Demographics of Berlin
||It has been suggested that Berlin population statistics be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since October 2016.|
In December 2015, the city-state of Berlin had a population of 3,610,156 registered inhabitants in an area of 891.82 square kilometers (344.33 sq mi). The city's population density was 3,944 inhabitants per km². Berlin is Germany's largest city and the second most populous city in the European Union, as calculated by city-proper population.
Berlin's urban area stretches beyond the city limits, comprising about 3.7 million people in 2001. The Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan area is home to about 4.3 million in an area of 5,370 km2 (2,070 sq mi). In 2004, The Larger Urban Zone was home to around 5 million people in an area of 17,385 km².
The city responded to the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France with the Edict of Potsdam, which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years. The 1920 Greater Berlin Act incorporated many suburbs and surrounding cities, forming most of the region comprising modern Berlin. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 km2 (25 sq mi) to 883 km2 (341 sq mi) and its population from 1.9 million to 4 million.
Asylum policies in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration during the 1960s and 1970s. Berlin is home to about 250,000 Turks (especially in Kreuzberg, Neukölln and Wedding, a locality in the borough of Mitte), the largest Turkish community outside Turkey.
During the 1990s, the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of residents of the former Soviet Union. Ethnic Germans from countries from the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community. Immigration continues from a number of Western countries, particularly by young people from other parts of the EU. Berlin has seen an increase in the number of African immigrants during the last two decades.
Population by borough
Population by nationality
|Registered foreign residents|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||10,680|
|Republic of Kosovo||2,957|
As of December 2013 there were approximately 1,000,000 people (about 30 percent of the population) with an immigrant background living in Berlin, with significant differences in their distribution. The immigrant community is diverse, with Middle Easterners (including Turks and Arabs[who?]), smaller numbers of East Asians[who?], Sub-Saharan Africans[who?] and other European immigrants[who?] , Eastern Europeans[who?] forming the largest groups. About 70,000 Afro-Germans live in Berlin.
There are more than 25 non-indigenous communities with a population of at least 10,000 people, including Turkish, Polish, Russian, Croatian, Palestinian, Serbian, Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Austrian, Ghanaian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities.[not in citation given]
|Ethnic groups in 2011||% of population|
|former Soviet Union (primarily Russians)||3.0|
|European Other (primarily Southern Europeans)||3.0|
|Afro-German or Black African||2.0|
|Mixed or unspecified background||2.0|
|Other groups (primarily the Americas)||2.0|
These lists are based on official statistics regarding the foreign background of Berlin residents, rather than ethnicity; therefore, there may be a lower percentage of ethnic Germans. Fifty percent of children and teenagers have an immigrant background; in Neukölln, the percentage is higher (nearly 80 percent).
Berlin is estimated to have from 100,000 to 250,000 illegal immigrants. Since the accession of Romania and Bulgaria to the European Union there has been a Romani influx, and social-welfare offices are working to integrate them (and other migrants) with German-language and job-skills courses.
On 31 December 2010 the largest groups by foreign nationality were citizens from Turkey (104,556), Poland (40,988), Serbia (19,230), Italy (15,842), Russia (15,332), United States (12,733), France (13,262), Vietnam (13,199), Croatia (10,104), Bosnia and Herzegovina (10,198), UK (10,191), Greece (9,301), Austria (9,246), Ukraine (8,324), Lebanon (7,078), Spain (7,670), Bulgaria (9,988), the People's Republic of China (5,632), Thailand (5,037). There is also a large Arabic community, mostly from Lebanon, Palestine and Iraq.
|Country of origin||Population|
|Russia (including Russian-Germans)||est.300,000|
|Turkey||250,000-300,000 (see: Turks in Berlin)|
|Arab World||est.70,000 (see: Arabs in Berlin)|
|Vietnam||est. 20,000-40,000 (with Residence permission or German citizenship/without Residence permission)|
|Ghana||est. 20,000 (estimations vary from 15,000-25,000). Actually there are about 1,800 Ghanaian citizens residing in Berlin, however, there are many Germans of Ghanaian and other West-African origin or with one parent being German and the other being from Ghana.|
|China, Croatia, Serbia, United States, Italy, Bosnia, Iran, Greece||almost or at least 20,000|
The most commonly spoken foreign languages in Berlin are Turkish, Russian, Arabic, Polish, Kurdish, Vietnamese, English, Serbian, Croatian, Greek, and other Asian languages. Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Serbian and Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities; Vietnamese, Russian and Polish have more native speakers in eastern Berlin.
- List of metropolitan areas by population
- Larger Urban Zones in the European Union
- Largest urban areas of the European Union
- "Einwohner am Ort der Hauptwohnung am 31. Dezember 2015". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- "Berlin statistical figures". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- "City Profiles Berlin". Urban Audit. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- "Über 457 000 Ausländer aus 190 Staaten in Berlin gemeldet" [Over 457,000 foreigners from 190 countries registered in Berlin] (PDF). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
- Spooner, Andrew (13 May 2007). "Berlin: Shish And Sauerkraut To Go". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- Berlin is speaking Russians' language. The Russia Journal. 10 March 2001.
- "Berlin wird farbiger. Die Afrikaner kommen – Nachrichten WELT am SONNTAG – WELT ONLINE". Die Welt (in German). 28 October 2001. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Foreign residents of Berlin" (PDF). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Migration – Jeder vierte Berliner hat ausländische Wurzeln – Berlin Aktuell – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin". Morgenpost.de. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Yonis Ayeh. "ISD Online • Initiative Schwarze Menschen in Deutschland". Isdonline.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Schlagworte der Integrationsdebatte". Berlin.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "deine inform@tion zone: Mach dich stark für starke Kinder". wob4u.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Von Andrea Dernbach (23 February 2009). "Migration: Berlin will illegalen Einwanderern helfen – Deutschland – Politik – Tagesspiegel". Tagesspiegel.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Die Roma von Berlin-Neukölln – Nachrichten welt_print – Politik – WELT ONLINE" (in German). Welt.de. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Sie lieben Berlin und schwärmen von Russland | Zeit Online". zeit.de. 2014-04-16. Retrieved 2016-07-16.
- "Russen in Berlin – Wie stehen sie zu Präsident Putin? | Berliner Morgenpost". morgenpost.de. 2014-05-13. Retrieved 2016-07-16.
- "General information about Berlin". Havetravelfun.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- von Daniela Martens (2010-04-18). "Polen in Berlin: Unter Nachbarn - Berlin - Tagesspiegel" (in German). Tagesspiegel.de. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- [dead link]
- "US-Wahlparty: Exil-Amerikaner in Berlin wählen Obama und McCain - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- "Studie – Zwei Millionen Berliner sprechen mindestens zwei Sprachen – Wirtschaft – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin". Morgenpost.de. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- Berlin-Brandenburg Statistical Office (Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg)
- Schwenk, Herbert, Berliner Stadtentwicklung von A bis Z: Kleines Handbuch zum Werden und Wachsen der deutschen Hauptstadt, 2nd edition. Berlin: Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein, 1998.