Demographics of Berlin

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Urbanized Berlin
Berliner families

In December 2015, the city-state of Berlin had a population of 3,520,031 registered inhabitants[1] in an area of 891.82 square kilometers (344.33 sq mi).[2] The city's population density was 3,944 inhabitants per km². Berlin is Germany's largest city and the second most populous city proper in the European Union.

In December 2015, 621,075 registered residents were of foreign nationality,[3] originating from approximately 190 different countries.[4]

History[edit]

Running people in 1958

The city responded to the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France with the Edict of Potsdam, which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years. Thanks to its role as the capital of rising Prussia, the population grew steadily: it surpassed the 100,000 mark in 1747 and the one-million mark in 1877.

Growth accelerated in the 19th century with the industrialisation after the Napoleonic Wars and the Prussian Reforms. Only about 40% of Berliners in the last quarter of the 19th century were natives of the city. Nevertheless, Berlin's population remained ethnically and even regionally very homogeneous: In 1895, over 98% of inhabitants spoke German as their native language. Among the rest were 12,000 Polish speakers, 700 Russophones and about 2,000 other Slavs. In 1900, most of the 1.9 million Berliners originated from the eastern provinces of Prussia. A fifth hailed from the surrounding province of Brandenburg, 9% from the provinces of West and East Prussia, 7% from Silesia, 6% from Pomerania, 5% from Posen, 4% from Saxony. Only about 3 to 4% had come to the city from other German regions and only about 1,5% from abroad, mostly from Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire.[5]

Between 1913 and 1917, the population fell by about 16% down to 1.744 million people, mostly due to men serving in World War I, but recovered somewhat after the armistice, reaching 1.928 million people in December 1919. In December 1917, during the latter part of the war, there were 58,152 military personnel and 4,017 prisoners-of-war in the city.

The industrialisation had brought about a rapid expansion of the suburbs, many of them developed explicitly for workers of specific factories, e.g. Siemensstadt and Borsigwalde. The Greater Berlin Act of 1920 (Groß-Berlin-Gesetz) boosted the population by incorporating many hitherto autonomous towns and cities, e.g. Spandau and Köpenick at the margins of the modern metropolis, but also Charlottenburg, nowadays almost in the heart of the city. The city approximately reached its modern extent, growing from 66 km2 (25 sq mi) to 883 km2 (341 sq mi). This expansion made Berlin the most populous city proper of Continental Europe in the interwar period (though not the largest agglomeration[6]) and the third-largest in the world behind London and New York.

The four-million mark was surpassed in the 1920s, and in 1942, the officially registered population reached its maximum of 4.48 million, although because of the war conditions, this was an overestimation. More likely estimates based on food rationing data show lower numbers of 3.95 million people in February 1942 and only 3.11 million people in February 1944 (incl. 177,000 foreigners) when aerial attacks approached its most intense phase.[7]

In the context of the more general huge population movements in immediately post-war Germany, a significant part of Berlin's pre-war population permanently resettled to other parts of Germany or abroad. A 1946 census counted 436,600 Berliners in the western occupation zones and 306,823 in the Soviet zone. In 1950, this number had risen to 518,218 in what had now become the Federal Republic.[8] Since the end of World War II, the city population has been fluctuating between 3 and 3.5 million, with a low of less than 3.1 million from the mid-1970s to mid-1980s.[9] Between 1950 and 1961, so between the establishment of the Soviet-backed German Democratic Republic and the construction of the Berlin Wall, most of the losses were incurred by East Berlin, while West Berlin showed modest growth of 2.3%.

Moving to West Berlin was attractive for those from West Germany who wished to avoid the draft from 1957 to 1990, because the special administrative status of the city meant that the draft could not be enforced there.

Asylum policies in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration during the 1960s and 1970s. Berlin is home to about 250,000 Turks (especially in Kreuzberg, Neukölln and Wedding, a locality in the borough of Mitte),[10] the largest Turkish community outside Turkey.

During the 1990s, the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of residents of the former Soviet Union. Ethnic Germans from countries from the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community.[11] Immigration continues from a number of Western countries, particularly by young people from Germany and other parts of Europe.

Statistics[edit]

Chart showing Berlin's population fluctuations since 1880. The spike in population in 1920 is a result of the Greater Berlin Act.
Children in a theme park in front of the Brandenburg Gate
Year Population
1250 1,200
1307 7,000
1400 8,500
1576 12,000
1600 9,000
1631 8,100
1648 6,000
1685 17,500
1709 57,000
1750 113,289
1775 136,137
1800 172,132
1825 219,968
December 3, 1840 ¹ 322,626
December 3, 1846 ¹ 408,500
December 3, 1849 ¹ 418,733
Year Population
December 3, 1852 ¹ 426,600
December 3, 1855 ¹ 442,500
December 3, 1858 ¹ 463,600
December 3, 1861 ¹ 524,900
December 3, 1864 ¹ 632,700
December 3, 1867 ¹ 702,400
December 1, 1871 ¹ 826,341
December 1, 1875 ¹ 969,050
December 1, 1880 ¹ 1,122,330
December 1, 1885 ¹ 1,315,287
December 1, 1890 ¹ 1,578,794
December 2, 1895 ¹ 1,678,924
December 1, 1900 ¹ 1,888,848
December 1, 1905 ¹ 2,042,402
December 1, 1910 ¹ 2,071,257
December 1, 1916 ¹ 1,712,679
Year Population
December 5, 1917 ¹ 1,681,916
October 8, 1919 ¹ 1,902,509
June 16, 1925 ¹ 4,024,286
June 16, 1933 ¹ 4,242,501
May 17, 1939 ¹ 4,338,756
August 12, 1945 ¹ 2,807,405
October 29, 1946 ¹ 3,170,832
December 31, 1950 3,336,026
December 31, 1960 3,274,016
December 31, 1970 3,208,719
December 31, 1980 3,048,759
December 31, 1990 3,433,695
December 31, 2000 3,382,169
September 30, 2005 3,394,000
December 31, 2010 3,460,725
December 31, 2013 3,517,424
December 31, 2016 3,670,622

City size[edit]

Population density of the Berlin-Brandenburg metro region in 2015

Municipality[edit]

On 31 December 2015 the city-state of Berlin had a population of 3,520,031 registered inhabitants[3] in an area of 891.85 km2 (344.35 sq mi).[2] Berlin in 2009 was estimated to have another 100,000 to 250,000 non-registered inhabitants.[12] The city's population density was 4,048 inhabitants per km2. Berlin is the second most populous city proper in the EU.

Urban area[edit]

The urban area of Berlin comprised about 4.1 million people in 2014 in an area of 1,347 km2 (520 sq mi), making it the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[13] The urban agglomeration of the metropolis was home to about 4.5 million in an area of 5,370 km2 (2,070 sq mi).

Metropolitan area[edit]

As of 2014 the functional urban area was home to about 5 million people in an area of approximately 15,000 km2 (5,792 sq mi).[14] The entire Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has a population of more than 6 million in an area of 30,370 km2 (11,726 sq mi).[15]

Population[edit]

In 2014, the city state Berlin had 37,368 live births (+6.6%), a record number since 1991. The number of deaths was 32,314. Almost 2 million households were counted in the city. 54 percent of them were single-person households. More than 337,000 families with children under the age of 18 lived in Berlin. In 2014 the German capital registered a migration surplus of approximately 40,000 people.[16]

Boroughs[edit]

Map of Berlin's twelve boroughs and their 96 localities.
People in Kreuzberg
Borough Population
2010
Area
in km²
Largest Non-German ethnic groups
Mitte 332,100 39.47 Turks, Arabs, Kurds, Asians, Western Europeans
Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg 268,831 20.16 Turks, Arabs, African, Kurds, Chinese
Pankow 368,956 103.01 Poles, Italians, French, Americans, Vietnamese, British
Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf 320,014 64.72 Turks, Africans, Russians, Arabs
Spandau 225,420 91.91 Turks, Africans, Russians, Arabs
Steglitz-Zehlendorf 293,989 102.50 Poles, Turks, Croats, Serbs, Koreans
Tempelhof-Schöneberg 335,060 53.09 Turks, Croats, Serbs, Koreans, Africans
Neukölln 310,283 44.93 Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Russians, Africans, Poles
Treptow-Köpenick 241,335 168.42 Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, Vietnamese
Marzahn-Hellersdorf 248,264 61.74 Russians, Vietnamese, Eastern Europeans
Lichtenberg 259,881 52.29 Vietnamese, Russians, Ukrainians, Poles,
Reinickendorf 240,454 89.46 Turks, Poles, Serbs, Croats, Arabs, Italians
Total Berlin 3,450,889 891.82 Turks, Arabs, Russians, Vietnamese, Poles, Africans

Nationalities[edit]

Sons and daughters of U.S. embassy staff in 2013

As of December 2013 there were approximately 1,000,000 people (about 30 percent of the population) with an immigrant background living in Berlin, with significant differences in their distribution. The immigrant community is diverse, with Middle Easterners (including Turks and Arabs), smaller numbers of East Asians, Sub-Saharan Africans and other European immigrants, Eastern Europeans forming the largest groups.[17][18] Since the accession of Romania and Bulgaria to the European Union there has been a Romani influx. About 70,000 Afro-Germans live in Berlin.[19]

There are more than 25 non-indigenous communities with a population of at least 10,000 people, including Turkish, Polish, Russian, Croatian, Palestinian, Serbian, Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Austrian, Ghanaian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities.[20]

Resident foreign nationals (Dec. 2016)[21]
Country Population
 Turkey 97,682
European Union Poland 55,846
 Syria 28,610
European Union Italy 28,167
European Union Bulgaria 26,910
 Russia 22,227
European Union Romania 18,814
 Serbia 18,999
European Union France 18,623
 United States 18,256
 Vietnam 16,363
European Union United Kingdom 14,931
European Union Spain 14,146
European Union Greece 13,720
European Union Croatia 12,516
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,337
European Union Austria 11,285
 Ukraine 11,134
 Afghanistan 10,917
 China 9,862
Other Europe 72,755
Other Middle East and Asia 69,325
Africa 28,828
Other Americas 19,187
Oceania and Antarctica 4,478
Stateless or Unclear 21,823


Ethnic groups in 2011[20][22] % of population
European: 82.0
Ethnic German 71.0
Polish 3.0
Former Soviet Union (Russians and Russian-Germans)[23][24] 3.0
Former Yugoslavia 2.0
European Other (primarily Southern Europeans) 3.0
Middle Eastern: 9.0
Turkish 5.5
Arab 2.0
Iranian 0.5
other 2.0
Asian: 3.0
Southeast Asian 1.5
East Asian 1.0
South Asian 0.5
Afro-German or Black African 2.0
Mixed or unspecified background 2.0
Other groups (primarily the Americas) 2.0
Total population 3,496,082

Employment[edit]

In 2015, the total labour force in Berlin was 1.85 million. The unemployment rate reached a 24-year low in November 2015 and stood at 10.0% .[25] From 2012–2015 Berlin, as a German state, had the highest annual employment growth rate. Around 130,000 jobs were added in this period.[26]

Languages[edit]

Goethe Institut, German language academy, in Berlin Mitte
German

German is the official and predominant spoken language in Berlin. It is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. German is one of 24 languages of the European Union,[27] and one of the three working languages of the European Commission.

Berlin dialect

Berlinerisch or Berlinisch is a variety with influence of Lausitzisch-neumärkisch. It is spoken in Berlin and the surrounding metropolitan area. It originates from a Mark Brandenburgish variant. The dialect is now seen more as a sociolect, largely through increased immigration and trends among the educated population to speak standard German in everyday life.

International languages

The most commonly spoken foreign languages in Berlin are English, Turkish, Russian, Arabic, Polish, Kurdish, Vietnamese, Serbian, Croatian, Greek, and other Asian languages.

Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Serbian and Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities; Vietnamese, Russian and Polish have more native speakers in eastern Berlin.[28] English, Vietnamese, Russian, and Polish have more native speakers in eastern Berlin.[29]

Religions[edit]

Religion in Berlin – 2010
Irreligious
60.0%
EKD Protestants
18.7%
Roman Catholics
9.1%
Muslims
8.1%
Other Christian
2.7%
Other religion
1.0%

More than 60% of Berlin residents have no registered religious affiliation.[30] The largest denomination in 2010 was the Protestant regional church body – the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO) – a United church. EKBO is a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) and Union Evangelischer Kirchen (UEK), and accounts for 18.7% of the local population.[31] The Roman Catholic Church has 9.1% of residents registered as its members.[31] About 2.7% of the population identify with other Christian denominations (mostly Eastern Orthodox, but also various Protestants).[32]

An estimated 200,000–350,000 Muslims reside in Berlin, making up about 6–10 percent of the population. 0.9% of Berliners belong to other religions.[33] Of the estimated population of 30,000–45,000 Jewish residents,[34] approximately 12,000 are registered members of religious organizations.[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Einwohner am Ort der Hauptwohnung am 31. Dezember 2015". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved June 13, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "Berlin statistical figures". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  3. ^ a b "Einwohner am Ort der Hauptwohnung am 31. Dezember 2015". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  4. ^ "Über 457 000 Ausländer aus 190 Staaten in Berlin gemeldet" [Over 457,000 foreigners from 190 countries registered in Berlin] (PDF). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011. 
  5. ^ Rounded numbers, compiled from: Wolfgang Ribbe (ed.): Geschichte Berlins. Vol. II. Von der Märzrevolution bis zur Gegenwart. C. H. Beck, München 1987, pp. 692–697; Otto-Friedrich Gandert, Berthold Schulze, Ernst Kaeber and others (eds.): Heimatchronik Berlin. Archiv für deutsche Heimatpflege, Köln 1962, p. 427; Max Mechow: Die Ost- und Westpreußen in Berlin. Ein Beitrag zur Bevölkerungsgeschichte der Stadt. Haude & Spener, Berlin 1975, pp. 112-113; Königliches statistisches Bureau [Royal Statistical Bureau] (ed.): Statistisches Handbuch für den preußischen Staat. Verlag des königlichen statistischen Bureaus, Berlin 1898, concerning the native language pp. 128-129, concerning the percentage of foreigners pp. 114-115.
  6. ^ Paris had a more populous agglomeration although the city proper was much smaller, cf. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris#/media/File:Paris_Historical_Population_(1801-2008).png
  7. ^ Statistisches Bundesamt, ed. (1953). Statistische Berichte, Arb.-Nr. VIII/19/1. Die Zivilbevölkerung des Deutschen Reiches 1940-1945. Ergebnisse der Verbrauchergruppen-Statistik. Wiesbaden. pp. 13, 24. 
  8. ^ Statistisches Bundesamt (ed.). Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1953 (in German). pp. XXXII, 41, 561. 
  9. ^ Statistisches Jahrbuch 2011 (PDF). 2011. p. 32. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  10. ^ Spooner, Andrew (13 May 2007). "Berlin: Shish And Sauerkraut To Go". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  11. ^ Berlin is speaking Russians' language Archived 2013-04-06 at the Wayback Machine.. The Russia Journal. 10 March 2001.
  12. ^ Von Andrea Dernbach (23 February 2009). "Migration: Berlin will illegalen Einwanderern helfen – Deutschland – Politik – Tagesspiegel". Tagesspiegel.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  13. ^ Demographia: World Urban Areas. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  14. ^ Population on 1 January by age groups and sex – functional urban areas, Eurostat. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  15. ^ (in German) Hauptstadtregion Berlin-Brandenburg
  16. ^ statistics Berlin Brandenburg. www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  17. ^ Melderechtlich registrierte Einwohner im Land Berlin am 31. Dezember 2010
  18. ^ "Migration – Jeder vierte Berliner hat ausländische Wurzeln – Berlin Aktuell – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin". Morgenpost.de. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  19. ^ Yonis Ayeh. "ISD Online • Initiative Schwarze Menschen in Deutschland". Isdonline.de. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  20. ^ a b http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/statis/login.do?guest=guest&db=EWRBEE
  21. ^ "Statistischer Bericht: Einwohnerinnen und Einwohner im Land Berlin am 31. Dezember 2016" [Statistical Report: Residents in the state of Berlin on December 31st 2016] (PDF). Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  22. ^ http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/Publikationen/Stat_Berichte/2012/SB_A01-05-00_2011h02_BE.pdf
  23. ^ "Sie lieben Berlin und schwärmen von Russland | Zeit Online". zeit.de. 2014-04-16. Retrieved 2016-07-16. 
  24. ^ "Russen in Berlin – Wie stehen sie zu Präsident Putin? | Berliner Morgenpost". morgenpost.de. 2014-05-13. Retrieved 2016-07-16. 
  25. ^ "Berlin hat so wenig Arbeitslose wie seit 24 Jahren nicht" (in German). Berliner Zeitung. Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  26. ^ "In Berlin gibt es so viele Beschäftigte wie nie zuvor" (in German). Berliner Zeitung. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2016. 
  27. ^ European Commission. "Official Languages". Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  28. ^ "Studie – Zwei Millionen Berliner sprechen mindestens zwei Sprachen – Wirtschaft – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin". Morgenpost.de. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  29. ^ "Studie – Zwei Millionen Berliner sprechen mindestens zwei Sprachen – Wirtschaft – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin". Morgenpost.de. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  30. ^ Connolly, Kate (26 April 2009). "Atheist Berlin to decide on religion's place in its schools". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 10 May 2010. 
  31. ^ a b Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland: Kirchenmitgliederzahlen am 31. Dezember 2010. EKD, 2011, (PDF; 0,45 MB) Retrieved, 10 Märch 2012.
  32. ^ a b Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg: Die kleine Berlin-Statistik 2010. (PDF-Datei). Retrieved, 4 January 2011. Archived 4 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch für Berlin 2010. Retrieved, 10 Märch 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  34. ^ Mike Ross (1 November 2014). "In Germany, a Jewish community now thrives". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 

External links[edit]