40,451 16.4 12.1 4.3 2.56
1966 9,528,000 151,096 115,613 35,483 15.9 12.1 3.7 2.53
1967 9,581,000 146,193 115,212 30,981 15.3 12.0 3.2 2.43
1968 9,619,000 141,984 121,744 20,240 14.8 12.7 2.1 2.36
1969 9,660,000 141,799 120,471 21,328 14.7 12.5 2.2 2.28
1970 9,656,000 142,168 118,660 23,508 14.7 12.3 2.4 2.21
1971 9,695,000 140,966 118,853 22,113 14.5 12.3 2.3 2.13
1972 9,711,000 136,304 117,424 18,880 14.0 12.1 1.9 2.05
1973 9,742,000 129,424 118,254 11,170 13.3 12.1 1.1 1.98
1974 9,772,000 123,674 116,159 7,515 12.7 11.9 0.8 1.83
1975 9,801,000 119,693 119,425 268 12.2 12.2 0.0 1.74
1976 9,818,000 121,034 118,641 2,393 12.3 12.1 0.2 1.73
1977 9,830,000 121,852 112,672 9,180 12.4 11.5 0.9 1.71
1978 9,840,000 122,592 115,388 7,204 12.5 11.7 0.7 1.69
1979 9,848,000 123,825 112,010 11,815 12.6 11.4 1.2 1.69
1980 9,849,000 124,398 113,699 10,699 12.6 11.5 1.1 1.67
1981 9,859,000 123,792 112,326 11,466 12.6 11.4 1.2 1.67
1982 9,856,000 120,231 111,871 8,360 12.2 11.4 0.8 1.61
1983 9,856,000 117,145 114,534 2,611 11.9 11.6 0.3 1.56
1984 9,855,000 115,715 109,658 6,057 11.7 11.1 0.6 1.59
1985 9,858,000 114,030 110,770 3,260 11.6 11.2 0.3 1.49
1986 9,862,000 117,102 111,343 5,759 11.9 11.3 0.6 1.54
1987 9,870,000 117,334 105,426 11,908 11.9 10.7 1.2 1.55
1988 9,902,000 119,456 104,552 14,904 12.1 10.6 1.5 1.56
1989 9,938,000 121,117 107,619 13,498 12.2 10.8 1.4 1.57
1990 9,967,000 123,726 104,818 18,908 12.4 10.5 1.9 1.62
1991 10,004,000 126,068 105,150 20,918 12.6 10.5 2.1 1.57
1992 10,045,000 124,774 104,200 20,574 12.4 10.4 2.0 1.56
1993 10,084,000 120,998 108,170 12,828 12.0 10.7 1.3 1.61
1994 10,116,000 116,449 104,894 11,555 11.5 10.4 1.1 1.55
1995 10,137,000 115,638 105,933 9,705 11.4 10.5 1.0 1.57
1996 10,157,000 115,214 104,140 11,074 11.3 10.3 1.1 1.55
1997 10,181,000 115,864 103,802 12,062 11.4 10.2 1.2 1.60
1998 10,203,000 114,276 104,583 9,693 11.2 10.3 1.0 1.59
1999 10,226,000 113,469 104,904 8,565 11.1 10.3 0.8 1.62
2000 10,251,000 114,883 104,903 9,980 11.2 10.2 1.0 1.67
2001 10,278,000 114,172 103,447 10,725 11.1 10.1 1.0 1.66
2002 10,333,000 111,225 105,642 5,583 10.8 10.2 0.5 1.66
2003 10,376,000 112,149 107,039 5,110 10.8 10.3 0.5 1.63
2004 10,421,000 115,618 101,946 13,672 11.1 9.8 1.3 1.71
2005 10,479,000 118,002 103,278 14,724 11.3 9.9 1.4 1.75
2006 10,548,000 121,382 101,587 19,795 11.5 9.6 1.9 1.79
2007 10,626,000 125,228 102,060 23,168 11.4 9.5 1.9 1.78
2008 10,710,000 128,049 104,587 23,462 12.0 9.8 2.2 1.86
2009 10,796,000 127,297 104,509 22,788 11.8 9.7 2.1 1.85
2010 10,840,000 129,173 105,094 24,079 11.9 9.6 2.3 1.86
2011 10,951,000 127,665 104,247 23,418 11.6 9.5 2.1 1.81
2012 11,035,000 126,993 109,034 17,959 11.5 9.9 1.6 1.80
2013 11,099,000 124,862 109,295 15,567 11.2 9.8 1.4 1.76
2014 11,150,000 124,415 104,723 19,692 11.1 9.3 1.8 1.74
2015 11,209,000 121,713 110,508 11,205 10.9 9.8 1.1 1.70
2016 11,267,000 121,161 108,056 13,105 10.8 9.6 1.2 1.68
2017 11,322,000 119,102 109,629 9,473 10.5 9.7 0.8 1.78

Total fertility rate[edit]

The total fertility rate (TFR) gradually increased during the last decade from 1.60 in 1997, 1.65 in 2002 and 1.82 in 2007. The rates in Brussels are higher than the national average (1.79 in 1997, 1.93 in 2002 and 2.09 in 2007), while they are below the average in Flanders (1.54 in 1997, 1.56 in 2002 and 1.77 in 2007), due to the higher percentage of non-European immigrants with higher birth rates in Brussels.[7]

Other demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the World Population Review.[8]

  • One birth every 4 minutes
  • One death every 5 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 8 minutes
  • One net migrant every 11 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[6]

Population pyramid of Belgium in 2016
Population
11,491,346 (July 2017 est.)
11,409,077 (est. July 2016)
Age structure
0-14 years: 17.16% (male 1,010,201/female 961,994)
15-24 years: 11.34% (male 665,483/female 637,700)
25-54 years: 40.05% (male 2,320,845/female 2,281,411)
55-64 years: 12.86% (male 732,062/female 746,212)
65 years and over: 18.58% (male 929,594/female 1,205,844) (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate

1.78 children born/woman (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 155th

Median age
total: 41.4 years. Country comparison to the world: 39th
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.7 years (2017 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
28.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate
0.7% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 143rd
Birth rate
11.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 175th
Death rate
9.7 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 81.1 years. Country comparison to the world: 30th
male: 78.5 years
female: 83.8 years (2017 est.)
total population: 81 years
male: 78.4 years
female: 83.7 years (2016 est.)
Male: 74.4 in 1999, 77.2 (2009)
Female: 80.9 in 1999, 82.4 (2009)
Total: 77.7 in 1999, 79.8 (2009)
Infant mortality rate
total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births. Country comparison to the world: 207th
male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
4.8 in 2010
3.4 in 2011
Net migration rate
5.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 22nd
Ethnic groups

Belgian 75%, Italian 4.1%, Moroccan 3.7%, French 2.4%, Turkish 2%, Dutch 2%, other 12.8% (2011 est.)

Languages

Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%

Religions

Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant and other Christian 2.5%, Muslim 5%, Jewish 0.4%, Buddhist 0.3%, atheist 9.2%, none 32.6% (2009 est.)

Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 54.2
youth dependency ratio: 26.2
elderly dependency ratio: 28
potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 98% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.62% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 20 years
male: 19 years
female: 21 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 22.1%. Country comparison to the world: 58th
male: 23.8%
female: 20% (2015 est.)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Literacy

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2003 est.)

Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 99%
Education expenditures
6.6% of total GDP (2010) Ccountry comparison to the world: 30th

Nationality[edit]

noun: Belgian(s)
adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups[edit]

The country is populated by a Flemish majority of about 6,400,000 people speaking Dutch, a French-speaking minority of 4,100,000 people (Walloons and French-speakers in Brussels), as well as 73,000 German speaking people in Wallonia, near the German border. However, David Levinson reports that "the Flemish and Walloon groups are described by experts as "communities" rather than as ethnic groups, and individuals can move easily from one community to the other by learning to speak the other language".[9]

The largest group of immigrants and their descendants in Belgium are Italians, with more than 450,000[2] people, which is well over 4% of Belgium's total population. The Moroccans are the third-largest group, and the largest Muslim ethnic group, numbering 220,000.[2][10]

The rest consists mostly of French-speaking people from Brussels, Turks, Kurds[11], Dutch, French, Portuguese, Spaniards, Greeks, Bosniaks, Algerians, Congolese, Vietnamese, Poles, Indians, and Guineans (around 23% of Belgium's population is of non-Belgian origin).[12]

The exact number of French-speakers in Brussels is hard to determine, but it is estimated that 80% of the people living in Brussels use French and 20% use Dutch in their households, as the sole language or secondary language, while Arabic is also largely spoken. See the Brussels article for more details.

Languages[edit]

Belgium's three official languages are Dutch, spoken by 59% of the population, French, spoken by 40%, and German, spoken by less than 1%. The vast majority of Belgium's population, 99%, is literate as defined by the Belgian government, i.e. capable of reading and writing in an official language by the time a citizen has reached the age of 15.

Religion[edit]

58% of Belgians, are nominally Roman Catholic. Muslims, other Christians and other minority religions comprise 14% of the population. 27% are agnostic, atheist or other non-believers.[13]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads an aging population and the result is that the population reduces.

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2016 edition".

  1. ^ "Bevolking - Statistieken & Analyses - Home". Statbel.fgov.be. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c "Vreemde afkomst 01/01/2012". Npdata.be. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Verkiezingen 2012 eigen-wijs". Npdata.be. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  4. ^ L'IMMIGRATION EN BELGIQUE. EFFECTIFS, MOUVEMENTS. ET MARCHE DU TRAVAIL. Rapport 2009. Direction générale Emploi et marché du travai
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last two centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation 
  6. ^ a b "World Factbook EUROPE : BELGIUM", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018 
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-13. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  8. ^ World Population Review: Belgium Population 2018, 14 June 2018 
  9. ^ Levinson, David (1998). Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press. p. 14. ISBN 1-57356-019-7. 
  10. ^ Voor het eerst meer Marokkaanse dan Italiaanse migranten, Hbvl.be, 21 May 2007
  11. ^ https://www.gva.be/cnt/dmf20171027_03157602/de-situatie-van-de-koerden-is-nog-een-stuk-beroerder-dan-die-van-de-catalanen
  12. ^ "Non-Profit Data". Npdata.be. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  13. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2013-08-14.