Demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Population density in Bosnia and Herzegovina by municipality, early data from the 2013 census

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Vital statistics[edit]

Bosnia and Herzegovina[1][2][3][edit]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Female fertile population (15–49 years)
1950 2,662,010 102,680 35,991 66,689 38.6 13.5 25.1 5.12 688,118
1951 2,721,009 92,330 46,358 45,972 33.9 17.0 16.9 4.53 711,183
1952 2,790,991 112,216 34,817 77,399 40.2 12.5 27.7 5.34 734,246
1953 2,863,124 110,373 41,199 69,174 38.5 14.4 24.2 4.84 757,312
1954 2,916,007 115,854 35,158 80,696 39.7 12.1 27.7 4.86 779,044
1955 2,973,986 110,866 40,513 70,353 37.3 13.6 23.7 4.46 800,776
1956 3,025,000 111,561 38,320 73,241 36.9 12.7 24.2 4.30 822,508
1957 3,076,006 102,649 36,830 65,819 33.4 12.0 21.4 3.81 837,959
1958 3,126,012 110,332 30,123 80,209 35.3 9.6 25.7 3.97 846,609
1959 3,185,005 108,123 32,507 75,616 33.9 10.2 23.7 3.94 827,395
1960 3,240,010 110,499 33,360 77,139 34.1 10.3 23.8 4.00 824,951
1961 3,291,684 108,076 29,413 78,663 32.8 8.9 23.9 3.91 822,510
1962 3,368,774 106,826 31,087 75,739 31.7 9.2 22.5 3.65 869,624
1963 3,444,107 104,239 29,161 75,078 30.3 8.5 21.8 3.56 871,651
1964 3,517,207 101,147 29,846 71,301 28.8 8.5 20.3 3.44 889,908
1965 3,589,486 101,351 27,814 73,537 28.2 7.7 20.5 3.49 900,857
1966 3,667,002 97,689 25,138 72,551 26.6 6.9 19.8 3.33 925,078
1967 3,735,394 92,972 26,195 66,777 24.9 7.0 17.9 3.12 955,094
1968 3,750,866 89,134 26,031 63,103 23.8 6.9 16.8 2.96 982,298
1969 3,710,120 87,687 27,805 59,882 23.6 7.5 16.1 2.83 1,020,223
1970 3,708,455 79,296 26,355 52,941 21.4 7.1 14.3 2.53 1,033,655
1971 3,759,893 82,694 24,915 57,779 22.0 6.6 15.4 2.83 986,183
1972 3,818,703 82,068 26,844 55,224 21.5 7.0 14.5 2.72 1,017,070
1973 3,871,815 77,896 24,672 53,224 20.1 6.4 13.7 2.50 1,036,884
1974 3,924,760 77,833 23,661 54,172 19.8 6.0 13.8 2.40 1,059,110
1975 3,976,913 78,844 25,571 53,273 19.8 6.4 13.4 2.35 1,083,575
1976 4,033,031 79,061 25,178 53,883 19.6 6.2 13.4 2.28 1,109,709
1977 4,085,918 75,669 24,821 50,848 18.5 6.1 12.4 2.13 1,129,991
1978 4,134,878 73,306 26,016 47,290 17.7 6.3 11.4 2.01 1,144,451
1979 4,147,344 71,120 25,370 45,750 17.1 6.1 11.0 1.94 1,145,091
1980 4,125,486 70,928 26,115 44,813 17.2 6.3 10.9 1.90 1,145,732
1981 4,136,196 71,031 26,222 44,809 17.2 6.3 10.8 2.03 1,106,551
1982 4,154,000 73,375 26,775 46,600 17.7 6.4 11.2 2.03 1,117,748
1983 4,178,000 74,296 29,999 44,297 17.8 7.2 10.6 2.02 1,132,571
1984 4,203,000 74,539 29,046 45,493 17.7 6.9 10.8 1.98 1,133,955
1985 4,227,000 72,722 28,966 43,756 17.2 6.9 10.4 1.91 1,161,934
1986 4,251,000 71,203 29,127 42,076 16.7 6.9 9.9 1.85 1,166,222
1987 4,275,000 70,898 29,382 41,516 16.6 6.9 9.7 1.82 1,174,522
1988 4,299,000 70,711 29,555 41,156 16.4 6.9 9.6 1.80 1,170,568
1989 4,323,000 66,809 30,383 36,426 15.5 7.0 8.4 1.70 1,167,038
1990 4,347,000 66,952 29,093 37,859 15.4 6.7 8.7 1.71 1,193,571
1991 4,377,033 65,430 31,411 34,019 14.9 7.2 7.8 1.89 1,100,615
19921)
19931)
19941)
19951)
1996 3,530,799 46,594 25,152 21,442 13.2 7.1 6.1 1.93 863,535
1997 3,529,909 48,061 27,875 20,186 13.6 7.9 5.7 2.00 863,273
1998 3,529,573 45,007 28,679 16,328 12.8 8.1 4.6 1.87 863,131
1999 3,527,549 42,464 28,637 13,827 12.0 8.1 3.9 1.76 862,607
2000 3,524,627 39,563 30,482 9,081 11.2 8.6 2.6 1.64 861,884
2001 3,521,310 37,717 30,325 7,392 10.7 8.6 2.1 1.57 861,073
2002 3,517,955 36,485 30,831 5,654 10.4 8.8 1.6 1.51 860,588
2003 3,514,019 34,691 32,018 2,673 9.9 9.1 0.8 1.44 859,706
2004 3,509,542 33,862 32,223 1,639 9.6 9.2 0.5 1.42 853,854
2005 3,505,037 33,233 33,925 -692 9.5 9.7 -0.2 1.40 848,006
2006 3,501,621 33,038 32,652 386 9.4 9.3 0.1 1.39 847,935
2007 3,498,023 32,801 34,392 -1,591 9.4 9.8 -0.5 1.38 847,820
2008 3,493,737 34,023 33,871 152 9.7 9.7 0.0 1.43 847,785
2009 3,491,327 34,449 34,709 -260 9.9 9.9 -0.1 1.44 847,332
2010 3,488,441 33,445 34,905 -1,460 9.6 10.0 -0.4 1.40 849,272
2011 3,484,154 31,694 34,820 -3,126 9.1 10.0 -0.9 1.32 847,004
2012 3,479,234 32,414 35,578 -3,164 9.3 10.2 -0.9 1.37 837,868
2013 3,473,720 30,551 35,379 -4,828 8.8 10.2 -1.4 1.30 821,886
2014 3,466,388 30,134 35,692 -5,558 8.7 10.3 -1.6 1.30 820,215
2015 3,456,394 29,647 37,876 -8,229 8.6 11.0 -2.4 1.28 810,205
2016 3,447,001 29,985 36,065 -6,080 8.7 10.5 -1.8 1.30 806,221
2017 3,437,453 30,061 37,453 -7,392 8.7 10.9 -2.2 1.31 798,190
2018 3,427,369 29,328 37,237 -7,909 8.6 10.9 -2.3 1.29 789,815
2019[4] 3,415,752 28,192 38,237 -10,045 8.3 11.2 -2.9 1.26 782,369
Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Female fertile population (15–49 years)
Total 1950-2018 4,512,532 2,017,919 2,494,613 1246.2 557.3 688.9
Average 1950-2018 3,621,022 69,424 31,045 38,379 19.2 8.6 10.6 2.42 934,666
1)Data from 1992 to 1995 does not include Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Current vital statistics[5][edit]

Births

  • from January - June 2019 = 12,762
  • from January - June 2020 = 11,993
  • Difference between number of births in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Decrease -769 (-6.03%)

Deaths

  • from January - June 2019 = 19,428
  • from January - June 2020 = 18,071
  • Difference between number of deaths in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Positive decrease -1.357 (-6.98%)

Natural increase

  • from January - June 2019 = -6,666
  • from January - June 2020 = -6,078
  • Difference between natural increase in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Increase +588

Demographics by entity[edit]


Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina[6][7][edit]
Current vital statistics[14][edit]

Births

  • from January - June 2019 = 8,104
  • from January - June 2020 = 7,653
  • Difference between number of births in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Decrease -451 (-5.57%)

Deaths

  • from January - June 2019 = 10,861
  • from January - June 2020 = 10,151
  • Difference between number of deaths in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Positive decrease -710 (-6.54%)

Natural increase

  • from January - June 2019 = -2,757
  • from January - June 2020 = -2,498
  • Difference between natural increase in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Increase +259
Republika Srpska[15][edit]

The following data are from Republic of Srpska Institute of Statistics.

Current vital statistics[20][edit]

Births

  • from January - June 2019 = 4,230
  • from January - June 2020 = 3,971
  • Difference between number of births in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Decrease -259 (-6.12%)

Deaths

  • from January - June 2019 = 7,992
  • from January - June 2020 = 7,424
  • Difference between number of deaths in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Positive decrease -568 (-7.11%)

Natural increase

  • from January - June 2019 = -3,762
  • from January - June 2020 = -3,453
  • Difference between natural increase in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Increase +309
Brčko District[edit]
Current vital statistics[27][edit]

Births

  • from January - June 2019 = 428
  • from January - June 2020 = 369
  • Difference between number of births in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Decrease -59 (-13.79%)

Deaths

  • from January - June 2019 = 575
  • from January - June 2020 = 496
  • Difference between number of deaths in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Positive decrease -79 (-13.74%)

Natural increase

  • from January - June 2019 = -147
  • from January - June 2020 = -127
  • Difference between natural increase in 2019 and 2020 (January - June) = Increase +20

Marriages and divorces[edit]

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Republika Srpska[edit]

Brčko District[edit]

Vital statistics, marriages and divorces by decade[edit]

Births and fertility rates[edit]

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Republika Srpska[edit]

Brčko District[edit]

Life expectancy at birth in Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[29]
1950–1955 53.67
1955–1960 Increase 58.46
1960–1965 Increase 61.93
1965–1970 Increase 64.73
1970–1975 Increase 67.57
1975–1980 Increase 69.87
1980–1985 Increase 70.72
1985–1990 Increase 71.95
1990–1995 Decrease 70.13
1995–2000 Increase 73.61
2000–2005 Increase 74.83
2005–2010 Increase 75.53
2010–2015 Increase 76.31

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to data from the 2013 census published by the Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks constitute 50.11% of the population, Bosnian Serbs 30.78%, Bosnian Croats 15.43%, and others form 2.73%, with the remaining respondents not declaring their ethnicity or not answering.[30]

The census results are contested by the Republika Srpska statistical office and by Bosnian Serb politicians,[31] who oppose the inclusion of non-permanent Bosnian residents in the figures.[32]

The European Union's statistics office, Eurostat, determined that the methodology used by the Bosnian statistical agency was in line with international recommendations.[33]

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, religion is often linked to ethnicity, i.e. (with the exception of agnostics and atheists) most Bosniaks are Muslim, Serbs are Orthodox Christian, and Croats are Roman Catholic.

Population of Bosnia and Herzegovina according to ethnic group 1948–1996
Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991 census UNHCR 1996 census 2013[34] change 1991–2013
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Bosniaks 788,403 30.7 891,800 31.3 842,248 25.7 1,482,430 39.6 1,629,924 39.5 1,902,956 43.48 1,805,910 46.1 1,769,592 50.11 -133,364 +6.63pp
Serbs 1,136,116 44.3 1,264,372 44.4 1,406,057 42.9 1,393,148 37.2 1,320,644 32.0 1,366,104 31.22 1,484,530 37.9 1,086,733 30.78 -279,371 -0.44pp
Croats 614,123 23.9 654,229 23.0 711,665 21.7 772,491 20.6 758,136 18.4 760,852 17.39 571,317 14.6 544,780 15.43 -216,072 -1.96pp
Yugoslavs 275,883 8.4 43,796 1.2 326,280 7.9 242,682 5.55 2,570 0.07
Montenegrins 3,094 0.1 7,336 0.3 12,828 0.4 13,021 0.3 14,114 0.3 10,071 0.23 1,883 0.05
Roma 442 0.0 2,297 0.1 588 0.0 1,456 0.0 7,251 0.2 8,864 0.20 12,583 0.36
Albanians 3,642 0.1 3,764 0.1 4,396 0.1 4,925 0.11 2,569 0.07
Others/undeclared 23,099 0.9 27,756 1.0 28,679 0.8 36,005 1 63,263 1.5 80,579 1.84 58,196 1.5 110,449 3.13
Total 2,565,277 2,847,790 3,277,948 3,746,111 4,124,008 4,377,033 3,919,953 3,531,159

Languages[edit]

Bosnia's constitution does not specify any official languages;[35][36][37] however, academics Hilary Footitt and Michael Kelly note that the Dayton Agreement states that it is "done in Bosnian, Croatian, English and Serbian", and they describe this as the "de facto recognition of three official languages" at the state level. The equal status of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian was verified by the Constitutional Court in 2000.[37] It ruled that the provisions of the Federation and Republika Srpska constitutions on language were incompatible with the state constitution, since they only recognised "Bosniak" and Croatian (in the case of the Federation) and Serbian (in the case of Republika Srpska) as official languages at the entity level.[citation needed]

As a result, the wording of the entity constitutions was changed and all three languages were made official in both entities.[37] The three languages are mutually intelligible and are also known collectively as Serbo-Croatian. Use of one of the three varieties has become a marker of ethnic identity.[38] Michael Kelly and Catherine Baker argue: "The three official languages of today's Bosnian state...represent the symbolic assertion of national identity over the pragmatism of mutual intelligibility".[39]

All standard varieties are based on the Ijekavian varieties of the Shtokavian dialect (non-standard spoken varieties including, beside Ijekavian, also Ikavian Shtokavian). Serbian and Bosnian are written in both Latin and Cyrillic (the latter predominantly using the Latin script), whereas Croatian is written only in Latin alphabet. There are also some speakers of Italian, German, Turkish and Ladino. Yugoslav Sign Language is used with Croatian and Serbian variants.[citation needed]

According to the results of the 2013 census, 52.86% of the population consider their mother tongue to be Bosnian, 30.76% Serbian, 14.6% Croatian and 1.57% another language, with 0.21% not giving an answer.[30]

Religion[edit]

According to the 2013 census, 50.7% of the population identify religiously as Muslim, 30.75% as Serbian Orthodox Christian, 15.19% as Roman Catholic, 1.15% as other, 1.1% as agnostic or atheist, with the remainder not declaring their religion or not answering.[30] A 2012 survey found that 47% of Bosnia's Muslims are non-denominational Muslims, while 45% follow Sunnism.[40] In Bosnia and Herzegovina religion is strongly linked to ethnicity.

Demographic statistics[edit]

Population pyramid 2016

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

3,405,891 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure[edit]

0–14 years: 13.24% (male 263,338/female 246,220)
15–24 years: 11.26% (male 223,824/female 209,829)
25–54 years: 45.51% (male 881,331/female 870,601)
55–64 years: 14.95% (male 278,460/female 297,231)
65 years and over: 15.04% (male 229,282/female 349,775) (2018 est.)

Median age[edit]

Total: 42.5 years
Male: 40.9 years
Female: 43.9 years (2018 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0–14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25–54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

Total: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 77.1 years
Male: 74.1 years
Female: 80.3 years (2018 est.)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 900 (2007 est.)
Deaths: 100 (2001 est.)

Literacy[edit]

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.5%
Male: 99.5%
Female: 97.5% (2015 est.)

Largest settlements by population[edit]

01. Sarajevo 348.996 (FBiH)
02. Banja Luka 138.963 (RS)
03. Tuzla 74.457 (FBiH)
04. Zenica 70.553 (FBiH)
05. Mostar 60.195 (FBiH)
06. Bijeljina 42.278 (RS)
07. Brčko 39.983 (DB)
08. Bihać 39.690 (FBiH)
09. Prijedor 29.555 (RS)
10. Doboj 25.132 (RS)

See also[edit]

Religion:

Groups:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina(new site)". Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  2. ^ "Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina(old site)". Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  3. ^ "Eurostat database".
  4. ^ "Natural population change in 2019" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  5. ^ "DEMOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STATISTICS - Natural population change and marriages".
  6. ^ "Population bulletins".
  7. ^ "Statistical Yearbook".
  8. ^ "Statistical Yearbook 2006" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  9. ^ "POPULATION OF THE FEDERATION BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 1996 - 2006" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  10. ^ "Statistical Yearbook 2018" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  11. ^ "Demographics 2018" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  12. ^ "NATURAL CHANGES OF POPULATION AND MARRIAGES BY MONTHS - first results" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  13. ^ "Estimate of the total population for the Federation of BiH" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  14. ^ "NATURAL CHANGES OF POPULATION AND MARRIAGES BY MONTHS - first results". Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  15. ^ "Population bulletins".
  16. ^ "STATISTICAL YEARBOOK OF REPUBLIKA SRPSKA 2009" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  17. ^ "DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS 2019" (PDF).
  18. ^ "Statistical Yearbook of Republika Srpska 2019" (PDF).
  19. ^ "Births and deaths in Republika Srpska, 2019".
  20. ^ "Monthly statistical review".
  21. ^ "Demographics 2002-2003" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  22. ^ "Demographics 2004-2008" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  23. ^ "Demographics 2008-2012" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  24. ^ "Demographics 2013-2017" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  25. ^ "DEMOGRAFIJA u Brčko distriktu BiH 2014-2018.godina" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  26. ^ "DEMOGRAFIJA u Brčko distriktu BiH 2015-2019.godina" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  27. ^ "Statistical bulletin, Brčko District". Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  28. ^ "Marriages and divorces in Republika Srpska, 2019" (PDF). Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  29. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  30. ^ a b c "Census of population, households and dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013: Final results" (PDF). Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. June 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  31. ^ Toe, Rodolfo (30 June 2016). "Census Reveals Bosnia's Changed Demography". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  32. ^ Toe, Rodolfo (30 June 2016). "Bosnia to Publish Census Without Serb Agreement". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  33. ^ "Bosnia-Herzegovina has lost a fifth of its pre-war population". The Guardian. 2016.
  34. ^ "1. Stanovništvo prema etničkoj/nacionalnoj pripadnosti - detaljna klasifikacija". Popis.gov.ba. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  35. ^ Faingold, Eduardo D. (2004). "Language rights and language justice in the constitutions of the world". Language Problems & Language Planning. 28 (1): 11–24. doi:10.1075/lplp.28.1.03fai.
  36. ^ Sadurski, Wojciech (2005). Rights Before Courts: A Study of Constitutional Courts in Postcommunist States of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer. p. 342. ISBN 1402030061. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  37. ^ a b c Footitt, Hilary; Kelly, Michael (2012). Languages at War: Policies and Practices of Language Contacts in Conflict. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 111–120. ISBN 978-0230368774.
  38. ^ Greenberg, Robert David (2004). Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its Disintegration. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925815-4.
  39. ^ Kelly, Michael; Baker, Catherine (2013). Interpreting the Peace: Peace Operations, Conflict and Language in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 10. ISBN 978-1137029836.
  40. ^ "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 2012. p. 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2016.

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document: "2009 edition".

External links[edit]