Demographics of Benin

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Demographics of Benin
Benin single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Benin in 2020
Population13,754,688 (2022 est.)
Growth rate3.34% (2022 est.)
Birth rate41.15 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate8.01 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy62.21 years
 • male60.39 years
 • female64.14 years
Fertility rate5.43 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate55.76 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years45.56%
65 and over2.39%
Sex ratio
Total0.97 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.05 male(s)/female
Under 151.02 male(s)/female
65 and over0.72 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityBeninese
Language
OfficialFrench
Demographics of Benin. Data from FAO, 2005. Number of inhabitants in thousands.

The demographics of Benin include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The majority of Benin's 13.3 million people live in the south.[1][2] The population is young, with a life expectancy of 62 years.[1][2]

About 42 African ethnic groups live in this country; these various groups settled in Benin at different times and have also migrated within the country.[2] Ethnic groups include:

French is the official language but is spoken more in urban than in rural areas.[2] The literacy rate is 54% among adult males and 31% among adult females as of 2018;[1] these rates are slowly growing.[citation needed] Recent migrations have brought other African nationals to Benin, including Nigerians, Togolese and Malians.[2] The foreign community also includes many Lebanese and Indians involved in trade and commerce.[2] The personnel of the many European embassies, foreign aid missions, nongovernmental organizations and missionary groups account for much of the 5,500 European population.[2]

Several religions are practiced in Benin.[2] Traditional African religions are widespread (50%), and their practices vary from one ethnic group to the other.[2] Arab merchants introduced Islam in the north and among the Yoruba.[2] European missionaries brought Christianity to the south and central areas of Benin.[2] Muslims account for 20% of the population and Christians for 30%.[2] Many nominal Muslims and Christians continue to practice traditional African religion traditions.[2] It is believed that West African Vodun originated in Benin and was introduced to Brazil and the Caribbean Islands by slaves taken from this particular area of the Slave Coast.[2]

Population[edit]

Population, fertility rate and net reproduction rate, United Nations estimates

According to the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects[3][4] the total population of Benin was 12,996,895 in 2021, compared to only 2,255,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 43.7%; 53.3% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3% were of 65 years or older.[5]


Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2 255 000 35.2 57 7.8
1955 2 302 000 37.0 56.6 6.3
1960 2 420 000 38.4 56.1 5.5
1965 2 602 000 40.7 54.3 5
1970 2 850 000 42.7 52.7 4.6
1975 3 182 000 44.2 51.4 4.4
1980 3 611 000 45.2 50.7 4.0
1985 4 140 000 45.9 50.4 3.7
1990 4 773 000 46.2 50.4 3.4
1995 5 651 000 45.5 51.3 3.1
2000 6 518 000 45.6 51.4 3.0
2005 7 634 000 44.6 52.4 3.0
2010 8 850 000 43.7 53.3 3.0

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2011): [6]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 4 446 877 4 620 199 9 067 076 100
0–4 828 064 801 448 1 629 512 17.97
5–9 675 912 659 254 1 335 166 14.73
10–14 572 756 564 312 1 137 068 12.54
15–19 553 241 527 958 1 081 199 11.92
20–24 398 920 369 026 767 946 8.47
25–29 291 598 317 891 609 489 6.72
30–34 227 400 310 493 537 893 5.93
35–39 213 385 281 234 494 619 5.46
40–44 175 956 202 155 378 111 4.17
45–49 142 056 166 810 308 866 3.41
50–54 110 074 122 576 232 650 2.57
55–59 82 190 89 780 171 970 1.90
60–64 64 968 70 800 135 768 1.50
65-69 35 915 39 619 75 534 0.83
70-74 36 511 46 229 82 740 0.91
75-79 15 591 20 862 36 453 0.40
80+ 22 340 29 752 52 092 0.57
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 2 076 732 2 025 014 4 101 746 45.24
15–64 2 259 788 2 458 723 4 718 511 52.04
65+ 110 357 136 462 246 819 2.72

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2019): [7]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 5 832 926 6 024 701 11 857 627 100
0–4 940 701 900 981 1 841 682 15.53
5–9 849 322 827 010 1 676 332 14.14
10–14 849 093 828 651 1 677 744 14.15
15–19 700 987 665 779 1 366 766 11.53
20–24 539 908 515 230 1 055 138 8.90
25–29 405 041 468 706 873 747 7.37
30–34 333 366 445 579 778 945 6.57
35–39 298 390 364 433 662 823 5.59
40–44 245 129 279 544 524 673 4.42
45–49 204 983 214 033 419 016 3.53
50–54 136 813 139 819 276 632 2.33
55–59 120 528 130 415 250 943 2.12
60–64 65 462 67 250 132 712 1.12
65-69 62 527 72 418 134 945 1.14
70-74 31 651 37 112 68 763 0.58
75-79 24 810 33 122 57 932 0.49
80+ 24 217 34 620 58 837 0.50
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 2 639 116 2 556 642 5 195 758 43.82
15–64 3 050 605 3 290 787 6 341 392 53.48
65+ 143 205 177 272 320 477 2.70

Vital statistics[edit]

Benin's registration of vital events is incomplete. The Population Department of the United Nations has prepared the following estimates. Population estimates account for under numeration in population censuses.

Population
(thousands)
Live births
(thousands)
Deaths
(thousands)
Natural change
(thousands)
CBR[i] CDR[i] NC[i] TFR[i] IMR[i] Life expectancy
(years)
1950 2 264   92   72   21 40.6 31.5 9.1 5.75 210.2 34.95
1951   2 281   93   72   21 40.8 31.6 9.2 5.78 208.0 35.20
1952   2 298   95   72   22 41.1 31.4 9.8 5.83 205.4 35.47
1953   2 317   96   72   24 41.5 31.0 10.5 5.88 203.0 35.82
1954   2 337   98   72   26 42.0 30.8 11.2 5.94 200.4 36.05
1955   2 360   100   72   28 42.4 30.4 12.0 5.99 197.7 36.39
1956   2 385   103   71   31 42.9 29.9 13.0 6.05 195.0 36.83
1957   2 413   105   72   34 43.5 29.6 13.9 6.11 192.2 37.09
1958   2 443   108   71   36 44.0 29.2 14.8 6.17 189.4 37.48
1959   2 476   111   71   39 44.6 28.8 15.8 6.23 186.5 37.86
1960   2 512   113   72   42 45.1 28.5 16.6 6.28 183.6 38.18
1961   2 551   117   72   46 46.0 28.1 17.8 6.40 180.5 38.54
1962   2 593   120   72   48 46.3 27.8 18.6 6.46 177.5 38.93
1963   2 638   123   72   51 46.7 27.3 19.3 6.51 174.4 39.33
1964   2 686   126   72   54 46.9 26.9 20.0 6.57 171.3 39.76
1965   2 736   129   72   56 47.0 26.4 20.6 6.61 168.2 40.18
1966   2 789   131   72   59 47.0 25.9 21.1 6.64 165.0 40.65
1967   2 844   133   72   61 46.8 25.4 21.4 6.65 162.0 41.06
1968   2 901   136   72   64 46.8 24.9 21.9 6.68 159.1 41.52
1969   2 961   139   73   66 46.7 24.5 22.2 6.71 156.3 41.85
1970   3 023   141   73   68 46.7 24.1 22.6 6.74 153.7 42.19
1971   3 088   144   73   71 46.7 23.7 23.1 6.79 151.2 42.58
1972   3 156   148   73   75 46.7 23.1 23.6 6.82 148.2 43.16
1973   3 227   150   73   77 46.5 22.6 23.9 6.83 145.3 43.60
1974   3 301   153   73   80 46.4 22.1 24.3 6.84 142.4 44.09
1975   3 379   157   73   84 46.4 21.6 24.8 6.85 139.5 44.68
1976   3 460   161   72   88 46.3 20.9 25.5 6.86 136.5 45.49
1977   3 546   164   72   92 46.3 20.3 26.0 6.85 133.5 46.18
1978   3 637   168   71   96 46.1 19.6 26.5 6.84 130.7 46.96
1979   3 732   174   72   102 46.5 19.3 27.2 6.91 128.1 47.36
1980   3 834   180   73   108 47.0 18.9 28.1 6.99 125.7 47.88
1981   3 942   186   73   113 47.3 18.6 28.7 7.05 123.3 48.31
1982   4 054   191   74   117 47.2 18.2 28.9 7.05 121.2 48.81
1983   4 172   195   74   121 46.8 17.8 29.1 7.03 119.1 49.33
1984   4 293   201   75   126 46.8 17.4 29.3 7.02 117.1 49.75
1985   4 420   206   75   131 46.6 17.0 29.6 6.99 115.2 50.37
1986   4 551   211   75   137 46.4 16.5 30.0 6.95 113.1 51.08
1987   4 689   217   75   142 46.3 16.0 30.3 6.90 111.0 51.66
1988   4 832   223   75   147 46.0 15.5 30.5 6.85 108.8 52.29
1989   4 980   227   76   151 45.5 15.2 30.3 6.80 106.8 52.68
1990   5 133   233   76   157 45.4 14.8 30.6 6.73 104.6 53.29
1991   5 293   239   77   162 45.1 14.5 30.7 6.67 102.6 53.62
1992   5 458   244   77   167 44.7 14.1 30.6 6.60 100.3 54.09
1993   5 706   251   77   174 44.6 13.7 30.8 6.51 98.1 54.54
1994   5 923   270   80   190 45.3 13.5 31.8 6.41 96.0 54.91
1995   6 047   267   80   187 44.0 13.2 30.8 6.31 94.1 55.30
1996   6 204   270   80   190 43.5 12.9 30.5 6.26 92.3 55.56
1997   6 387   275   80   195 43.0 12.6 30.4 6.20 90.5 55.98
1998   6 584   280   81   199 42.6 12.4 30.2 6.10 88.6 56.22
1999   6 789   287   82   204 42.2 12.1 30.1 6.00 86.8 56.53
2000   6 998   292   84   208 41.7 12.0 29.7 5.89 85.0 56.58
2001   7 212   298   85   213 41.4 11.8 29.6 5.82 83.3 56.66
2002   7 432   307   87   219 41.3 11.8 29.5 5.78 81.6 56.61
2003   7 659   317   89   228 41.4 11.6 29.8 5.77 79.9 56.74
2004   7 895   325   91   234 41.2 11.5 29.7 5.72 78.1 56.83
2005   8 149   333   92   241 40.9 11.3 29.6 5.68 76.5 57.13
2006   8 403   344   94   250 40.9 11.1 29.8 5.64 75.0 57.46
2007   8 648   350   95   255 40.4 11.0 29.5 5.56 73.6 57.68
2008   8 906   355   96   259 39.9 10.8 29.1 5.48 72.2 57.87
2009   9 173   364   98   265 39.6 10.7 28.9 5.44 70.9 57.96
2010   9 446   372   99   273 39.3 10.5 28.9 5.39 69.6 58.36
2011   9 726   381   101   280 39.2 10.4 28.8 5.37 68.2 58.46
2012   10 014   392   102   289 39.1 10.2 28.9 5.35 66.9 58.72
2013   10 309   404   104   299 39.1 10.1 29.0 5.35 65.6 58.97
2014   10 615   416   106   310 39.2 10.0 29.2 5.35 64.3 59.13
2015   10 933   427   108   319 39.0 9.9 29.2 5.32 63.1 59.38
2016   11 260   438   110   329 38.9 9.8 29.2 5.30 61.9 59.54
2017   11 597   449   111   337 38.7 9.6 29.1 5.27 60.6 59.86
2018   11 941   456   113   343 38.2 9.4 28.8 5.20 59.3 60.14
2019   12 290   463   114   349 37.7 9.2 28.4 5.13 57.9 60.45
2020   12 643   469   118   351 37.1 9.4 27.8 5.05 56.5 60.09
2021   12 997   476   123   353 36.6 9.4 27.2 4.97 55.0 59.82
  1. ^ a b c d e CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Source: UN DESA, World Population Prospects, 2022[8]

Fertility and births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[9][10][11][12]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1996 42.2 6.32 (5.0) 37.8 5.24 (4.0) 44.8 7.02 (5.6)
2001 41.1 5.6 (4.6) 36.0 4.4 (3.6) 43.8 6.4 (53)
2006 41.5 5.7 (4.8) 38.7 4.9 (4.1) 43.0 6.3 (5.3)
2011–12 33.3 4.9 (4.0) 33.1 4.3 (3.6) 33.3 5.4 (4.4)
2017–18 40.5 5.7 (4.9) 39.1 5.2 (4.5) 41.6 6.1 (5.2)

Fertility data as of 2011-2012 (DHS Program):[13]

Department Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Alibori 5.8 15.0 6.4
Atacora 5.8 9.1 6.0
Atlantique 5.1 9.2 4.8
Borgou 5.2 9.3 5.2
Collines 4.7 8.1 5.8
Couffo 5.1 11.7 6.0
Donga 4.7 11.0 6.0
Littoral 3.6 6.3 3.4
Mono 4.6 10.8 4.7
Ouémé 5.2 10.0 5.1
Plateau 5.3 7.3 4.9
Zou 5.0 10.2 5.1

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
years[14]
1950–1955 33.72
1955–1960 Increase 36.13
1960–1965 Increase 38.42
1965–1970 Increase 40.87
1970–1975 Increase 43.48
1975–1980 Increase 46.22
1980–1985 Increase 48.30
1985–1990 Increase 51.92
1990–1995 Increase 55.14
1995–2000 Decrease 54.96
2000–2005 Increase 56.18
2005–2010 Increase 58.56
2010–2015 Increase 59.93

Ethnic groups[edit]

There are several dozen ethnolinguistic groups in Benin, representing three of Africa's language families: Niger–Congo, Nilo-Saharan, and Afroasiatic. The latter is represented by Hausa living mostly as merchants in the north, while Nilo-Saharan is represented by the Dɛndi, descending from the Songhai Empire. The Dɛndi language predominates along the Niger River in the far north, and is used as a lingua franca in Muslim areas throughout the north, in Alibori, Borgou, and Donga provinces. Of the Niger–Congo family, five branches are represented:

Fula woman in Benin.
  • Mande by the Boko or Busa, now in the far eastern corner (southern Alibori-northern Borgou), but previously more widely spread before being largely absorbed by the Bariba
  • Senegambian by the nomadic Fulani scattered across the northeast
  • Benue–Congo by the Yoruba such as those of the old kingdom of Sakete, and the capital city of Porto-Novo, having expanded west from the Yoruba cities of Oyo and Ife in the 12th to 19th centuries
  • Gur (Voltaic) languages predominate in the four northern provinces, with the Batɔmbu (Bariba) of the old Borgou (Bariba) Kingdom occupying most of the countryside in its successor provinces of Borgou and Alibori, as well as the provincial capital of Parakou; the Yom throughout much of Donga province and its capital Djougou; and several groups in the Atakora, including the Bɛtamaribɛ of the Otammari country around the provincial capital of Natitingou, the Biali, the Waama of Tanguiéta, and the Gulmàceba.
  • Kwa, especially the Gbe languages spoken by the Tado peoples in the southern and central provinces: the Aja who established themselves in Kouffo province from neighboring Togo and gave rise to the other Tado peoples of Benin, except for the Mina of Mono province, who arrived separately from Togo or Ghana: The Fɔn culture centered in Zou province around the old Fɔn capital of Abomey, but also dominant in Cotonou and southern Atlantique areas such as Ouidah; the Maxi in central Collines, especially around Savalou; the Ayizɔ of central Atlantique (Allada); the Xwla and Xueda in the lagoons of the coast; the Tɔfin of Ouémé; and the Gun. Other Kwa languages are spoken by the Anii in southern Donga in the region of Bassila, and the Fooɖo in western Donga near the town of Ouaké.

The largest ethnic group are the Fon, with 1.7 million speakers of the Fon language (2001), followed by the various Yoruba groups (1.2 million), the Aja (600,000), the Bariba (460,000), the Ayizo (330,000), the Fulani (310,000), and the Gun (240,000). Near the ports in the south can be found many people who are descended from returned Brazilian slaves. There are also small numbers of Europeans, principally French, and people from the western Asia, mainly Lebanese, and East Asia, chiefly Indians.

White Beninese[edit]

White Beninese people are people who are of French, Portuguese, Dutch, British, Italian, German, Latin American, Russian, and Scandinavian descent. Notable Europeans include:

Other demographic statistics[edit]

Population pyramid of Benin in 2017

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2021.[15]

  • One birth every 1 minutes
  • One death every 5 minutes
  • One net migrant every 288 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 2 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[16]

Population[edit]

13,754,688 (2022 est.)
11,340,504 (July 2018 est.)
Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected. (July 2017 est.)

Religions[edit]

Muslim 27.7%, Roman Catholic 25.5%, Protestant 13.5% (Celestial 6.7%, Methodist 3.4%, other Protestant 3.4%), Vodoun 11.6%, other Christian 9.5%, other traditional religions 2.6%, other 2.6%, none 5.8% (2013 est.)

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 45.56% (male 2,955,396/female 2,906,079)
15-24 years: 20.36% (male 1,300,453/female 1,318,880)
25-54 years: 28.54% (male 1,735,229/female 1,935,839)
55-64 years: 3.15% (male 193,548/female 211,427)
65 years and over: 2.39% (male 140,513/female 167,270) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 42.26% (male 2,445,265 / female 2,347,091)
15-24 years: 20.53% (male 1,184,977 / female 1,143,605)
25-54 years: 30.66% (male 1,759,834 / female 1,717,467)
55-64 years: 3.65% (male 184,453 / female 229,945)
65 years and over: 2.89% (male 128,920 / female 198,947) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 44.7% (male 2,126,973 / female 2,042,340)
15-64 years: 52.6% (male 2,443,370 / female 2,461,421)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 101,640 / female 149,288) (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

5.43 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 6th
4.67 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 22nd

Median age[edit]

Total: 17 years. Country comparison to the world: 218th
Male: 16.4 years
Female: 17.6 years (2020 est.)
Total: 18.4 years. Country comparison to the world: 209th
Male: 18.1 years
Female: 18.7 years (2018 est.)
Total: 18.2 years
Male: 17.9 years
Female: 18.6 years (2017 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

3.34% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 7th
2.68% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 16th
2.71% (2017 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

41.15 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 3rd
34.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 22nd
35 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate[edit]

8.01 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 89th
7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 99th
7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net migration rate[edit]

0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 76th
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 74th

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

20.5 years (2017/18 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-49
20.3 years (2011/12 est.)
Note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

17.9% (2014)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 49.5% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 3.74% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Urban population: 47.3% of total population (2018)
Rate of urbanization: 3.89% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.70 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.0 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 62.21 years. Country comparison to the world: 213rd
male: 60.39 years
female: 64.14 years (2022 est.)
Total population: 62.7 years (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 198th
Male: 61.2 years (2018 est.)
Female: 64.2 years (2018 est.)
Total population: 62.3 years
Male: 60.9 years
Female: 63.8 years (2017 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

15.5% (2017/18)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight[edit]

18% (2014)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Adult prevalence rate: 1% (2017 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 70,000 (2017 est.)
Deaths: 2,500 (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: malaria, yellow fever, and others are high risks in some locations
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2009)

Nationality[edit]

English demonym and adjective:

  • Beninese (singular and plural)

French demonym and adjective:

  • Béninois (masculine, singular and plural)
  • Béninoise (feminine, singular)
  • Béninoises (feminine, plural)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Fon and related 39.2%, Adja and related 15.2%, Yoruba and related 12.3%, Bariba and related 9.2%, Fulani and related 7%, Ottamari and related 6.1%, Yoa-Lokpa and related 4%, Dendi and related 2.5%, Other 1.6%, Unspecified 2.9% (2002 est.) [17]

Religions[edit]

Islam 27.7%, Roman Catholic 25.5%, Protestant 13.5% (Celestial 6.7%, Methodist 3.4%, other Protestant 3.4%), Vodoun 11.6%, other Christian 9.5%, other traditional religions 2.6%, Other 2.6%, None 5.8%, (2013 est.) [17]
Pew Forum estimated that, in 2010, that Roman Catholics constituted 30% of the country, Protestants 23.2%, and other Christians 0.3%, with all Christians making up 53.4% of the population.[17]

Languages[edit]

Over 50 languages are spoken in Benin. The official language is French. Of the many indigenous African languages, Fon and Yoruba are the most important in southern Benin. In the north there are at least six major languages, including Baatonum and Fulani.

Literacy[edit]

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 38.4%
Male: 49.9%
Female: 27.3% (2015 est.)

Education expenditure[edit]

4.4% of total GDP
Country comparison to the world: 91

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Benin". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. September 22, 2021. Archived from the original on 2021-01-09. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Background Note: Benin". U.S. State Department. December 2001. Archived from the original on August 8, 2002.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link) Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  4. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  5. ^ "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  6. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  7. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  8. ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2022). "World Population Prospects 2022 Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XLS (91MB)). United Nations Population Division. 27 (Online ed.). New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. rows 4973:5044, cols M,X,AE,S,AH,S,AA,AV,AI. Archived from the original on 2022-08-09.
  9. ^ "Benin : Enquête Démographique et de Santé 1996" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  10. ^ "Benin : Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2001" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  11. ^ "Benin : Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2006" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
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Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from World Factbook (2022 ed.). CIA. (Archived 2009 edition) and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.